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Sulfadimethoxine

The Elephant Formulary
© 2003-06 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D.
Published by Elephant Care International -
www.elephantcare.org


Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.

Chemistry - A long-acting sulfonamide, sulfadimethoxine occurs as an odorless or almost odorless, creamy white powder. It is very slightly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.

 

Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Unless otherwise instructed by the manufacturer, store sulfadimethoxine products at room temperature and protect from light. Sulfadimethoxine injection should be stored at room temperature (15-30°C). If crystals form due to exposure to cold temperatures, either warm the vial or store at room temperature for several days to resolubolize the drug. Efficacy is not impaired by this process.

 

Information on the Pharmacology, Contraindications, Precautions, Reproductive Safety, Adverse Effects, Warnings, Overdosage, Acute Toxicity, Drug Interactions, Drug/Laboratory Interactions, Monitoring Parameters & Client Information for the sulfonamide agents can be found in the TMP/Sulfa mono­graphs.

 

Uses/Indications - Sulfadimethoxine injection and tablets are approved for use in dogs and cats for respiratory, genitourinary, enteric and soft tissue infections caused by suscep­tible organisms. Sulfadimethoxine is also used in the treatment of coccidiosis in dogs al­though not approved for this indication.

 

In horses, sulfadimethoxine injection is approved for the treatment of respiratory infec­tions caused by Streptococcus equi.

 

In cattle, the drug is approved for treating shipping fever complex, calf diphtheria, bacte­rial pneumonia and foot rot caused by susceptible organisms.

 

In poultry, sulfadimethoxine is added to drinking water to treat coccidiosis, fowl cholera and infectious coryza.

 

Pharmacokinetics - In dogs, cats, swine and sheep, sulfadimethoxine is reportedly readily absorbed and well distributed. Relative volumes of distribution range from 0.17 L/kg in sheep to 0.35 L/kg in cattle and horses. The drug is also highly protein bound.

 

In most species, sulfadimethoxine is acetylated in the liver to acetylsulfadimethoxine and excreted unchanged in the liver. In dogs, the drug is not appreciably hepatically metabo­lized and renal excretion is the basis for the majority of elimination of the drug. Sulfadimethoxine’s long elimination half-lives are a result of its appreciable reabsorption in the renal tubules. Serum half-lives reported in various species are: swine (14 hours), sheep (15 hours) and horses (11.3 hours).

 

Doses -

Horses:

For susceptible infections:

a)   55 mg/kg PO or IV q12h (Upson 1988)

b)   55 mg/kg IV or PO initially, then 27.5 mg/kg q24h IV (Package insert; Albon®—Roche)

 

 

Dosage Forms/Preparations/FDA Approval Status/Withholding Times -

 

Veterinary-Approved Products:

Sulfadimethoxine Injection 400 mg/ml (40%) in 100 ml and 250 ml vials

Albon®  (Pfizer); (Rx)  Approved for use in dogs, cats, horses and cattle. Not to be used in horses intended for food or calves to be processed for veal. Slaughter withdrawal = 5 days (cattle); milk withdrawal = 60 hours.

 

Sulfadimethoxine Oral Tablets 125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg

Albon® (Pfizer), (Rx)  Approved for use in dogs and cats.

 

Sulfadimethoxine Oral Suspension 50 mg/ml in 1 oz. and 16 oz. bottles

Albon® (Pfizer); (Rx)  Approved for use in dogs and cats.

 

Sulfadimethoxine Oral Suspension 125 mg/ml 5%  in 2 and 16 oz. bottles

Albon® (Pfizer) (Rx)  Approved for use in dogs and cats.

 

Sulfadimethoxine Oral Boluses 5 g, & 15 g

Albon® (Pfizer); (OTC)  Approved for use in cattle. Slaughter withdrawal = 7 days (cattle); milk withdrawal = 60 hours.

 

Sulfadimethoxine Oral Boluses Sustained-Release 12.5 g

Albon® (Pfizer); (Rx)  Approved for use in non-lactating cattle. Slaughter withdrawal = 21 days (cattle)

 

Sulfadimethoxine Soluble Powder 94.6 g/packet (for addition to drinking water)

Albon® (Pfizer); (OTC)  Approved for use in dairy calves, dairy heifers, beef cattle, broiler and replacement chickens only, and meat-producing turkeys. Slaughter with­drawal = 7 days (cattle); 5 days (poultry—do not use in chickens over 16 weeks old or in turkeys over 24 weeks old).

 

Sulfadimethoxine 12.5% Concentrated Solution (for addition to drinking water); Albon®  (Pfizer); Generic (OTC)  Approved for use in chickens, turkeys and cattle. Slaughter withdrawal = 7 days (cattle); 5 days (poultry—do not use in chickens over 16 weeks old or in turkeys over 24 weeks old).

 

Human-Approved Products:  None

 

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