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Decoquinate

The Elephant Formulary
© 2003-06 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D.
Published by Elephant Care International -
www.elephantcare.org


Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.

Chemistry - A coccidiostat, decoquinate occurs as a cream to buff-colored fine amorphous pow­der having a slight odor. It is insoluble in water.

 

Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Decoquinate is reportedly incompatible with strong bases or oxidizing material. Follow label storage directions; store in a cool, dry place. Deccox® is labeled as being compatible (and cleared for use) with bacitracin zinc (with or without roxarsone), chlortetracycline, and lincomycin.

 

Pharmacology - Decoquinate is 4-hydroxy quinolone agent that has anticoccidial activity. Decoquinate act on the sporozoite stage of the life cycle. The sporozoite apparently can still penetrate the host intestinal cell, but further development is prevented. The mechanism of action for decoquinate is to disrupt electron transport in the mitochondrial cytochrome system of coccidia.

 

Uses/Indications - Decoquinate is labelled for use in cattle for the prevention of coccidiosis in either ruminating or non-ruminating calves, cattle or young goats caused by the species E. chris­tenseni or E. ninakohlyakimoviae . It is used for prevention of coccidiosis in broilers caused by E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina, E. mivati, E. maxima or E. burnetti.

 

Pharmacokinetics - No information located.

 

Contraindications/Precautions/Reproductive Safety - Decoquinate is not effective for treating clinical coccidiosis and has no efficacy against adult coccidia. Decoquinate is not approved for use in animals producing milk for food or in laying chickens.

 

Adverse Effects/Warnings - No adverse effects listed when given as directed.

 

Overdosage/Acute Toxicity - No specific information located. Decoquinate is considered to have a wide safety margin.

 

Drug Interactions/Laboratory Considerations - None located.

 

Doses -

Dogs:

For coccidiosis:

a)   Prophylaxis: 50 mg/kg PO once daily (Matz 1995)

 

Cattle:

For prophylaxis of coccidiosis:

a)   Using the 6% premix: 0.5 mg/kg per day in feed for at least 28 days. (Penzhorn and Swan 1993)  (McDougald and Roberson 1988)

 

 

Client Information - Decoquinate should be used for at least 4 weeks when used for preventing coccidiosis outbreaks.

 

Dosage Forms/Preparations/FDA Approval Status/Withholding Times -

 

Veterinary-Approved Products:

Decoquinate 6% (27.2 grams per lb.) Feed Additive (with corn meal, soybean oil, lecithin and silicon dioxide) in 50 LB bags; Deccox ® (Rhone-Poulenc); (OTC) Approved for use in cattle (not lactating dairy cattle), goats (not lactating dairy goats) and poultry (not laying chickens).

 

Decoquinate 10X (2.271 grams per lb.) Feed Additive (with vitamins A, D3, E) in 20 LB. buckets; Deccox 10X ® (Vedco); (OTC) Approved for use in cattle (not lactating dairy cattle), goats (not lactating dairy goats).

 

Decoquinate 568 mg per pound Top Dress (with vitamins A, D3, E) in 20 LB buckets; Deccox Top Dress ® (Vedco); (OTC) Approved for use in cattle (not lactating dairy cattle), goats (not lactating dairy goats).

 

Human-Approved Products: None

 

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