Elephant
Bibliographic
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Elephant Bibliographic Database
www.elephantcare.org

References updated October 2009 by date of publication, most recent first.

African elephant proposed for reclassification to Endangered.  6-7. 1991.  Endangered-Species-Tech-Bull. Washington, D.C. : Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Apr 1991. v. 16 (4).
Ref Type: Report

Asian Elephant Conservation Act of 1997;  report (to accompany S. 1287. United States. Congress. Senate. Report ; 104-142;  Committee on Environment and Public Works.  1-7. 1997. Washinton, D.C., U.S. Govt. Print. Office.
Ref Type: Report

National Symposium on Elephant Management and Conservation.  1-94. 1998. Sri Lanka, Jayantha Jayewardene and Charles Santiapillai, Organizers. 1998.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Anonymous. Asian Elephant Conservation Act of 1997 (United States). H.R. 1787. 1997.
Ref Type: Bill/Resolution

Bist, S.S., Cheeran, J.V., Choudhury, S., Barua, P., Misra, M.K., 2002. The domesticated Asian elephant in India. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 129-148.
Abstract: The history of domesticated elephants in India is briefly discussed. Estimates of the numbers of domesticated elephants are given. The laws pertaining to domestic elephants are discussed. The work done by elephants is described. The veterinary care of elephants is discussed . Recommendations for improving the domestic elephant situation in India are given.

Bist, S.S., 2002. The status of the domesticated elephants in India. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 4-7.

Bulte, E.H., Horan, H., Richard, D., Shogren, J.F., 2003. Elephants: Comment. American Economic Review 93, 1437-1445.
Abstract: The article presents comments on a paper about the threat posed by high prices in the international black markets to the conservation of elephants and other species used for storable goods. The paper combines exhaustible and renewable resource models to account for wildlife commodity  storage and derive several useful results including the possibility of multiple equilibria and the role of endangered species policy. The article focuses on the storage policy recommendation of the paper and reveal its potential downside. The article shows that stockpiling can be detrimental to wildlife conservation if sufficiently large stocks trigger purposeful, strategic extinction by host governments who gain more from selling their stores than by holding them until a later date. The article also examines how the combination of government preferences for revenues, the trade ban imposed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild fauna and Flora, and a limited number of host countries affects a governments' conservation efforts when it has built up stores of wildlife commodities from endangered species. As a motivating example, the article considers the case of the African elephant.  See also Elephants: Reply. Kremer, Michael and Morcom, Charles.

Cambre, R.C., Buick, W.W., 1996. Special challenges of maintaining wild animals in captivity in North America. Rev Sci Tech 15, 251-266.
Abstract: The maintenance of wild animals in captivity in North America is regulated by a number of different laws and government agencies in each country. Member institutions of zoo and aquarium associations in Canada, the United States of America and Mexico experience an extra tier of regulation in the form of industry standards, which are sometimes stricter than those imposed by government. Climate, natural disasters and harmful pest species all contribute to the challenge of keeping animals in certain locales. Vigilance against zoonotic disease transmission is maintained through industry and government-mandated sanitation standards, which are fortified by reporting regulations of local, regional and Federal health agencies. Current controversies in the keeping of particular taxa in North America include the threat to non-human primate breeding programmes precipitated by strict new import regulations, the fear of herpesvirus B infection, and commercial airline transport bans. Successive human fatalities among elephant handlers have prompted the industry and governments to re-examine the manner in which these potentially dangerous creatures are maintained in captivity.

Cockrill, W.R. World Association for Transport Animal Welfare and Studies. Inaugural Meeting. Wolfson College Oxford, 12 December 1989. Working animals international. World Association for Transport Animal Welfare and Studies. Inaugural Meeting. Wolfson College Oxford, 12 December 1989. Working animals international.  1-78. 1990. Oxford, UK.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Daim, M.S., 2002. The care and management of domesticated elephants in Malaysia. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 149-155.
Abstract: The status of domesticated elephants in Malaysia is described. Of the 36 domesticated elephants in the country 26 are zoo exhibits, 2 are used as draught animals and 8 are used to assist in the relocation of wild elephants. The laws governing the treatment of elephants are described.

Dutta, B., 2003. Transportation of elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 164-173.

Frank, B., Maurseth, P.B., 2006. The spatial econometrics of elephant population change - A note. Ecological Economics 60, 320-323.
Abstract: While previous research found no other variable than corruption to have a negative impact on the growth rate of the elephant populations of African countries, we show that one further significant impact is exerted by 'neighbourhood effects'. Elephants travel long distances, often crossing borders. Using spatial econometric tools, we find that elephant population changes in one country have a positive impact on population changes in neighbouring countries. Our results have possible policy implications, as they suggest that spatial clustering of funds and of conservation efforts makes sense if the endangered species move across borders.

Heltberg, R., 2001. Impact of the ivory trade ban on poaching incentives: a numerical example. Ecological Economics 36, 189-195.
Abstract: The paper considers how the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species' trade ban on elephant ivory affect the incentives to poach African elephants. The major effects of a trade ban on poaching incentives are captured in a simple static model of world ivory supply and demand. It is shown that a trade ban has ambiguous effects on poaching incentives. Although the ban reduces international ivory demand, official production as well as confiscations are withheld from consumer markets, increasing black market prices paid to poachers. It is found that a trade ban is likely to reduce poaching if it leads to a reduction in demand, if it facilitates interception of smuggled goods, if there is little official production piling up, and if it does not negatively affect law enforcement efforts. A numerical example based on the presented model indicates that the ivory trade ban is likely to reduce poaching.

Hemley, G., 1989. CITES 1989.  The African elephant and more. Traffic USA 9, 1-7.

Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., Hando, J., Hopcraft, G., Loibooki, M., Mduma, S., Sinclair, A.R., 2006. Effective enforcement in a conservation area
378. Science 314, 1266.
Abstract: Wildlife within protected areas is under increasing threat from bushmeat and illegal trophy trades, and many argue that enforcement within protected areas is not sufficient to protect wildlife. We examined 50 years of records from Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and calculated the history of illegal harvest and enforcement by park authorities. We show that a precipitous decline in enforcement in 1977 resulted in a large increase in poaching and decline of many species. Conversely, expanded budgets and antipoaching patrols since the mid-1980s have greatly reduced poaching and allowed populations of buffalo, elephants, and rhinoceros to rebuild

Islam, M.A., 2002. The status of Bangladesh's captive elephants. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 67-77.
Abstract: The history of elephant domestication in Bangladesh is described. The numbers of domesticated elephants in zoos, circuses and logging operations are given. The regulations protecting elephants are described. Recommendations for improving the welfare of domesticated elephants are given. A table lists the owners of elephants, the sex, age (if known), origin (if known), use and names of the animals, the names of the mahouts and whether the animals are registered.

Kharel, F.R., 2002. The challenge of managing domesticated Asian elephants in Nepal. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 103-110.
Abstract: The numbers of wild and domesticated elephants in Nepal are given. The legal status of domesticated elephants is discussed. Data on domesticated elephants born between 1979 and 2000 is given. The uses of elephants are discussed and recommendations for improving the husbandry of elephants are given.

Koch, W. Elephant Management Considerations from a Regulatory Perspective. Elephants: Cultural, Behavioral, and Ecological Perspectives; Program and Abstracts of the Workshop.  14. 2000. Davis, CA. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Kremer, M., Morcom, C., 2003. Elephants: Reply. American Economic Review 93, 1446-1448.
Abstract: The article presents a reply to comments on a paper on the effect of ivory trading on the conservation of African elephants. The comments note that the rules of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora ban trade in products from endangered but not extinct species. The authors of the comments argue that governments may therefore have incentives to strategically kill off all their elephants so as to secure the end of the ban on ivory trading. This incentive will be stronger if governments hold stockpiles of ivory. The article argues that strategic extinction is unlikely for several reasons. First, twenty-five African countries have at least 1,000 elephants and many other countries preserve elephants in zoos, under the authors' assumptions, any individual countries will be better off preserving a small stock of elephants if it expects at least one other country to preserve some elephants since in this case the ban on ivory trade would be sustained. Second, while the model allows for tourism benefits from wildlife, it does not allow for the possibility that aid from rich countries would depend in part on the policies of African countries toward their wildlife.  See: Elephants: Comment. Bulte, Erwin H., Horan, Richard D., and Shogren, Jason F.
American Economic Review; Sep2003, Vol. 93 Issue 4, p1437, 9p

Lair, R., 2002. A regional overview of the need for registration of domesticated Asian elephants. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 8-13.
Abstract: The need for registration of domesticated elephants, in order to improve welfare, prevent smuggling and assist in conservation, is discussed. The tools required (tags, forms, databases etc.) are described. The feasibility of registration programmes in 11 Asian countries are discussed.

Loannidis, J.P.A., 2005. Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med 2, e124.

Maple, T.L., 2007. Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 10, 63-70.
Abstract: Although the accredited institutions of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums have all committed to enhancing the welfare of nonhuman animals, acceptable standards and best practices are still under debate. Currently, experts from zoos and the field hold widely divergent opinions about exhibition and management standards for elephants. Standards and practices for managing nonhuman primates provide a model for other nonhuman creatures exhibited in zoos and aquariums. Examining the key issues for primates demonstrates the value of applying scientific data before promulgating standards. The field of applied behavior analysis provides a wealth of information to frame the debate. Animal behaviorists have contributed to an emerging science of animal welfare, which may provide a foundation for empirical zoo management, standards, and practices.

Morrell, V., 2007. Endangered species. Elephants take center ring at CITES. Science 316, 1678-1679.

National Research Council, 1989. Nutrient requirements of horses. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Norachack, B., 2002. The care and management of domesticated Asian elephants in Lao PDR. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 173-180.
Abstract: The numbers of domesticated elephants in various provinces of Laos are given. Laws and regulations protecting elephants and the organizations responsible for enforcing these are described. The uses of elephants and the veterinary care available are discussed.

Page, C.D. Recommended protocol for health screening elephants. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 9.  26-30. 1988.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Prabhkaran, L., 2002. Humane treatment of elephants and the legal perspective. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 49-51.

Rees, P.A., 2009. The sizes of elephant groups in zoos: implications for elephant welfare. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 12, 44-60.
Abstract: This study examined the distribution of 495 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and 336 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in 194 zoos, most of which were located in Europe (49.1%) and North America (32.6%). Cows outnumbered bulls 4 to 1 (Loxodonta) and 3 to 1 (Elephas). Groups contained 7 or fewer: mean, 4.28 (sigma = 5.73). One fifth of elephants lived alone or with one conspecific. Forty-six elephants (5.5%) had no conspecific. Many zoos ignore minimum group sizes of regional zoo association guidelines. The American Zoo and Aquarium Association recommends that breeding facilities keep herds of 6 to 12 elephants. The British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums recommends keeping together at least 4 cows over 2 years old. Over 69% Asian and 80% African cow groups-including those under 2 years-consisted of fewer than 4 individuals. Recently, Europe and North America have made progress with some zoos no longer keeping elephants and with others investing in improved facilities and forming larger herds. The welfare of individual elephants should outweigh all other considerations; zoos should urgently seek to integrate small groups into larger herds

Schaftenaar, W., Hildebrandt, T.B., Flugger, M., Goritz, F., Schmitt, D., West, G. Guidelines for veterinary assistance during the reproduction process in female elephants. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, and the National Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference.  348-355. 2001. USA.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: In February 2000, a group of European zoo veterinarians met at Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg to evaluate a questionnaire about 31 parturitions in Asian elephants.  The results were presented at the 40th International Symposium on Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animals.  The results were combined with the experiences of some North-American zoo veterinarians, which resulted in the protocol presented in this paper.  The protocol may serve as a guideline for institutions that wish to breed elephants. The proper application of the recommendations given in these guidelines should increase the reproductive success in elephants.  It is the moral obligation of everyone who is responsible for the  management and breeding of elephants to consider utilizing the guidelines as they may apply to their situation and to collect data that may help increase our knowledge. The breeding process in elephants requires monitoring of several parameters in both males and females. The most crucial parameters are the determination of the estrous cycle through progesterone and, perhaps, LH assay, evaluation of the genital tract in both sexes, determination of the number of fetuses and finally, parturition.  The first part of the paper will mention briefly the tools that can be used in female elephants to achieve these goals.  The second part describes a protocol for veterinary intervention in elephant parturition.

Schmid, J., Zeeb, K., 1994. The establishment of the paddocks for keeping elephants in the circus. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101, 50-52.
Abstract: The guidelines for keeping, training and using animals in circuses and similar institutions, which are made in connection with the law for prevention of cruelty to animals, claim to keep elephants daily 1 hour unshackled in a group in a paddock. The effect of the paddock on social, play behaviour, and the stereotypic movements of circus elephants is discussed. Parameters for housing and managing captured elephants are based on observations of their normal behaviour in nature. A pilot study with 29 elephants in 4 circuses showed that the paddock enabled the elephants to carry out social and comfort behaviour more frequently than when shackled. The stereotypic movements were nearly absent by keeping the elephants in the paddock.

Schmitt, D. Riddles's Elephant amd Wildlife Sanctuary Elephant Birth Protocol.  2001.
Ref Type: Internet Communication

Smith, T. Zoo research guidelines: Monitoring stress in zoo animals.  2004. London, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ref Type: Report

Soto, B., Munthali, S.M., Breen, C., 2001. Perceptions of the forestry and wildlife policy by the local communities living in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique. Biodiversity Conservation 10, 1723-1738.

Suprayogi, B., Sugardjito, J., Lilley, R.P.H., 2002. Management of Sumatran elephants in Indonesia: problems and challenges. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 183-194.
Abstract: The status of domestic elephants in Indonesia is described. The development of elephant training centres and reasons for their failure to encourage the use of elephants for logging operations are discussed. Problems of stress and other health problems are described. The availability of resources (feed, water and veterinary support) are discussed. Recommendations for improvement are given.

Talukdar, B.N., 2003. Practices on welfare and prevention of cruelty: legal provisions related to elephant. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 180-190.

Tipprasert, P., 2002. Elephants and ecotourism in Thailand. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 156-172.
Abstract: The numbers of elephants used at particular locations in Thailand, the activities for which they are used and the conditions under which they are kept are presented in tabular form. The Thai Elephant New World Project, which aims to integrate elephant ecotourism and conservation is described. Recommendations for the regulation and support of the use of elephants in ecotourism are given.

Tremblay, Y., Shaffer, S.A., Fowler, S.L., Kuhn, C.E., McDonald, B.I., Weise, M.J., Bost, C.A., Weimerskirch, H., Crocker, D.E., Goebel, M.E., Costa, D.P., 2006. Interpolation of animal tracking data in a fluid environment. J Exp Biol. 209 (Pt 1), 128-140.
Abstract: Interpolation of geolocation or Argos tracking data is a necessity for habitat use analyses of marine vertebrates. In a fluid marine environment, characterized by curvilinear structures, linearly interpolated track data are not realistic. Based on these two facts, we interpolated tracking data from albatrosses, penguins, boobies, sea lions, fur seals and elephant seals using six mathematical algorithms. Given their popularity in mathematical computing, we chose Bézier, hermite and cubic splines, in addition to a commonly used linear algorithm to interpolate data. Performance of interpolation methods was compared with different temporal resolutions representative of the less-precise geolocation and the more-precise Argos tracking techniques. Parameters from interpolated sub-sampled tracks were compared with those obtained from intact tracks. Average accuracy of the interpolated location was not affected by the interpolation method and was always within the precision of the tracking technique used. However, depending on the species tested, some curvilinear interpolation algorithms produced greater occurrences of more accurate locations, compared with the linear interpolation method. Total track lengths were consistently underestimated but were always more accurate using curvilinear interpolation than linear interpolation. Curvilinear algorithms are safe to use because accuracy, shape and length of the tracks are either not different or are slightly enhanced and because analyses always remain conservative. The choice of the curvilinear algorithm does not affect the resulting track dramatically so it should not preclude their use. We thus recommend using curvilinear interpolation techniques because of the more realistic fluid movements of animals. We also provide some guidelines for choosing an algorithm that is most likely to maximize track quality for different types of marine vertebrates. University of California, Santa Cruz, Long Marine Laboratory, Center for Ocean Health, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA. tremblay@biology.ucsc.edu

U Tan, A., U Thoung, N., 2002. The care and management of the domesticated Asian elephant in Myanmar. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 89-102.
Abstract: he numbers of domesticated elephants employed in the logging industry and kept in zoos are given. The laws and regulations governing domestic elephants are described. Research projects relating to the reproduction of domesticated elephants are discussed. The work domestic elephants are used for is described and the veterinary care available is discussed. For copies write to: Forest Resources Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand; Email: masakazukashio@fao.org

Wasser, S.K., Mailand, C., Booth, R., Mutayoba, B., Kisamo, E., Clark, B., Stephens, M., 2007. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 104 , 4228-4233.
Abstract: The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed

West, D.L., 1990. Wrap-up of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Bio. Sci. (Am. Inst. Biol. Sci. ) 40, 90.

Ye Htut, U., 1995. Management of Wild Elephants in Myanmar. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 236-241.

Young, J.K., Gerber, L.R., D'Agrosa, C., 2007. Wildlife population increases in Serengeti National Park. Science 315, 1790-1791.

Ziccardi, M., Mikota, S.K., Barbiers, R.B., Norton, T.M. Tuberculosis in zoo ungulates:Survey results and surveillance plan. Proc. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conf.  438-441. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

 

 

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