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Medicine, General

(The following additional keywords have been used to categorize articles within this section and may assist your search.)

age determination, anomaly, body condition, body weight, body temperature, epidemiology, geriatrics, growth and development, health care, heat regulation, identification technique, longevity, measurements, microchip, mortality, stress, multi-systemic disorder, pathology, shock, snake bite, thermal regulation, traditional medicine, trauma, zoonoses

Elephant Bibliographic Database

References updated October 2009 by date of publication, most recent first.

2009. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections from an elephant calf--San Diego, California, 2008
91. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58, 194-198.
Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major cause of human skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. MRSA colonization and infection also have been observed in turtles, bats, seals, sheep, rabbits, rodents, cats, dogs, pigs, birds, horses, and cattle, and MRSA infections with an epidemiologic link to animal contact have been reported in veterinary personnel, pet owners, and farm animal workers. On January 29, 2008, the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency was notified of skin pustules on an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) calf and three of its caretakers at a zoo in San Diego County. After each of these infections (including the calf's infection) was laboratory confirmed as MRSA, an outbreak investigation and response was initiated by the zoo and the agency. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which identified two additional confirmed MRSA infections, 15 suspected MRSA infections, and three MRSA-colonized persons (all among calf caretakers), and concluded that infection of the elephant calf likely came from a colonized caretaker. This is the first reported case of MRSA in an elephant and of suspected MRSA transmission from an animal to human caretakers at a zoo. Recommendations for preventing MRSA transmission in zoo settings include 1) training employees about their risks for infection and the recommended work practices to reduce them; 2) performing proper hand hygiene before and after animal contact; 3) using personal protective equipment (PPE) when working with ill or infected animals, especially during wound treatment; and 4) cleaning and disinfecting contaminated equipment and surfaces

Bartlett, S.L., Abou-Madi, N., Kraus, M.S., Wiedner, E.B., Starkey, S.R., Kollias, G.V., 2009. Electrocardiography of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 40, 466-473.
Abstract: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are infrequently performed on Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and few studies have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine reference ranges of ECG parameters in Asian elephants and to ascertain if age, body weight, and position of the elephant significantly affected the ECG. Electrocardiograms were obtained from 27 captive, nonsedated apparently healthy Asian elephants while they were standing (ST), in right lateral recumbency (RL), and/or in left lateral recumbency (LL). Six-lead ECGs were obtained using novel clamps and long ECG cables (71 cm). From lead I, standard waveforms and intervals were analyzed, including PR interval, QT interval, ST segment, P, QRS, T, and U waves if they were present. One animal was determined to have a previously undiagnosed conduction abnormality and was not included in the study. Most elephants had a sinus arrhythmia in at least one position. With increasing age, there was a trend toward a slower heart rate and significantly longer P waves. Increasing body weight was significantly correlated with longer QT intervals and T waves with lower amplitude. Compared with measurements in ST, LL resulted in P waves and QRS complexes with shorter amplitude, U waves with greater amplitude, PR intervals with shorter duration, and an increased heart rate. Compared with measurements in LL, RL resulted in larger QRS complexes. U waves were most commonly detected in RL and LL. Mean electrical axis calculated in the frontal plane were as follows: standing range -125 to +141 degrees, mean -5 degrees; left lateral range -15 to +104 degrees, mean 27 degrees; right lateral range -16 to +78 degrees, mean 9 degrees. Position-specific reference ranges should be used when interpreting ECGs, and clinicians must be aware of how age and body weight may affect the ECG

Blake, S., Deem, S.L., Mossimbo, E., Maisels, F., Walsh, P., 2009. Forest elephants: tree planters of the Congo. Biotropica 41, 459-468.
The abundance of large vertebrates is rapidly declining, particularly in the tropics where over-hunting has left many forests structurally intact but devoid of large animals. An urgent question then, is whether these 'empty' forests can sustain their biodiversity without large vertebrates. Here we examine the role of forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) seed dispersal in maintaining the community structure of trees in the Ndoki Forest, northern Congo. Analysis of 855 elephant dung piles suggested that forest elephants disperse more intact seeds than any other species or genus of large vertebrate in African forests, while GPS telemetry data showed that forest elephants regularly disperse seeds over unprecedented distances compared to other dispersers. Our analysis of the spatial distribution of trees from a sample of 5667 individuals showed that dispersal mechanism was tightly correlated with the scale of spatial aggregation. Increasing amounts of elephant seed dispersal was associated with decreasing aggregation. At distances of < 200 m, trees whose seeds are dispersed only by elephants were less aggregated than the random expectation, suggesting Janzen-Connell effects on seed/seedling mortality. At the landscape scale, seed dispersal mode predicted the rate at which local tree community similarity decayed in space. Our results suggest that the loss of forest elephants (and other large-bodied dispersers) may lead to a wave of recruitment failure among animal-dispersed tree species, and favor regeneration of the species-poor abiotically dispersed guild of trees.

Cerling, T.E., Wittemyer, G., Ehleringer, J.R., Remien, C.H., Douglas-Hamilton, I., 2009. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants
76. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 106, 8093-8100.
Abstract: The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations

Chafota, J., Owen-Smith, N., 2009. Episodic severe damage to canopy trees by elephants: interactions with fire, frost and rain. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25, 341-345.
Elephants (Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach 1797)) can have a major transforming effect on savanna structure through felling, debarking or uprooting trees (Dublin et al. 1990, Laws 1970, Mapaure & Campbell 2002). However, it is difficult to separate their influence from that of other causes of tree mortality, including wind storms (Spinage & Guinness 1971), drought (Lewis 1991, van de Vijver et al. 1999), fire (Higgins et al. 2000), and in some situations frost (Childes & Walker 1987, Holdo 2006), especially when interactions among them may occur (de Beer et al. 2006, Laws et al. 1975, Pienaar et al. 1966). Furthermore, the consequences for woodland dynamics depend on the size classes of the trees affected, as well as on how the disturbance is concentrated in time and space. Mortality of canopy trees has a much greater and longer-lasting impact than losses among the regenerating stages of these trees. However, the consequences may be less adverse for ecosystem function and biodiversity if the disturbing effects are locally concentrated, generating a patch mosaic of stands at different stages of regeneration (Remmert 1991).

Freeman, E.W., Whyte, I., Brown, J.L., 2009. Reproductive evaluation of elephants culled in Kruger National Park, South Africa between 1975 and 1995. African Journal of Ecology 47, 192-201.
To reduce elephant densities and preserve biological diversity, 14,629 elephants were culled from Kruger National Park, South Africa (1967-1999). Data were catalogued between 1975 and 1996 on 2737 male and female elephants, including pregnancy and lactational status for 1620 females (>= 5 years of age) and, uterine and/or ovarian characteristics for 1279. This study used these data to investigate the effects of age and precipitation on reproduction. The youngest age of conception was 8 years (n = 6) and by 12 years of age all females were sexually mature. From the age of 14 years, the percentage of reproductively active females (pregnant and/or lactating) was > 90%; however, this percentage declined when females reached 50 years of age. Overall, one-tenth of females were nonreproductive (not pregnant or lactating) at any given time, mostly in the youngest (< 15 years) and oldest (> 50 years) age classes. Eighteen (3.3%) of the nonpregnant females had reproductive tract pathologies, including endometrial, uterine or ovarian cysts. There was a seasonal distribution of mating activity that correlated with the rainy season. As has been demonstrated in other populations of free-ranging African elephants, most of the females in Kruger National Park were reproductively active; however, age and climate affected reproductive activity.

Freeman, E.W., Guagnano, G., Olson, D., Keele, M., Brown, J.L., 2009. Social factors influence ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo. Biol. 28, 1-15.
Abstract: Nearly one-third of reproductive age African elephants in North America that are hormonally monitored fail to exhibit estrous cycle activity, which exacerbates the nonsustainability of the captive population. Three surveys were distributed to facilities housing female African elephants to determine how social and environmental variables contribute to cyclicity problems. Forty-six facilities returned all three surveys providing information on 90% of the SSP population and 106 elephants (64 cycling, 27 noncycling and 15 undetermined). Logistic analyses found that some physiological and social history variables were related to ovarian acyclicity. Females more likely to be acyclic had a larger body mass index and had resided longer at a facility with the same herdmates. Results suggest that controlling the weight of an elephant might be a first step to helping mitigate estrous cycle problems. Data further show that transferring females among facilities has no major impact on ovarian activity. Last, social status appears to impact cyclicity status; at 19 of 21 facilities that housed both cycling and noncycling elephants, the dominant female was acyclic. Further studies on how social and environmental dynamics affect hormone levels in free-living, cycling elephants are needed to determine whether acyclicity is strictly a captivity-related phenomenon

Freeman, E.W., Schulte, B.A., Brown, J.L., 2009. Using behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires to assess social relationships among captive female African elephants
60. Zoo. Biol. 28, 1-14.
Abstract: Free-ranging African elephants are highly social animals that live in a society where age, size, kinship, and disposition all contribute to social rank. Although captive elephant herds are small and largely comprises of unrelated females, dominance hierarchies are common. The goal of this study was to delineate how the behavior of captive female African elephants varies with respect to age and social rank based on a combination of keeper questionnaires and behavioral observations. "Body movements" and "trunk to" behaviors of 33 nonpregnant female African elephants housed at 14 North American zoos were recorded over 8 hr. Keepers at each facility also rated each elephant based on a series of questions about interactions with herdmates. The assessment of social rank based on observations correlated strongly with ranks assigned by keepers via the questionnaires. Observations and questionnaire responses indicated that body weight of the female, and to a lesser extent age, were significantly related to rates and types of "body movements" and that these demographic factors dictate the captive elephant hierarchy, similar to that observed in the wild. Many of the observed "body movements," such as back away, displace, push, and present, were correlated with keeper questionnaire responses about elephant interactions. However, none of the "trunk to" behaviors were related to age, size, or questionnaire responses even though they occurred frequently. In conclusion, we demonstrated that short-term behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires provided similar behavioral profiles for female African elephants housed in North American zoos. Zoo Biol 28:1-14, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Garner, M.M., Helmick, K., Ochsenreiter, J., Richman, L.K., Latimer, E., Wise, A.G., Maes, R.K., Kiupel, M., Nordhausen, R.W., Zong, J.C., Hayward, G.S., 2009. Clinico-pathologic features of fatal disease attributed to new variants of endotheliotropic herpesviruses in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)
119. Vet. Pathol. 46, 97-104.
Abstract: The first herpesviruses described in association with serious elephant disease were referred to as endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) because of their ability to infect capillary endothelial cells and cause potentially fatal disease. Two related viruses, EEHV1 and EEHV2, have been described based on genetic composition. This report describes the similarities and differences in clinicopathologic features of 2 cases of fatal endotheliotropic herpesvirus infections in Asian elephants caused by a previously unrecognized virus within the betaherpesvirus subfamily. EEHV3 is markedly divergent from the 2 previously studied fatal probosciviruses, based on polymerase chain reaction sequence analysis of 2 segments of the viral genome. In addition to ascites, widespread visceral edema, petechiae, and capillary damage previously reported, important findings with EEHV3 infection were the presence of grossly visible renal medullary hemorrhage, a tropism for larger veins and arteries in various tissues, relatively high density of renal herpetic inclusions, and involvement of the retinal vessels. These findings indicate a less selective organ tropism, and this may confer a higher degree of virulence for EEHV3

Kaim, U., Paltian, V., Krudewig, C., Nieder, A., Wohlsein, P., 2009. Pulmonary aspergillosis in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana)
64. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 116, 148-151.
Abstract: A 26-year-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) with a history of purulent pododermatitis, recurrent abdominal pain, and severe weight loss died spontaneously after a period of deteriorating disease. The main pathological finding was a severe bilateral pyogranulomatous, partially necrotizing pneumonia with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. At microbiological examination Aspergillus spp. were isolated. The present case indicates that mycotic pneumonia should to be considered as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary disorders in elephants

Landolfi, J.A., Schultz, S.A., Mikota, S.K., Terio, K.A., 2009. Development and validation of cytokine quantitative, real time RT-PCR assays for characterization of Asian elephant immune responses
71. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 131, 73-78.
Abstract: Infectious disease is an important factor in Asian elephant health and long-term species survival. In studying disease pathogenesis, it is important to consider not only the pathogen, but also the effectiveness of the host immune response. Currently, there is a paucity of information available on elephant immune function. Measurement of cytokine levels within clinical samples can provide valuable information regarding immune function during health and disease that may elucidate disease susceptibility. To develop tools for assessment of elephant immune function, Asian elephant partial mRNA sequences for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and beta-actin were determined. Sequence information was then utilized to design elephant-specific primers and probes for quantitative, real time, RT-PCR assays for the measurement of cytokine mRNA. Greater than 300bps of Asian elephant mRNA sequence were determined for each cytokine of interest. Consistent and reproducible, real time, RT-PCR assays with efficiencies of greater than 93% were also developed. Assay sensitivities ranged from less than 1 to 5000 DNA copies with the exception of IL-12, which had a sensitivity of 42,200 copies. Employment of molecular techniques utilizing mRNA-based detection systems, such as real time, RT-PCR, facilitate sensitive and specific cytokine detection and measurement in samples from species for which commercial reagents are not available. Future studies utilizing these techniques to compare elephant immune function during health and in the face of infection will be useful for characterizing the contribution of the elephant immune system to disease

Leighty, K.A., Soltis, J., Wesolek, C.M., Savage, A., Mellen, J., Lehnhardt, J., 2009. GPS determination of walking rates in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
79. Zoo. Biol. 28, 16-28.
Abstract: The movements of elephants in captivity have been an issue of concern for animal welfare activists and zoological professionals alike in recent years. In order to fully understand how movement rates reflect animal welfare, we must first determine the exact distances these animals move in the captive environment. We outfitted seven adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Disney's Animal Kingdom with collar-mounted global positioning recording systems to document their movement rates while housed in outdoor guest viewing habitats. Further, we conducted preliminary analyses to address potential factors impacting movement rates including body size, temperature, enclosure size, and social grouping complexity. We found that our elephants moved at an average rate of 0.409+/-0.007 km/hr during the 9-hr data collection periods. This rate translates to an average of 3.68 km traveled during the observation periods, at a rate comparable to that observed in the wild. Although movement rate did not have a significant relationship with an individual's body size in this herd, the movements of four females demonstrated a significant positive correlation with temperature. Further, females in our largest social group demonstrated a significant increase in movement rates when residing in larger enclosures. We also present preliminary evidence suggesting that increased social group complexity, including the presence of infants in the herd, may be associated with increased walking rates, whereas factors such as reproductive and social status may constrain movements

Leshchinskiy, S.V., 2009. Mineral deficiency, enzootic diseases and extinction of mammoth of northern Eurasia
82. Dokl. Biol. Sci. 424, 72-74.

Manger, P.R., Pillay, P., Maseko, B.C., Bhagwandin, A., Gravett, N., Moon, D.J., Jillani, N., Hemingway, J., 2009. Acquisition of brains from the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): perfusion-fixation and dissection
113. J. Neurosci. Methods 179, 16-21.
Abstract: The current correspondence describes the in situ perfusion-fixation of the brain of the African elephant. Due to both the large size of proboscidean brains and the complex behaviour of these species, the acquisition of good quality material for comparative neuroanatomical analysis from these species is important. Three male African elephants (20-30 years) that were to be culled as part of a larger population management strategy were used. The animals were humanely euthanized and the head removed from the body. Large tubes were inserted into to the carotid arteries and the cranial vasculature flushed with a rapid (20 min) rinse of 100 l of cold saline (4 degrees C). Following the rinse the head was perfusion-fixed with a slower rinse (40 min) of 100 l of cold (4 degrees C) 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer. This procedure resulted in well-fixed neural and other tissue. After perfusion the brains were removed from the skull with the aid of power tools, a procedure taking between 2 and 6h. The brains were immediately post-fixed in the same solution for 72 h at 4 degrees C. The brains were subsequently placed in a sucrose solution and finally an antifreeze solution and are stored in a -20 degrees C freezer. The acquisition of high quality neural material from African elephants that can be used for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy is of importance in understanding the "hardware" underlying the behaviour of this species. This technique can be used on a variety of large mammals to obtain high quality material for comparative neuroanatomical studies

Mason, G.J., Veasey, J.S., 2009. How should the psychological well-being of zoo elephants be objectively investigated?
47. Zoo. Biol.
Abstract: Animal welfare (sometimes termed "well-being") is about feelings - states such as "suffering" or "contentment" that we can infer but cannot measure directly. Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state. We briefly review the resulting indices here, and discuss how well they are understood for elephants, since objective welfare assessment should play a central role in evidence-based elephant management. We cover behavioral and cognitive responses (approach/avoidance; intention, redirected and displacement activities; vigilance/startle; warning signals; cognitive biases, apathy and depression-like changes; stereotypic behavior); physiological responses (sympathetic responses; corticosteroid output - often assayed non-invasively via urine, feces or even hair; other aspects of HPA function, e.g. adrenal hypertrophy); and the potential negative effects of prolonged stress on reproduction (e.g. reduced gametogenesis; low libido; elevated still-birth rates; poor maternal care) and health (e.g. poor wound-healing; enhanced disease rates; shortened lifespans). The best validated, most used welfare indices for elephants are corticosteroid outputs and stereotypic behavior. Indices suggested as valid, partially validated, and/or validated but not yet applied within zoos include: measures of preference/avoidance; displacement movements; vocal/postural signals of affective (emotional) state; startle/vigilance; apathy; salivary and urinary epinephrine; female acyclity; infant mortality rates; skin/foot infections; cardio-vascular disease; and premature adult death. Potentially useful indices that have not yet attracted any validation work in elephants include: operant responding and place preference tests; intention and vacuum movements; fear/stress pheromone release; cognitive biases; heart rate, pupil dilation and blood pressure; corticosteroid assay from hair, especially tail-hairs (to access endocrine events up to a year ago); adrenal hypertrophy; male infertility; prolactinemia; and immunological changes. Zoo Biol 28:1-19, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Muccio, Z., Jackson, G.P., 2009. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
111. Analyst 134, 213-222.
Abstract: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry

Olivier, P.I., Ferreira, S.M., van Aarde, R.J., 2009. Dung survey bias and elephant population estimates in southern Mozambique. African Journal of Ecology 47, 202-213.
We used dung surveys to estimate population size and extracted an age structure from boli diameters for the elephants living in the Maputo Elephant Reserve. Our estimate was based on published defecation rates, dung decay rates, distance-sampling techniques and 1,672 dung piles encountered on 204 line-transects. The reserve had at least 311 (95% CI: 198-490) elephants at a density of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94) per km(2). However, observer bias reduced effective strip widths and inflated estimates and their confidence limits. The age structure extrapolated from dung measurements indicated few newborn calves compared with other populations. To detect population changes of 2-5% at 80% power, dung surveys should be carried out every second year for the next 20 years using 100 transects of at least 500 m each. Comparison with a 1995 dung survey suggests that the population is stable and that previous fears of a major population decline during the civil war have no foundation.

Pinter-Wollman, N., Isbell, L.A., Hart, L.A., 2009. The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
117. Proc. Biol. Sci. 276, 1009-1014.
Abstract: Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments

Pinter-Wollman, N., Isabell, L.A., Hart, L.A., 2009. Assessing translocation outcome: Comparing behavioral and physiological aspects of translocated and resident African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Biological Conservation 142, 1116-1124.
Evaluating translocation outcomes is important for improving wildlife management and conservation actions. Often, when quick decisions need to be made and long-lived animals with slow reproductionrates are translocated, traditional assessment methods such as long-term survival and reproductive successcannot be used for assessing translocation outcomes. Thus, alternative, seldom used, measures suchas comparing the behavior and physiology of translocated animals to those of local residents should beemployed to assess the translocated animals' acclimation to their new home. Here we monitored the survival,physiology, and behavior of translocated African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and comparedthese measures to the local resident population at the release site. Adult male and female translocatedelephants' death rates were higher than those of the local population. Furthermore, the mortality rateof translocated adult males and calves was greater than expected based on their proportion in the translocatedelephant population. No difference was found in stress hormone levels between the two populations,but the body condition of the translocated elephants was significantly poorer than that of the localpopulation throughout the study period. The behavioral time budgets of the translocated elephants convergedwith those of the local population over time. Finally, translocated elephants utilized habitat thatwas similar to their source site (hills and permanent rivers) more than did the local population. Based on these findings we recommend careful consideration of timing, release location, and individuals targetedin future elephant translocations. More broadly, we introduce and explore seldom used translocation assessment techniques.

Rees, P.A., 2009. Activity budgets and the relationship between feeding and stereotypic behaviors in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoo
75. Zoo. Biol. 28, 79-97.
Abstract: Activity budgets were studied in eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Chester Zoo (UK) for 35 days, between January and November 1999. Recordings were made between 10:00 and 16:00 hr (with most behavior frequencies calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 hr). The elephants exhibited variation in activity depending on their age, sex, the time of day and the time of year. Only the five adult cows exhibited stereotypic behavior, with frequencies ranging from 3.9 to 29.4% of all observations. These elephants exhibited individual, diurnal and seasonal variation in stereotypic behavior. This has implications for studies that use short sampling periods and may make comparisons of data collected at different times of the day or year invalid. The six adult elephants spent 27.4-41.4% of the time feeding (between 10:00 and 14:00 hr), 22.9-42.0% standing still, 6.1-19.2% walking and 3.9-9.6% dusting. The hypothesis that the frequency of stereotypic behavior in adult cow elephants was negatively correlated with the frequency of feeding behavior was tested and was found to be true. Stereotypic behavior increased in frequency toward the end of the day-while waiting to return to the elephant house for food--and elephants spent more time stereotyping during the winter months than during the summer months. Elephants were inactive (i.e. exhibited behaviors other than locomotion) for between 70.1 and 93.9% of the time. Creating more opportunities for elephants to exhibit foraging behavior and the introduction of greater unpredictability into management regimes, especially feeding times, may reduce the frequency of stereotypic behavior and increase general activity levels

Saragusty, J., Hildebrandt, T.B., Behr, B., Knieriem, A., Kruse, J., Hermes, R., 2009. Successful cryopreservation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa. Anim Reprod. Sci. 115, 255-266.
Abstract: Reproduction in captive elephants is low and infant mortality is high, collectively leading to possible population extinction. Artificial insemination was developed a decade ago; however, it relies on fresh-chilled semen from just a handful of bulls with inconsistent sperm quality. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm has never been described, probably, in part, due to low semen quality after cryopreservation. The present study was designed with the aim of finding a reliable semen freezing protocol. Screening tests included freezing semen with varying concentrations of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trehalose, dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol as cryoprotectants and assessing cushioned centrifugation, rapid chilling to suprazero temperatures, freezing extender osmolarity, egg yolk concentration, post-thaw dilution with cryoprotectant-free BC solution and the addition of 10% (v/v) of autologous seminal plasma. The resulting optimal freezing protocol uses cushioned centrifugation, two-step dilution with isothermal 285 m Osm/kg Berliner Cryomedium (BC) with final glycerol concentration of 7% and 16% egg yolk, and freezing in large volume by the directional freezing technique. After thawing, samples are diluted 1:1 with BC solution. Using this protocol, post-thaw evaluations results were: motility upon thawing: 57.2+/-5.4%, motility following 30 min incubation at 37 degrees C: 58.5+/-6.0% and following 3h incubation: 21.7+/-7.6%, intact acrosome: 57.1+/-5.2%, normal morphology: 52.0+/-5.8% and viability: 67.3+/-6.1%. With this protocol, good quality semen can be accumulated for future use in artificial inseminations when and where needed

Saragusty, J., Hermes, R., Goritz, F., Schmitt, D.L., Hildebrandt, T.B., 2009. Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants. Anim Reprod. Sci. 115, 247-254.
Abstract: Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n=487) and premature deaths (PD, <5 years of age; n=164) in Asian and African elephants in Europe and North America were compared with data on Myanmar timber (Asian) elephants (CB, n=3070; PD, n=738). Growth in CB was found in three of the captive populations. A significant excess of male births occurred in European Asian elephants (ratio: 0.61, P=0.044) and in births following artificial insemination (0.83, P=0.003), and a numerical inclination in North American African elephants (0.6). While juvenile mortality in European African and Myanmar populations was 21-23%, it was almost double (40-45%) in all other captive populations. In zoo populations, 68-91% of PD were within 1 month of birth with stillbirth and infanticide being major causes. In Myanmar, 62% of juvenile deaths were at >6 months with maternal insufficient milk production, natural hazards and accidents being the main causes. European Asian and Myanmar elephants PD was biased towards males (0.71, P=0.024 and 0.56, P<0.001, respectively). The skewed birth sex ratio and high juvenile mortality hinder efforts to help captive populations become self-sustaining. Efforts should be invested to identify the mechanism behind these trends and seek solutions for them.

Sherwood, C.C., Stimpson, C.D., Butti, C., Bonar, C.J., Newton, A.L., Allman, J.M., Hof, P.R., 2009. Neocortical neuron types in Xenarthra and Afrotheria: implications for brain evolution in mammals. Brain Struct. Funct. 213, 301-328.
Abstract: Interpreting the evolution of neuronal types in the cerebral cortex of mammals requires information from a diversity of species. However, there is currently a paucity of data from the Xenarthra and Afrotheria, two major phylogenetic groups that diverged close to the base of the eutherian mammal adaptive radiation. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution and morphology of neocortical neurons stained for nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y in three xenarthran species-the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla), and the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus)-and two afrotherian species-the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and the black and rufous giant elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi). We also studied the distribution and morphology of astrocytes using glial fibrillary acidic protein as a marker. In all of these species, nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons predominated in layer V. These neurons exhibited diverse morphologies with regional variation. Specifically, high proportions of atypical neurofilament-enriched neuron classes were observed, including extraverted neurons, inverted pyramidal neurons, fusiform neurons, and other multipolar types. In addition, many projection neurons in layers II-III were found to contain calbindin. Among interneurons, parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing cells were generally denser compared to calretinin-immunoreactive cells. We traced the evolution of certain cortical architectural traits using phylogenetic analysis. Based on our reconstruction of character evolution, we found that the living xenarthrans and afrotherians show many similarities to the stem eutherian mammal, whereas other eutherian lineages display a greater number of derived traits

Smith, K.F., Behrens, M., Schloegel, L.M., Marano, N., Burgiel, S., Daszak, P., 2009. Reducing the risks of the wildlife trade . Science 324, 594-595.

The magnitude of the international wildlife trade is immense, with estimates of billions of live animals and animal products traded globally each year. This trade has facilitated the introduction of species to new regions, where they compete with native species for resources, alter ecosystems, damage infrastructure, and destroy crops. It has also led to the introduction of pathogens that threaten public health, agricultural production, and biodiversity .

Soltis, J., Leighty, K.A., Wesolek, C.M., Savage, A., 2009. The expression of affect in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) rumble vocalizations
59. J. Comp Psychol. 123, 222-225.
Abstract: Affective states are thought to be expressed in the mammalian voice, but such investigations are most common in primates. Source and filter features of rumbles were analyzed from 6 adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Disney's Animal Kingdom. Rumbles produced during periods of minimal social interaction ("low affect") were compared to those produced during dominance interactions ("high affect"). Low-ranking females produced rumbles with increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and increased durations and amplitudes during dominance interactions with superiors, compared to the low affect context. This acoustic response is consistent with the expression of affect in mammals and may signal submission to superiors. The 2 highest ranking females were codominant and competed for alpha status. They produced rumbles with decreased and less variable fundamental frequencies, increased durations and amplitudes, and a decrease in formant dispersion during dominance interactions with each other, compared to the low affect context. This response is not generally consistent with the expression of affect, but may signal large body size to competitors. These results suggest that affect can be expressed in the voiced sounds of elephants

Trimble, M.J., Ferreira, S.M., van Aarde, R.J., 2009. Drivers of megaherbivore demographic fluctuations: inference from elephants. Journal of Zoology 1-9.
Environmentally induced variation in survival and fecundity generates demographic fluctuations that affect population growth rate. However, a general pattern of the comparative influence of variation in fecundity and juvenile survival on elephant population dynamics has not been investigated at a broad scale. We evaluated the relative importance of conception, gestation, first year survival and subsequent survivorship for controlling demographic variation by exploring the relationship between past environmental conditions determined by integrated normalized difference vegetation index (INDVI) and the shape of age distributions at 17 sites across Africa. We showed that, generally, INDVI during gestation best explained anomalies in age structure. However, in areas with low mean annual rainfall, INDVI during the first year of life was critical. The results challenge Eberhardt's paradigm for population analysis that suggests that populations respond to limited resource availability through a sequential decrease in juvenile survival, reproductive rate and adult survival. Contrastingly, elephants appear to respond first through a reduction in reproductive rate. We conclude that this discrepancy is likely due to the evolutionary significance of extremely large body size - an adaptation that increases survival rate but decreases reproductive potential. Other megaherbivores may respond similarly to resource limitation due to similarities in population dynamics. Knowing how vital rates vary with changing environmental conditions will permit better forecasts of the trajectories of megaherbivore populations.

Vanleeuwe, H., 2009. Counting elephants in Montane forests: some sources of error. African Journal of Ecology 47, 164-174.
The dung count method is widely used to estimate elephant numbers in forests. It was developed in the lowland forests of Central Africa but it is also used in Montane forests in eastern Africa. Using data collected on Mount Kenya and computer simulations, this paper explores the following issues associated with dung surveys in Montane forests: High rainfall at 3000 m altitude on Mount Kenya was expected to accelerate dung pile decay but no significant difference was found between 3000 and 2500 m where less rain falls, possibly because high rainfall at 3000 m is counteracted by lower temperatures; Physical obstacles make it difficult to walk long, straight transects in Montane forests. Deviating from a straight line pushes the distribution of distance measurements from dung piles to the transect centre line (pdist) towards a negative exponential (NE), which complicates data analysis and may give inaccurate estimates. Using short transects largely alleviate this problem; Analysis of dung count simulations shows that the expected sightability curve of pdist pushes towards a NE with increasing numbers of obstacles blocking the view, even along perfectly straight transects; Extrapolating measured dung density to map area on Mount Kenya resulted in an underestimate of c. 13%. An unstratified correction of map area to ground area for Montane areas would be biased because of the strong tendency for elephants to avoid steeply sloping areas.

Asher, R.J., Lehmann, T., 2008. Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals. BMC. Biol. 6, 14.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvarks, sengis, tenrecs and golden moles, have been difficult to identify. Here, we suggest relatively late eruption of the permanent dentition as a shared characteristic of afrotherian mammals. This characteristic and other features (such as vertebral anomalies and testicondy) recall the phenotype of a human genetic pathology (cleidocranial dysplasia), correlations with which have not been explored previously in the context of character evolution within the recently established phylogeny of living mammalian clades. RESULTS: Although data on the absolute timing of eruption in sengis, golden moles and tenrecs are still unknown, craniometric comparisons for ontogenetic series of these taxa show that considerable skull growth takes place prior to the complete eruption of the permanent cheek teeth. Specimens showing less than half (sengis, golden moles) or two-thirds (tenrecs, hyraxes) of their permanent cheek teeth reach or exceed the median jaw length of conspecifics with a complete dentition. With few exceptions, afrotherians are closer to median adult jaw length with fewer erupted, permanent cheek teeth than comparable stages of non-afrotherians. Manatees (but not dugongs), elephants and hyraxes with known age data show eruption of permanent teeth late in ontogeny relative to other mammals. While the occurrence of delayed eruption, vertebral anomalies and other potential afrotherian synapomorphies resemble some symptoms of a human genetic pathology, these characteristics do not appear to covary significantly among mammalian clades. CONCLUSION: Morphological characteristics shared by such physically disparate animals such as elephants and golden moles are not easy to recognize, but are now known to include late eruption of permanent teeth, in addition to vertebral anomalies, testicondy and other features. Awareness of their possible genetic correlates promises insight into the developmental basis of shared morphological features of afrotherians and other vertebrates

Banerjee, A., 2008. Lucky escape after elephant gore injury of the chest. Emerg. Med. J. 25, 828.

Bechert, U., Southern, S., Chase, M. Minimally invasive molecular health analysis in elephants. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  88. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
This paper describes the application of a new assay platform called Stress Response Profiling (SRP) to the analysis of health status in elephants. SRP assays use a large biomarker panel as an indicator of chronically perturbed physiologic homeostasis ("chronic stress"),1,2 which is a known predictor of increased morbidity, infertility and mortality rates.3-8 SRP assays have a broad-based sensitivity to diverse types of stressors in multiple species of vertebrates.2 A minimally invasive SRP assay is based on skin microsamples obtained using routine biopsy procedures.9 The skin SRP assay was applied to captive African elephants with clinically diagnosed gastrointestinal infections and to healthy wild elephants.10 The elephant health status was classified using a reference database of SR biomarker profiles corresponding to eight species of normal and stressed animals. The biomarker profiles were converted into pathway profiles indicating that the molecular mechanism of the elephant gastrointestinal infections preferentially involved responses to misfolded proteins and DNA lesions. To rapidly and economically screen samples from 70 free-ranging African elephants sampled in Northern Botswana, we used a multiplexed SRP assay called multi-SRP.1,2 Statistical analysis of the multi-SRP scores showed correlations with population density, movements, and human-elephant conflict reports. In
summary, this paper documents that SRP and multi-SRP assays are suitable for the elephant skin and relevant to both symptomatic diseases and asymptomatic effects of environmental and anthropogenic stressors. We anticipate that the SRP technology might have a wide range of potential applications in veterinary medicine and ecosystem conservation.
1. Southern, S.O., A.C. Allen, and N. Kellar. 2002. Molecular signature of physiological stress in dolphins based on protein expression profiling of skin. Administrative Report LJ-02-27, National Marine Fisheries Service, SW Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, California.
2. Southern, S.O., and G.W. Lilienthal. 2008. New technology for early detection of health threats. Proc. SPIE 69450F.
3. Camougrand, N., and M. Rigoulet. 2001. Aging and oxidative stress: studies of some genes involved both in aging and in response to oxidative stress. Respir. Physiol. 128:393-40.
4. Epel, E.S., J. Lin, F.H. Wilhelm, O.M. Wolkowitz, R. Cawthon, N.E. Adler, C. Dolbier, W.B. Mendes, and E.H. Blackburn. 2006. Cell aging in relation to stress arousal and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31:277-87.
5. Feder, M.E., and G.E. Hofmann. 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 61:243-82.
6. Kapahi, P., M.E. Boulton, and T.B.L. Kirkwood. 1999. Positive correlation between mammalian life span and cellular resistance to stress. Free Radical Biol. Med. 26:495-500.
7. Selye, H.A. 1936. Syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature 138:32.
8. Wilson, J.F., and E.J. Kopitzke 2002. Stress and infertility Curr. Womens Health Rep. 2: 194

Burke, T., Page, B., Van, D.G., Millspaugh, J., Slotow, R., 2008. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants. PLoS. One. 3, e2417.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies

Clubb, R., Rowcliffe, M., Lee, P., Mar, K.U., Moss, C., Mason, G.J., 2008. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science 322, 1649.
Abstract: We analyzed data from over 4500 elephants to show that animals in European zoos have about half the median life span of conspecifics in protected populations in range countries. This discrepancy is clearest in Asian elephants; unlike African elephants in zoos, this species' infant mortality is very high (for example, twice that seen in Burmese timber camps), and its adult survivorship in zoos has not improved significantly in recent years. One risk factor for Asian zoo elephants is being moved between institutions, with early removal from the mother tending to have additional adverse effects. Another risk factor is being born into a zoo rather than being imported from the wild, with poor adult survivorship in zoo-born Asians apparently being conferred prenatally or in early infancy. We suggest stress and/or obesity as likely causes of zoo elephants' compromised survivorship

Doherty, T., 2008. More on AVMA policy on elephant guides and tethers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233, 1061.

Drews, B., Hermes, R., Goritz, F., Gray, C., Kurz, J., Lueders, I., Hildebrandt, T.B., 2008. Early embryo development in the elephant assessed by serial ultrasound examinations. Theriogenology 69, 1120-1128.
Abstract: The elephant has an extraordinary long pregnancy, lasting 21 months. However, knowledge on embryo development is limited. To date, only single morphological observations of elephant embryo development associated with placentation are available, all lacking correlation to gestational age. The present study describes morphological characteristics of early embryo development in the elephant with exact biometric staging. Six pregnancies in five Asian and one African elephants with known conception dates were followed by 2D and 3D ultrasound, covering the embryonic period from ovulation to day 116 post-ovulation. The embryonic vesicle was earliest observed was on day 50 p.o. The proper embryo was not detected until day 62 p.o. Embryonic heartbeat was first observed on day 71 p.o. The allantois, which became visible as a single sacculation on day 71 p.o. was subdivided in four compartments on day 76 p.o. By day 95 p.o., head, rump, front and hind legs were clearly distinguished. Between days 95 and 103 p.o. the choriovitelline placenta was replaced by the chorioallantoic placenta. A physiological midgut herniation was transiently present between days 95 and 116 p.o. On the basis of the late appearance of the embryonic vesicle, delayed implantation in the elephant is discussed. The study provides a coherent description of elephant embryonic development, formation of the extraembryonic organs and their role in placenta formation, all of which are of interest for both comparative evolutionary studies and the improvement of assisted reproduction techniques

Foley, C., Pettorelli, N., Foley, L., 2008. Severe drought and calf survival in elephants. Biol. Lett. 4, 541-544.
Abstract: Climate change in Africa is expected to lead to a higher occurrence of severe droughts in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Understanding how animal populations react to such events is thus crucial for addressing future challenges for wildlife management and conservation. We explored how gender, age, mother's experience and family group characteristics determined calf survival in an elephant population during a severe drought in Tanzania in 1993. Young males were particularly sensitive to the drought and calf loss was higher among young mothers than among more experienced mothers. We also report high variability in calf mortality between different family groups, with family groups that remained in the National Park suffering heavy calf loss, compared with the ones that left the Park. This study highlights how severe droughts can dramatically affect early survival of large herbivores and suggests that extreme climatic events might act as a selection force on vertebrate populations, allowing only individuals with the appropriate behaviour and/or knowledge to survive

Gobush, K.S., Mutayoba, B.M., Wasser, S.K., 2008. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants. Conserv. Biol. 22, 1590-1599.
Abstract: Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented

Gross, M., 2008. Kenya's conservation challenge. Curr. Biol. 18, R576-R577.

Hermes, R., Saragusty, J., Schaftenaar, W., Goritz, F., Schmitt, D.L., Hildebrandt, T.B., 2008. Obstetrics in elephants. Theriogenology 70, 131-144.
Abstract: Obstetrics, one of the oldest fields in veterinary medicine, is well described and practiced in domestic and exotic animals. However, when providing care during elephant birth or dystocia, veterinary intervention options differ greatly from any domestic species, and are far more limited due to the dimensions and specific anatomy of the elephant reproductive tract. In addition, aging of captive elephant populations and advanced age of primiparous females make active birth management increasingly important. Intrauterine infection, uterine inertia and urogenital tract pathologies are emerging as major causes for dystocia, often leading to foetal and dam death. This paper reviews the current knowledge on elephant birth and the factors associated with dystocia. It then summarises recommendations for birth and dystocia management. As Caesarean section, the most common ultima ratio in domestic animal obstetrics, is lethal and therefore not an option in the elephant, non-invasive medical treatment, induction of the Fergusson reflex or the conscious decision to leave a retained foetus until it is expelled voluntarily, are key elements in elephant obstetrics. Surgical strategies such as episiotomy and foetotomy are sometimes inevitable in order to try to save the life of the dam, however, these interventions result in chronic post-surgical complications or even fatal outcome. Limited reliable data on serum calcium concentrations, and pharmacokinetics and effect of exogenous oestrogen, oxytocin, and prostaglandins during birth provide the scope of future research, necessary to advance scientific knowledge on obstetrics in elephants

Hollister-Smith, J.A., Alberts, S.C., Rasmussen, L.E.L., 2008. Do male African elephants, Loxodonta africana, signal musth via urine dribbling? Animal Behavior 76, 1829-1841.
The phenomenon of musth in male elephants involves increased sexual activity, heightened aggression and nearly continuous dribbling of pungent smelling urine. Urine chemistry during musth is altered, suggesting that urine may signal the musth status of the individual. Signalling musth remotely may benefit individuals if it reduces the likelihood of physical confrontation between males, which can lead to injury and even death. Few studies, however, have asked whether and how male elephants respond to urine of other males. We tested two predictions of the hypothesis that urine signals musth status to male conspecifics: (1) that male African elephants differentiate musth and nonmusth urine, and (2) that males differentiate between urine dribbled during early and late musth. The second prediction stems from the observation that males lose weight and presumably body condition during musth. We conducted two related bioassays with 26 captive nonmusth males ranging from 13 to 52 years of age. In each assay, subjects were simultaneously presented with three urine samples (nonmusth, early musth, late musth), each from a different donor male, and a control. We found that subjects differentiated between musth and nonmusth samples using their vomeronasal organ system, but did not discriminate between the samples using their main olfactory system. Males did not differentiate early from late musth. In addition, we found that subject contextual factors, specifically age, dominance status and social grouping, significantly predicted response. We discuss these results within the framework of male elephant longevity and social relationships and their importance to reproductive success.

Kislak, P., 2008. Thoughts on AVMA policy on elephant guides and tethers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233, 550-551.

Konnai, S., Mekata, H., Odbileg, R., Simuunza, M., Chembensof, M., Witola, W.H., Tembo, M.E., Chitambo, H., Inoue, N., Onuma, M., Ohashi, K., 2008. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies. Vector. Borne. Zoonotic. Dis. 8, 565-573.
Abstract: The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the Chiawa area of Lower Zambezi in Zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome DNA and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived DNA extracts as templates. Ninety G. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei species genomic DNA. Of the 90 T. brucei-positive flies, 47 (52.2%) also tested positive for vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. Sequence analysis of the vertebrate mitochondrial DNA amplicons established that they originated from 8 different vertebrate species, namely, human (Homo sapiens), African elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and goat (Capra hircus). Furthermore, to investigate the prevalence of trypanosome infections in domestic goats in the same area where trypanosomes had been detected in tsetse files, a total of 86 goats were randomly selected from 6 different herds. Among the selected goats, 36 (41.9%) were found to be positive for T. brucei species. This combined detection method would be an ideal approach not only for mass screening for infection prevalence in tsetse populations, but also for the prediction of natural reservoirs in areas endemic for trypanosomosis

Lotfy, W.M., Brant, S.V., DeJong, R.J., Le, T.H., Demiaszkiewicz, A., Rajapakse, R.P., Perera, V.B., Laursen, J.R., Loker, E.S., 2008. Evolutionary origins, diversification, and biogeography of liver flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 248-255.
Abstract: Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable historical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) that included seven of the nine recognized species in the family. The fasciolids examined comprise a monophyletic group with the most basal species recovered from African elephants. We hypothesize fasciolids migrated from Africa to Eurasia, with secondary colonization of Africa. Fasciolids have been conservative in maintaining relatively large adult body size, but anatomical features of their digestive and reproductive systems are available. These flukes have been opportunistic, with respect to switching to new snail (planorbid to lymnaeid) and mammalian hosts and from intestinal to hepatic habitats within mammals

Makarieva, A.M., Gorshkov, V.G., Li, B.L., Chown, S.L., Reich, P.B., Gavrilov, V.M., 2008. Mean mass-specific metabolic rates are strikingly similar across life's major domains: Evidence for life's metabolic optimum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 105, 16994-16999.
Abstract: A fundamental but unanswered biological question asks how much energy, on average, Earth's different life forms spend per unit mass per unit time to remain alive. Here, using the largest database to date, for 3,006 species that includes most of the range of biological diversity on the planet-from bacteria to elephants, and algae to sapling trees-we show that metabolism displays a striking degree of homeostasis across all of life. We demonstrate that, despite the enormous biochemical, physiological, and ecological differences between the surveyed species that vary over 10(20)-fold in body mass, mean metabolic rates of major taxonomic groups displayed at physiological rest converge on a narrow range from 0.3 to 9 W kg(-1). This 30-fold variation among life's disparate forms represents a remarkably small range compared with the 4,000- to 65,000-fold difference between the mean metabolic rates of the smallest and largest organisms that would be observed if life as a whole conformed to universal quarter-power or third-power allometric scaling laws. The observed broad convergence on a narrow range of basal metabolic rates suggests that organismal designs that fit in this physiological window have been favored by natural selection across all of life's major kingdoms, and that this range might therefore be considered as optimal for living matter as a whole

Mekata, H., Konnai, S., Simuunza, M., Chembensofu, M., Kano, R., Witola, W.H., Tembo, M.E., Chitambo, H., Inoue, N., Onuma, M., Ohashi, K., 2008. Prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (Glossina pallidipes) in southeastern Zambia. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 70, 923-928.
Abstract: The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, T. congolense forest and T. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respectively. To determine the mammalian hosts of T. congolense and T. vivax infections from the tsetse flies, mammalian mitochondrion DNA of blood meal in these flies were analyzed by PCR and subsequent gene sequence analysis of the amplicons. Sequence analysis showed the presence of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of 7 different mammalian species such as human, elephant, buffalo, goat, warthog, greater kudu and cattle. Goats which were main livestock in these areas were further examined to know the extent of its contribution in spreading the infection. We examined the prevalence of trypanosome infections in the domestic goat population in 6 settlements in Chiawa alone. Of the 86 goats sampled, 4 (4.6%), 5 (5.8%), 4 (4.6%) and 4 (4.6%) were positive for T. vivax universal, T. congolense savannah, forest and kilifi, respectively. These findings showed that the host-source of trypanosome infections in vector fly give a vital information about spread of infection. The result of this study will certainly contribute in elucidating more the epidemiology of trypanosomosis

Meyers, D.A., Isaza, R., MacNeill, A. Evaluation of acute phase proteins for diagnosis of inflammation in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  128. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
In many domestic species, routine hematology assays are useful diagnostic tools to diagnose inflammatory conditions. Unlike other species, these hematologic tests apparently are insensitive indicators of inflammation in elephants.1 We studied a novel group of blood proteins, called acute phase proteins, which increase during inflammatory conditions, for their usefulness in diagnosing elephants with inflammatory diseases. Although these proteins currently are useful in humans and domestic animals, each species has a different set of important proteins that must be individually investigated.2 We tested several acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, alpha-1 glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, and albumin) as well as complete blood counts, chemistry panels, serum protein electrophoresis, and 3-D gel electrophoresis to determine their usefulness for diagnosing different types of inflammatory conditions in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Animals with inflammatory conditions were classified as those individuals with known illnesses such as mycobacteriosis, arthritis, nail bed abscesses, and malignant tumors. Control animals were thoseanimals that were suspected to not have any inflammation and be healthy at the time of testing as determined by physical examination and obtaining a thorough medical history.
1. Lyashchenko, K., R. Greenwald, J. Esfandiari, J. Olsen, R. Ball, G. Dumonceaux, F. Dunker, C. Buckley, M.
Richard, S. Murray, J.B. Payeur, P. Anderson, J.M. Pollock, S. Mikota, M. Miller, D. Sofranko, and W.R.
Waters. 2006. Tuberculosis in Elephants: Antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium
, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 13: 722-732.
2. Murata H., N. Shimada, M. Yoshioka. 2004. Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis:
an overview. Vet J. 168: 28-40.

Mikota, S.K., 2008. Tuberculosis in elephants. In: Fowler, M.E., Miller, R.E. (Eds.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy 6th edition. Saunders/Elsevier, St. Louis, pp. 355-364.

Miller, J., McClean, M. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after a single rectal dose. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  224-225. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Captive African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) are susceptible to many types of gram negative bacterial infections such as Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma  spp., Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Proteus spp. Enrofloxacin (Baytril®, Bayer Health Care, Animal Health Division, P.O. Box 390, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201) is a potentially effective antibiotic for
treatment of these bacterial infections in elephants. Very limited data exists on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in elephants2 and most of the dosage regimes for gastrointestinal absorption are based on horse dosages since they share a similar  gastrointestinal tract. Three African elephants from Wildlife Safari in Winston, Oregon, two females both 37-yr-old and one male 26-yr-old, were used to determine whether therapeutic levels of enrofloxacin could be achieved thru rectal administration of liquid injectable enrofloxacin (Baytril 100®, 100 mg/ml, Bayer Health Care, Animal Health Division, P.O. Box 390, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201) at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. A pretreatment baseline blood sample was collected. Following administration, blood samples were collected at 45 min, 1.5hr, 2.5hr, 5hr, 9hr, 23hr, 36hr to determine plasma enrofloxacin levels. Plasma enrofloxacin levels were measured at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels were measured concurrently. Results indicate plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin did not reach adequate bacteriocidal levels for any of the the following common bacterial isolates in captive elephants: Mycoplasma
spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Proteus spp. The study determined that a rectally administered dosage of 2.5 mg/kg of liquid injectable enrofloxacin was insufficient to obtain therapeutic levels in African elephants. The low plasma levels of enrofloxacin in all three elephants may be a result of poor absorption in the distal large intestine. A future study will determine if oral administration will provide a more efficient mode of drug delivery and absorption in African elephants. It is also possible that the current dosage of 2.5 mg/kg is too low to achieve adequate therapeutic levels.
I would like to thank the elephant and veterinary staff at Wildlife Safari for their participation in conducting this study. Thanks to Doctors: Modesto McClean, Jason Bennett, Andi Chariffe, Tessa Lohe, Benji Alacantar. Also thanks to Dinah Wilson, Carol Matthews, Anthony Karels, Mary Iida, Shawn Finnell, Patches Stroud, Katie Alayan.
1. Haines, G.R., et. al. 2000. Serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after intravenous and intragastric administration to mares. Can. J.Vet. Res. 64(3):171-177.
2. Sanchez, C.R., et. al. 2005. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of enrofloxacin administered orally to captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Am. J. Vet. Res. 66:1948-1953.

Moncrieff, G.R., Kruger, L.M., Midgley, J.J., 2008. Stem mortality of Acacia nigrescens induced by the synergistic effects of elephants and fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24, 655-662.
One manner in which elephants utilize trees is by removing their bark. This type of utilization is concentrated on the largest trees in the landscape. The role of bark removal in increasing the vulnerability of large trees to fire and the mechanism through which fire damage is mediated were investigated in Kruger National Park. South Africa, by experimentally removing bark and burning Acacia nigrescens stems with diameters ranging between 30 and 68 mm. Also, field surveys were conducted subsequent to natural fires in order to investigate mortality patterns of large trees with dbh greater than 15 cm with bark removed by elephants. An increasing probability of mortality was associated with increasing amounts of bark removal but only if trees were burned. When trees had bark removed but were not burnt, simulating damage only to cambium and phloem, none of the 12 treated stems died in the 4-mo period over which the experimentran. Moreover, low levels of cambium damage were detected in large burned stems. This suggests that bark removal increases fire-induced xylem damage and that this damage contributes towards stein mortality. In a survey of 437 large trees. bark removal by elephants was frequent on large stems (44%) and larger trees have greater amounts of bark removed. Post-fire mortality of large trees was significantly associated with increasing bark removal and stem diameter. These results indicate that bark removal by elephants increases the vulnerability of stems to fire, resulting in mortality of large stems otherwise protected from fire.

Packard, G.C., Birchard, G.F., 2008. Traditional allometric analysis fails to provide a valid predictive model for mammalian metabolic rates. J. Exp. Biol. 211, 3581-3587.
Abstract: The field of biological allometry was energized by the publication in 1997 of a theoretical model purporting to explain 3/4-power scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in mammals. This 3/4-power scaling exponent, which was first reported by Max Kleiber in 1932, has been derived repeatedly in empirical research by independent investigators and has come to be known as 'Kleiber's Law'. The exponent was estimated in virtually every instance, however, by fitting a straight line to logarithmic transformations of data and by then re-expressing the resulting equation in the arithmetic scale. Because this traditional method may yield inaccurate and misleading estimates for parameters in the allometric equation, we re-examined the comprehensive data set that led Savage and colleagues to reaffirm the view that the metabolic rate of mammals scales to the 3/4-power of body mass. We found that a straight line fitted to logged data for the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of mammals ranging in size from a 2.4 g shrew to a 3672 kg elephant does not satisfy assumptions underlying the analysis and that the allometric equation obtained by back-transformation underestimates BMR for the largest species in the sample. Thus, the concept of 3/4-power scaling of metabolic rate to body mass is not well supported because the underlying statistical model does not apply to mammalian species spanning the full range in body size. Our findings have important implications with respect to methods and results of other studies that used the traditional approach to allometric analysis

Ramanathan, A., Mallapur, A., 2008. A visual health assessment of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in India. J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 148-154.
Abstract: A visual health assessment and survey questionnaire was conducted on 81 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in 10 animal facilities throughout India between November 2004 and February 2005. The survey questionnaire consisted of 10 questions that evaluated the health of the elephants, and they were completed after visually assessing each individual elephant. The information collected was ranked on a scale that was used to statistically compare the health among the study subjects. This study documented that 43.21% of the captive elephants surveyed exhibited hyperkeratosis. A significant proportion of the elephants owned by tourist camps had poor skin condition when compared with elephants from zoos and at a forest camp. Similarly, captive-born individuals were found to have better skin condition than animals that were caught from the wild. Sixty (74.1%) of the captive elephants that were observed during this study had fissures in their footpads, 20% of which were severe. The prevalence of foot fissures was significantly higher in females. A greater proportion of elephants owned by tourist camps displayed vertical and horizontal toenail cracks in comparison with the forest camp and zoo elephants. It was noted that 76.9% of the wounded animals and 80% of those having abscesses were housed at temples and tourist camps. Also, approximately 8.5% of the captive elephant population observed during this study had eye-related problems, and they were all housed at temples and tourist camps. In conclusion, it was evident that elephants housed at temples or tourist camps exhibited poor skin condition with wounds and abscesses. These findings suggest that the overall condition of the elephants housed at tourist camps was poor compared with elephants housed at zoos and at the forest camp

Ren, L., Butler, M., Miller, C., Paxton, H., Schwerda, D., Fischer, M.S., Hutchinson, J.R., 2008. The movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants. J. Exp. Biol. 211, 2735-2751.
Abstract: As the largest extant terrestrial animals, elephants do not trot or gallop but can move smoothly to faster speeds without markedly changing their kinematics, yet with a shift from vaulting to bouncing kinetics. To understand this unusual mechanism, we quantified the forelimb and hindlimb motions of eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and seven African elephants (Loxodonta africana). We used 240 Hz motion analysis (tracking 10 joint markers) to measure the flexion/extension angles and angular velocities of the limb segments and joints for 288 strides across an eightfold range of speeds (0.6-4.9 m s(-1)) and a sevenfold range of body mass (521-3684 kg). We show that the columnar limb orientation that elephants supposedly exemplify is an oversimplification--few segments or joints are extremely vertical during weight support (especially at faster speeds), and joint flexion during the swing phase is considerable. The 'inflexible' ankle is shown to have potentially spring-like motion, unlike the highly flexible wrist, which ironically is more static during support. Elephants use approximately 31-77% of their maximal joint ranges of motion during rapid locomotion, with this fraction increasing distally in the limbs, a trend observed in some other running animals. All angular velocities decrease with increasing size, whereas smaller elephant limbs are not markedly more flexed than adults. We find no major quantitative differences between African and Asian elephant locomotion but show that elephant limb motions are more similar to those of smaller animals, including humans and horses, than commonly recognized. Such similarities have been obscured by the reliance on the term ;columnar' to differentiate elephant limb posture from that of other animals. Our database will be helpful for identifying elephants with unusual limb movements, facilitating early recognition of musculoskeletal pathology

Schmitt, D., Charmason, S., Wiedner, E. Use of luteinizing hormone ELISAs  in breeding elephants. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  120-121. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Successful artificial insemination (AI) of elephants depends heavily on determining the unique luteinizing hormone (LH) surges that occur during the follicular phase of the elephant's estrous cycle. Natural breeding of elephants also can benefit from a rapid and accurate determination of the two LH surges found in elephants. There are three ELISAs available for determining the LH
surge; two are commercially-available assays and one is a laboratory in-house assay. Each vary in their cost, time to complete the assay, and ease of performing the procedures. Detection of the initial non-ovulatory peak in luteinizing hormone (LH1) is best accomplished by use of an in house LH assay, or use of the LH assay available from Dr. Nancy Dahl (UC-Davis, Davis, CA
95616 USA), both of which are quantitative assays for detection of LH. For cow-side use during estrus, the qualitative ELISA Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit (Symbiotics Corporation, Kansas City, MO 64163 USA) detects LH in elephants within 20 min. This assay requires a minimum of laboratory precision to detect the ovulatory LH peak (LH2).
Elephants are the only species known to exhibit a double LH peak during a single estrous cycle.2,4 Increased success of artificial insemination in elephants occurred partly in response to the ability to detect the LH1 surge about 21 days prior to the ovulatory LH2 surge that occurs at the end of a two to three day estrus.1 The first reports regarding detection of the double LH
surges were performed in laboratories using custom ELISA technology that require exacting procedures and two days to complete the quantitative assays.2,4 A semi-quantitative elephant LH ELISA that can be performed in the field in about 2.5 hr was developed at UC-Davis.3 A qualitative LH assay was developed for use in dogs and cats that uses a latex strip ELISA. The time for development of the test is 20 min and detects a LH surge greater than 1 ng/ml using serum. Elephants have LH1 and LH2 surges in the 4-16 ng/ml range,2,4 well within the detectable range for all of the assays described. The detection of the LH1 peak usually is from daily samples submitted weekly; this allows some efficiency of assay resources and provides at least a two-wk notice of LH2. However, accurate and timely detection of LH2 is needed at least daily and at times twice daily during estrus. The use of an LH assay which can be performed 'cow-side' and accurately detect LH2 is essential for successful AI and can be helpful in determining estrus status for natural breeding. The Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit from Symbiotics was developed for use in dogs and cats, but is effective in other species, including elephants, and meets these requirements.
Detection of LH1 provides information for predicting the LH2 surge and performance of assays that require more laboratory time and precision are useful since detection of LH1 is not as timesensitive as LH2 detection. Both of the quantitative assays have unique advantages. An inhouse assay can be set up, but requires greater preparation time, precision of laboratory procedures is more demanding, often takes two days to perform, and is more susceptible to environmental variables. The assay developed by UC-Davis costs about $5.00 per well, takes about 2.5 hr to perform and is more stable. However, for quantitative results the overhead costs of the standard curve requires about 16 wells ($90), plus two wells for each unknown sample. The UC-Davis assay can be set up as a qualitative test with high and low controls and no standard curve. This requires from three to six wells for a single sample. The Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit has a control built into each test strip and costs about $25.00 per sample. Because 'cow-side' testing possible using the Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit, I recommend its use for detection of LH2, although the UC-Davis Elephant ELISA is competitively priced and can be performed in a nearby temporary laboratory. Because timing is
critical in detecting LH2 and performing subsequent AI, I recommend using the Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit at the time of estrus, preceded by either one of the other assays for detecting LH1, depending on availability of laboratory labor and equipment.
1. Brown, J. L., F. Goritz, N. Pratt-Hawkes, R. Hermes, M. Galloway, L. H. Graham, C. Gray, S. L. Walker, A. Gomez, R. Moreland, S. Murray, D. L. Schmitt, J. G. Howard, J. Lehnhardt, B. Beck, A. Bellem, R. Montali, and T. B. Hildebrandt. 2004. Successful artificial insemination of an Asian elephant at the National Zoological Park. Zoo Biol. 23: 45-63.
2. Brown, J. L., D. L. Schmitt, A. Bellem, L. H. Graham, and J. Lehnhardt. 1999. Hormone secretion in the Asian elephant (
Elephas maximus): Characterization of ovulatory and anovulatory luteinizing hormone surges. Biol. Reprod. 61: 1294-1299.
3. Dahl, N. J., D. Olson, D. L. Schmitt, D. R. Blasko, R. S. Kristipati, and J. F. Roser. 2004. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the elephant (
Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus). Zoo Biol. 23: 65-78.
4. Kapustin, N., J. K. Critser, D. Olson, and P. V. Malven. 1996. Nonluteal estrous cycles of 3-week duration are initiated by anovulatory luteinizing hormone peaks in African elephants. Biol. Reprod. 55:1147-1154.

Shannon, G., Page, B.R., Mackey, R.L., Duffy, K.J., Slotow, R., 2008. Activity budgets and sexual segregation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Mammalogy 89, 467-476.
The activity budget hypothesis is 1 of 4 main hypotheses proposed to explain sexual segregation by large herbivores. Because of their smaller body size, females are predicted to have higher mass-specific energy requirements and lower digestive efficiency than males. As a result, females are expected to forage longer to satisfy their nutritional demands. Maintaining the cohesion of a mixed-sex group with differing activity budgets and asynchronous behavioral patterns is increasingly difficult, ultimately leading to spatial segregation of males and females. We tested this hypothesis using data (2002-2005) from 3 distinct populations of African elephants (Loxodonta africana), a species that exhibits marked sexual segregation. Group and individual behaviors were assessed at discrete points in time throughout the day, with a minimum of 10 min between consecutive records. Focal samples of individual male and female elephants also were recorded, with behavioral data logged every minute for 15 min. Data were grouped into 5 behavioral categories: drinking, resting, walking, feeding, and other. Neither activity rhythms nor feeding time varied significantly between the sexes and behavioral patterns were very similar. We propose that social and environmental factors influence behavioral rhythms to a greater extent than does body size, whereas increasing feeding time is only 1 method by which elephants can improve nutritional return. This is especially pertinent when considering their generalist foraging approach, substantial energy demands, and hindgut fermentation. We conclude that the activity budget hypothesis is unlikely to be the causal mechanism in the sexual segregation of African elephants, a finding that concurs with recent experimental and field research on a range of sexually dimorphic herbivores.

Shannon, G., Druce, D.J., Page, B., Eckhardt, H.C., Grant, R., Slotow, R., 2008. The utilization of large savanna trees by elephant in southern Kruger National Park . Journal of Tropical Ecology 24, 281-289.
The utilization of large savanna trees by elephant in southern Kruger National Park Graeme Shannon, Dave J. Druce, Bruce R. Page, Holger C. Eckhardt, Rina Grant and Rob SlotowJournal of Tropical Ecology (2008) 24: 281-289.
Elephants are believed to be one of the main ecological drivers in the conversion of savanna woodlands to grassland. We assessed the impacts of elephant on large trees (=5 m in height) in the southern section of the Kruger National Park. Tree dimensions and utilization by elephant were recorded for 3082 individual trees across 22 transects (average length of 3 km and 10 m wide). Sixty per cent of the trees exhibited elephant utilization and 4% were dead as a direct result of elephant foraging behaviour. Each height class of tree was utilized in proportion to abundance. However, the size of the tree and the species influenced the intensity of utilization and foraging approach. Sclerocarya birrea was actively selected for and experienced the highest proportional utilization (75% of all trees). Interestingly, the proportion of large trees that were utilized and pushed over increased with distance from permanent water, a result which has implications for the provision of water in the KNP. We conclude that mortality is likely to be driven by a combination of factors including fire, drought and disease, rather than the actions of elephant alone. Further investigation is also required regarding the role of senescence and episodic mortality.

Siegal-Willott, J., Isaza, R., Johnson, R., Blaik, M., 2008. Distal limb radiography, ossification, and growth plate closure in the juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 320-334.
Abstract: Eleven juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were evaluated radiographically to determine the relative times of growth plate closure and phalangeal ossification in the bones of the distal forelimb. Specifically, the first, second, and third phalanges of the third digit (D3) were evaluated, as well as the third phalanx of digits 1, 2, 4, and 5. All elephants were healthy at the time of examination. A retrospective evaluation of radiographs from six of the 11 juvenile elephants was also completed to augment the data set. This study reports the methods used to obtain high-quality radiographs of the distal juvenile elephant limb, ossification characteristics of the phalanges, relative times of growth plate closure within the proximal phalanges of D3, and a method for age estimation based on radiographic findings. This study will help clinicians in conducting elephant foot radiography, in evaluating foot radiographs in juvenile elephants, in recognizing normal versus pathologic change, and in estimating juvenile elephant age based on radiographic ossification characteristics and growth plate closure times. Consistent use of the proposed foot radiograph technique is recommended to facilitate foot disease recognition and as part of the annual examination of captive Asian elephants

Steenkamp, G., Ferguson, W.H., Boy, S.C., Ferreira, S.M., Bester, M.N., 2008. Estimating exposed pulp lengths of tusks in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana). J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 79, 25-30.
Abstract: Captive and wild African elephants frequently suffer tusk fractures. Several institutions shorten the tusks of captive elephants to reduce fractures and injury as a result of behaviour within enclosures. Fracturing or coronal amputations that expose pulp lead to pain for the elephant. Estimating coronal pulp lengths may thus help to minimise the risk of pulp exposure during amputations. We aimed to determine the length of the pulp beyond the lip margin from an external tusk characteristic. Tusks collected from elephants in Namibia and the Kruger National Park had similar morphological relationships. This statistical property allowed us to correct for missing data in our data sets. Pulp volume and pulp length correlated with tusk circumference at the lip. Even so, the circumference at the lip could not predict the length of the pulp in the crown external to the lip. Our findings suggest that tusks, irrespective of sex or age, amputated further than 300 mm from the lip should not expose pulp

Steinmetz, H.W., Eulenberger, U., Hatt, J.M. Daily clinical examinations in a herd of captive asian elephants. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  124. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
The captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is not self-sustaining.2 Poor reproduction and high juvenile mortality are key factors in the decreasing population. Infection with endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) is one of the major causes of death in the captive population, and has resulted in the loss of at least 40 captive animals.1 EEHV has been
responsible for the peracute death of two juvenile males at Zurich Zoo, Switzerland. Mortality due to peracute infection with EEHV mainly is seen in juveniles. Early detection of characteristic clinical signs of EEHV and immediate initiation of therapy are of crucial
importance due to its rapid progression. Based on past fatal EEHV experiences, Zurich Zoo modified its daily clinical health monitoring program to increase staff awareness of EEHV infection. Examinations have been incorporated into the daily routine and include daily evaluation of behaviour, appetite, colour of mucosal membranes and the measurement of body temperature; these examinations are performed by keepers. In our experiences, characteristic signs of acute EEHV infection are lethargy, anorexia, mild
colic, and cyanosis of the mucosal membranes. Results of temperature measurements have shown that best estimations of body temperature are done by measurement of the temperature in the centre of a fecal ball 5-9 min after defecation. Mean values of 36.5°C (± 0.2°C SD) are within published reference values, although adult elephants have shown significantly lower body temperature than juveniles. Establishment of individual reference values for each elephant is essential to detect unusual temperature peaks that may indicate possible EEHV viremia. The present study has shown that daily health examinations increase the awareness of keepers for
early signs of EEHV infection (e.g., peaks in body temperature and cyanotic mucosal membranes).
The authors thank B. Aeschbach and all elephant keepers for taking special care of our elephants. The work and organization of Ms. G. Hürlimann is gratefully appreciated.
1. Mikota, S. 2007. Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV). http://www.elephantcare.org/herpes.htm. cited: 10.04.2008:
2. Wiese, R. J. 2000. Asian elephants are not self-sustaining in North America. Zoo Biol. 19: 299-309.

Valeix, M., Fritz, H., Matsika, R., Matsvimbo, F., Madzikanda, H., 2008. The role of water abundance, thermoregulation, perceived predation risk and interference competition in water access by African herbivores. African Journal of Ecology 46, 402-410.
Abstract: In African savannas, surface water can become limiting and an understanding of how animals address the trade-offs between different constraints to access this resource is needed. Here, we describe water access by ten African herbivore species in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. and we explore four possible determinants of the observed behaviours: water abundance, thermoregulation, perceived predation risk and interference competition. On average, herbivores were observed to drink in 80% of visits to a waterhole. The probability of drinking was higher in 2003 (474 mm) than in 2004 (770 mm), and at the end of the dry season than at its beginning. For larger species, this probability may also be related to risks of interference competition with elephants or other herbivores. For smaller species, this probability may also be related to the perceived risk of predation. We also investigate the time spent accessing water to drink. The influence of herd size and the presence of young on the time spent accessing water for most species suggests that perceived predation risk plays a role. Themoregulation also affects this time: during the hottest periods, herbivores spend less time in open areas. unless when wind is strong, probably owing to evapotranspired heat loss.

Viijoen, J.J., Ganswindt, A., du Toit, J.T., Langbauer, W.R., 2008. Translocation stress and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging African savanna elephants. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 38, 146-152.
There are local populations of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) which have increased to levels where they are implicated in altering vegetation types. The local reduction of elephant numbers for wildlife management objectives can involve contraception, killing excess animals, or translocation to alternative habitats. The effects these management decisions can have on the physiological stress response of free-ranging African savanna elephants are still not fully understood. We examined the effect of translocation on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels of an African elephant family group, which was translocated within the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We found that translocation resulted in a significant increase in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels (up to 646 ng/g wet weight) compared to (1) pre-translocation levels in this group, (2) post-translocation levels in this group, and (3) levels measured in undisturbed 'control' groups in the area. However, the faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels had returned to <100 ng/g by the time the translocated animals had navigated their way back to their previous home range, covering 300 km in 23 days.

Woolley, L.A., Millspaugh, J.J., Woods, R.J., van Rensburg, S.J., Mackey, R.L., Page, B., Slotow, R., 2008. Population and individual elephant response to a catastrophic fire in Pilanesberg National Park. PLoS. One. 3, e3233.
Abstract: In predator-free large herbivore populations, where density-dependent feedbacks occur at the limit where forage resources can no longer support the population, environmental catastrophes may play a significant role in population regulation. The potential role of fire as a stochastic mass-mortality event limiting these populations is poorly understood, so too the behavioural and physiological responses of the affected animals to this type of large disturbance event. During September 2005, a wildfire resulted in mortality of 29 (18% population mortality) and injury to 18, African elephants in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. We examined movement and herd association patterns of six GPS-collared breeding herds, and evaluated population physiological response through faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (stress) levels. We investigated population size, structure and projected growth rates using a simulation model. After an initial flight response post-fire, severely injured breeding herds reduced daily displacement with increased daily variability, reduced home range size, spent more time in non-tourist areas and associated less with other herds. Uninjured, or less severely injured, breeding herds also shifted into non-tourist areas post-fire, but in contrast, increased displacement rate (both mean and variability), did not adjust home range size and formed larger herds post-fire. Adult cow stress hormone levels increased significantly post-fire, whereas juvenile and adult bull stress levels did not change significantly. Most mortality occurred to the juvenile age class causing a change in post-fire population age structure. Projected population growth rate remained unchanged at 6.5% p.a., and at current fecundity levels, the population would reach its previous level three to four years post-fire. The natural mortality patterns seen in elephant populations during stochastic events, such as droughts, follows that of the classic mortality pattern seen in predator-free large ungulate populations, i.e. mainly involving juveniles. Fire therefore functions in a similar manner to other environmental catastrophes and may be a natural mechanism contributing to population limitation. Welfare concerns of arson fires, burning during "hot-fire" conditions and the conservation implications of fire suppression (i.e. removal of a potential contributing factor to natural population regulation) should be integrated into fire management strategies for conservation areas

Zong, J.C., Latimer, E., Heaggans, S.Y., Richman, L.K., Hayward, G.S. Pathogenesis and molecular epidemiology of fatal elephant endotheliotropic disease associated with the expanding Proboscivirus genus of the betaherpesvirinae. Proceedings 2007 IEF Symposium.  23-35. 2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Aroch, I., King, R., Baneth, G., 2007. Hematology and serum biochemistry values of trapped, healthy, free-ranging rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and their association with age, sex, and gestational status. Vet. Clin. Pathol. 36, 40-48.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) is an herbivore prevalent from South Africa to Turkey, and a most common zoo animal. Although many studies of hyrax diseases and physiology are available, clinicopathologic data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish comprehensive hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for trapped, apparently healthy, free-ranging rock hyraxes using modern laboratory methods and to assess differences related to sex, gestation, and age. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 27 healthy, free-ranging hyraxes under anesthesia. Gender, body weight, and gestational status were recorded. Hematologic (n = 25) and serum biochemical (n = 22) analyses were performed using standard automated methodology. Data for male vs female, adult vs juvenile, and pregnant vs nonpregnant female hyraxes were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Associations between variables were assessed using Pearson's or Spearman rank correlation tests. RESULTS: Significant age- and sex-related, but not gestation-related differences were observed in several variables. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus concentration were significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults. A unique type of monocyte comprised 1-3% of leukocytes in 4 hyraxes. Markedly high serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was observed in most hyraxes. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of animals and the availability of sex, age, and gestational data in this study will be useful to zoo and wildlife veterinarians working with rock hyraxes. High serum concentrations of betahydroxybutyric acid in the rock hyrax, compared with dogs, cats, and ruminants, may be related to its unique digestive system. High CK activity may have been the result of a capture myopathy-like syndrome. The unique monocytes in hyraxes resemble those of elephants and are a novel finding in this species

Bicer, S., Reiser, P.J., 2007. Variations in apparent mass of mammalian fast-type myosin light chains correlate with species body size, from shrew to elephant
424. Am. J. Physiol Regul. Integr. Comp Physiol 292, R527-R534.
Abstract: A recent study (Bicer S and Reiser PJ. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 25: 623-633, 2004) suggested considerable variation in the apparent molecular mass (M(a)), deduced from electrophoretic mobility, in fast-type myosin light chains (MLCF), especially MLC1F, among mammalian species. Furthermore, there was an indication that MLC1F M(a) generally correlates with species body mass, over an approximately 4,000-fold range in body mass. The results also suggested that M(a) of other low-molecular-weight myofibrillar proteins is less variable and not as strongly correlated with body mass among the same species. The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that the M(a) of MLCs does, in fact, vary and correlate with species body mass. The electrophoretic mobilities of MLCF isoforms from 19 species, varying in size approximately 500,000-fold, were quantitated. The results confirm that the M(a) of MLC1F and MLC2F vary significantly among mammals, spanning a very broad range in body mass; the MLC1F M(a) varies more than that of other low-molecular-weight myofibrillar proteins; and there is a significant correlation between species body mass and MLC1F M(a). Differences in MLC1F M(a) among five species can be accounted for by differences in the reported amino acid sequence, especially the length of a common polyalanine region near the NH(2)-terminal actin-binding site. The possibility that the differences in MLC1F sequence among mammalian species, in and adjacent to the actin-binding region, are related to differences in modulation of cross-bridge kinetics in species with diverse locomotion kinetics is discussed

Bradshaw, G.A., Schore, A.N., 2007. How elephants are opening doors: Developmental neuroethology, attachment and social context. Ethology 113, 426-436.
Abstract: Ethology's renewed interest in developmental context coincides with recent insights from neurobiology and psychology on early attachment. Attachment and social learning are understood as fundamental mechanisms in development that shape core processes responsible for informing behaviour throughout a lifetime. Each field uniquely contributes to the creation of an integrated model and encourages dialogue between Tinbergen's four analytical levels: ethology in its underscoring of social systems of behaviour and context, psychology in its emphasis on socio-affective attachment transactions, and neuroscience in its explication of the coupled development of brain and behaviour. We review the relationship between developmental context and behaviour outcome as a topic shared by the three disciplines, with a specific focus on underlying neuroethological mechanisms. This interdisciplinary convergence is illustrated through the example of abnormal behaviour in wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that has been systematically observed in human-caused altered social contexts. Such disruptions impair normative socially mediated neuroendocrinological development leading to psychobiological dysregulation that expresses as non-normative behaviour. Aberrant behaviour in wild elephants provides a critical field example of what has been established in ex situ and clinical studies but has been largely absent in wild populations: a concrete link between effects of human disturbance on social context, and short- and long-term neuroethology. By so doing, it brings attention to the significant change in theories of behaviour that has been occurring across disciplines - namely, the merging of psychobiological and ethological perspectives into common, cross-species, human inclusive models.

Bulte, E.H., Damania, R., Van Kooten, G.C., 2007. The effects of one-off ivory sales on elephant mortality. Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 613-618.
Abstract: We revisited the debate about whether the 1999 one-off sale of ivory promoted elephant (Loxodonta africana) poaching in Africa. Complementing earlier work based on ivory seizure data, we considered data on elephant mortality in Zimbabwe and Kenya. Our findings present a mixed picture. At the local level there was some evidence that the one-off sale resulted in extra elephant killing, but this effect was relatively small (and probably short-lived). Although the data were too scanty to draw strong conclusions, decision-making about elephant management and the ivory trade has to continue and will necessarily be based on imperfect information for a long time to come. Our findings suggest that further experimenting with one-off sales may be beneficial from a conservation and development perspective.

Clauss, M., Steinmetz, H., Eulenberger, U., Ossent, P., Zingg, R., Hummel, J., Hatt, J.M., 2007. Observations on the length of the intestinal tract of African Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach 1797) and Asian elephants Elephas maximus (Linne 1735). European Journal of Wildlife Research 53, 68-72.
Abstract: The digestive tract of elephants is surprisingly short compared to other herbivorous mammals. However, measurements relating the length of the intestine to the body mass of the respective individual are rare. In this study, we report such data for an African elephant and an Asian elephant. Our data support the hypothesis that Asian elephants have a longer intestinal tract than their African counterparts. These findings are in accord with the observation of longer retention times and higher digestion coefficients in Asian as compared to African elephants. This difference between the species could be the reflection of slightly different ecological niches, with Asian elephants adapted to a natural diet with a higher proportion of grass.

Dehnhard, M., 2007. Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses. Gen. Comp Endocrinol. 151, 274-284.
Abstract: Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method for assessing sympathoadrenal activity in captive female elephants. We found a circadian variation in urinary noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE), adrenaline (epinephrine, Epi) and dopamine (DA) under short day length. Peak activity of noradrenaline and dopamine was noted at 3 a.m. Adrenaline showed a biphasic pattern with a minor peak recorded at 3 a.m. and a major peak 9 a.m. Under long-day photoperiodic conditions, simultaneous peaks of noradrenaline and adrenaline were again noted at 3 a.m. whereas dopamine does not appear to have a distinct circadian pattern under long-day length. A transfer of two elephant cows resulted in a marked increase in urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, confirming that the transfer represented a stressful event. During the peripartal period, noradrenaline concentrations increased and maximum concentrations were obtained at delivery. Daily measurements of urinary dopamine throughout the follicular phase revealed an increase in dopamine secretion close to ovulation. This increase might indicate a role of dopamine in the ovulatory mechanisms. These results suggest that changes in urinary catecholamine excretion reflect fluctuations in sympathoadrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress

Gunga, H.C., Suthau, T., Bellmann, A., Friedrich, A., Schwanebeck, T., Stoinski, S., Trippel, T., Kirsch, K., Hellwich, O., 2007. Body mass estimations for Plateosaurus engelhardti using laser scanning and 3D reconstruction methods. Naturwissenschaften 94, 623-630.
Abstract: Both body mass and surface area are factors determining the essence of any living organism. This should also hold true for an extinct organism such as a dinosaur. The present report discusses the use of a new 3D laser scanner method to establish body masses and surface areas of an Asian elephant (Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, Denmark) and of Plateosaurus engelhardti, a prosauropod from the Upper Triassic, exhibited at the Paleontological Museum in Tubingen (Germany). This method was used to study the effect that slight changes in body shape had on body mass for P. engelhardti. It was established that body volumes varied between 0.79 m(3) (slim version) and 1.14 m(3) (robust version), resulting in a presumable body mass of 630 and 912 kg, respectively. The total body surface areas ranged between 8.8 and 10.2 m(2), of which, in both reconstructions of P. engelhardti, approximately 33% account for the thorax area alone. The main difference between the two models is in the tail and hind limb reconstruction. The tail of the slim version has a surface area of 1.98 m(2), whereas that of the robust version has a surface area of 2.73 m(2). The body volumes calculated for the slim version were as follows: head 0.006 m(3), neck 0.016 m(3), fore limbs 0.020 m(3), hind limbs 0.08 m(3), thoracic cavity 0.533 m(3), and tail 0.136 m(3). For the robust model, the following volumes were established: 0.01 m(3) head, neck 0.026 m(3), fore limbs 0.025 m(3), hind limbs 0.18 m(3), thoracic cavity 0.616 m(3), and finally, tail 0.28 m(3). Based on these body volumes, scaling equations were used to assess the size that the organs of this extinct dinosaur have

Hildebrandt, T., Drews, B., Gaeth, A.P., Goeritz, F., Hermes, R., Schmitt, D., Gray, C., Rich, P., Streich, W.J., Short, R.V., Renfree, M.B., 2007. Foetal age determination and development in elephants. Proc. Biol. Sci. 274, 323-331.
Abstract: Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown-rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85-90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation.

Holdo, R.M., 2007. Elephants, fire, and frost can determine community structure and composition in Kalahari Woodlands. Ecol. Appl. 17, 558-568.
Abstract: Fire, elephants, and frost are important disturbance factors in many African savannas, but the relative magnitude of their effects on vegetation and their interactions have not been quantified. Understanding how disturbance shapes savanna structure and composition is critical for predicting changes in tree cover and for formulating management and conservation policy. A simulation model was used to investigate how the disturbance regime determines vegetation structure and composition in a mixed Kalahari sand woodland savanna in western Zimbabwe. The model consisted of submodels for tree growth, tree damage caused by disturbance, mortality, and recruitment that were parameterized from field data collected over a two-year period. The model predicts that, under the current disturbance regime, tree basal area in the study area will decline by two-thirds over the next two decades and become dominated by species unpalatable to elephants. Changes in the disturbance regime are predicted to greatly modify vegetation structure and community composition. Elephants are the primary drivers of woodland change in this community at present-day population densities, and their impacts are exacerbated by the effects of fire and frost. Frost, in particular, does not play an important role when acting independently but appears to be a key secondary factor in the presence of elephants and/or fire. Unlike fire and frost, which cannot suppress the woodland phase on their own in this ecosystem, elephants can independently drive the vegetation to the scrub phase. The results suggest that elephant and fire management may be critical for the persistence of certain woodland communities within dry-season elephant habitats in the eastern Kalahari, particularly those dominated by Brachystegia spiciformis and other palatable species

Hollister-Smith, J.A., Poole, J.H., Archie, E.A., Vance, E.A., Georgiadis, N.J., Moss, C.J., Alberts, S.C., 2007. Age, musth and paternity success in wild maleAfrican elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour 74, 287-296.
Abstract: Male African elephants experience intense intrasexual selection in gaining access to oestrous females, who represent a very scarce and highly mobile resource. An unusual combination of behavioural and physiologica ltraits in males probably reflects this intense selection pressure. Males show prolonged growth, growing throughout much or perhaps all of their long life span (ca. 60-65 years), and they show musth,a physiological and behavioural condition exclusive to elephants, which is manifested by bouts of elevated testosterone and aggression and heightened sexual activity. Most observed matings are by males over 35years of age and in musth, suggesting that age and musth are both important factors contributing to male reproductive success. Here we report the results of a genetic paternity analysis of a well-studied population of wild African elephants. Patterns of paternity for 119 calves born over a 22-year period showed significant effects of both age and musth on paternity success. Among males in musth, paternity success increased significantly with age until the very oldest age classes, when it modestly declined. When not inmusth, males experienced relatively constant, low levels of paternity success at all ages. Thus, despite the importance of both musth and age in determining male paternity success, adult males both in and out ofmusth, and of all ages, produced calves. In general, however, older males had markedly elevated paternitysuccess compared with younger males, suggesting the possibility of sexual selection for longevity in this species.

Houghton, P.J., Howes, M.J., Lee, C.C., Steventon, G., 2007. Uses and abuses of in vitro tests in ethnopharmacology: visualizing an elephant. J. Ethnopharmacol. 110, 391-400.
Abstract: Although in vivo models give a more accurate reflection of the activity of substances used in traditional medicine, their use in many countries is severely restricted due to economic and ethical concerns, and this has resulted in the widespread use of in vitro tests in ethnopharmacological studies. Such tests are very useful where the identity of compounds responsible for the biological activity of an extract is being investigated and where limited supplies of material are available, but it is important to consider a variety of factors before making over-predictive claims of that activity in one particular system explains the traditional use. The use of only one bioassay gives a very incomplete picture of the effect of the extract on the whole system involved. A symptom may be due to a number of disease states and, consequently, a variety of mechanisms may serve as targets for bioassays. In a similar way, it is very unusual for there to be only one target for a particular disease so a variety of test systems must be employed. Examples are given of batteries of test systems used to test plants and other materials with a reputation of being useful in wound-healing, diabetes, cancer and to treat cognitive decline associated with old age. In addition, consideration must be given to factors such as absorption into the body and metabolism of any substances present, either to decrease or increase the effect of the 'actives'

Kinahan, A.A., Inge-Moller, R., Bateman, P.W., Kotze, A., Scantlebury, M., 2007. Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana). Physiol Behav. 92, 560-565.
Abstract: The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body temperature (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) daily rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient temperature or their large size. No difference was found between the daily T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions

Kinahan, A.A., Pimma, S.L., van Aarde, R.J., 2007. Ambient temperature as a determinant of landscape use in the savanna elephant, Loxodonta africana. Journal of Thermal Biology 32, 47-58.
Abstract: Elephants occur in landscapes where temperatures can reach 50 degrees C. Due to their large size they may face physiological problems of dissipating heat during such high temperatures. In spite of this, no one seems to have considered ambient temperature as limiting landscape choices in elephants. We recorded hourly landscape use in free-ranging elephants using GPS collars. We also placed temperature data loggers in each of the landscapes, to obtain corresponding ambient temperatures for each hour. Our results suggest that elephants may select landscapes based on the rate at which temperatures changed and also for shade. We suggest that these selected variables provide a thermal benefit to individuals. As such, we propose that landscape use in elephants may be constrained by their thermal physiological requirements as well as other resources such as food and water.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., 2007. Measuring the effects of wildlife contraception: the argument for comparing apples with oranges. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 19, 548-552.
Abstract: There are few wildlife populations existing today that can be supported without some form of management. Wildlife fertility control, as one option, has moved from the research stage to actual application with a number of species, including wild horses, urban deer, captive exotic species and even African elephants, but this approach remains controversial in many quarters. Strident debate has arisen over the possible effects of contraception on behaviour, genetics, stress and even management economics, among other parameters. Part of the debate arises from the fact that critics often fail to recognise that some form of alternative management will be applied, and a second problem arises when critics fail to identify and demand the same concern for the consequences of the alternative management approaches. Thus, any rational debate on the merits or possible effects of contraceptive management of wildlife must also recognise all alternative management approaches and apply the same concern and questions to these alternative approaches--including 'no management'--as are currently being applied to fertility control. Only then will the stewards of wildlife be in a position to make wise and informed decisions about management options

Kokshenev, V.B., 2007. New insights into long-bone biomechanics: are limb safety factors invariable across mammalian species? J. Biomech. 40, 2911-2918.
Abstract: The most common function of limb bones is to provide stiff levers acting against muscles and gravity; however, a general mechanical description is not yet available. This research attempts such a description by modeling the bone's intrinsic biomechanics through elastic stability of solid long cylinders considered in non-critical, transient and critical mechanical regimes distinguished conventionally through maximal resisting elastic strains. The non-critical regime controls bones' adaptation through the safety factor (bone strength related to the peak functional stress) S2. This is ensured by bone-diameter (d=1/3+beta) and bone-length (l=1/3-beta) scaling exponents generally following from compressive-stress constraints. Prange's index (0<beta<<1) known from long-bone allometry is related to the components of bone-stress tensor. The tensor-stress components depend weakly on body size, whereas the overall peak limb-compressive stress in running animals remains almost weight-independent. The transient regime (1<S<2) activated in animal vigorous activity determines elastic stability of slightly curved limb bones by avoiding critical-stress bending via non-critical torsion and critical torsion via moderate bending. A physical description of the transient regime suggests a united mechanical pattern. Established under most general consideration, the scaling rules for peak strains, forces, momenta, and stresses challenge locomotor patterns distinguished in small mammals and birds, lizards, primates and non-primate mammals. Taking into account that all scaling rules are limited by S=1 associated with critical regime, reliable estimates for critical body masses are obtained for living elephants and extinct dinosaurs. Our study of the variable limb safety factor provides evidence that land-dwelling and land-moving giants are biomechanically accommodated to the peak bending and torsion functional stresses, respectively

Kusuda, S., Wakimoto, T., Nishimura, K., Kawakami, S., Okuda, K., Saito, E., Shimado, T., Sakamoto, H., Yanagimoto, H., Wada, S., Nishio, K., Fuji, H., Suzuki, T., Hashikawa, H., Kusunoki, H., Doi, O., 2007. Relationship between body temperature and ovarian cycle in Asian and African elephants. J Reprod Dev 53, 1099-1105.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether changes in body temperature are related to the ovarian cycle in elephants. Rectal, tongue or fecal temperature was measured for 2 Asian and 5 African elephants using an electric thermometer. Evaluation of ovarian cycles was based on the changes in serum or fecal progestin. The mean  SD values of the rectal, tongue, and fecal temperatures were 36.3  0.3 (2 Asian), 36.2  0.5 (1 African) and 36.5 0.3 C (4 African), respectively; the fecal temperature was the highest of the 3 temperatures (p<0.01). The longitudinal changes in body temperatures correlated with the ovarian cycle, with higher temperatures occurring during the luteal phase. The fecal temperatures of one acyclic African elephant did not change cyclically. These results suggest that measurement of body temperature can be used to easily evaluate the ovarian cyclicity of an individual animal, although
it might not be able to determine the ovarian cycle length.

Lacasse, C., Terio, K., Kinsel, M.J., Farina, L.L., Travis, D.A., Greenwald, R., Lyashchenko, K.P., Miller, M., Gamble, K.C., 2007. Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 38, 101-107.
Abstract: Mycobacterium szulgai was associated with mortality in two captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Lincoln Park Zoo. The first elephant presented with severe, acute lameness of the left rear limb. Despite extensive treatments, the animal collapsed and died 13 mo after initial presentation. Necropsy revealed osteomyelitis with loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas with intralesional M. szulgai. The second elephant collapsed during transport to another institution with no premonitory clinical signs. This animal was euthanized because of prolonged recumbency. Granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional M. szulgai was found at necropsy. Two novel immunoassays performed on banked serum samples detected antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in both infected elephants. It was not possible to determine when the infection was established or how the elephants were infected. When reviewing the epidemiology of this organism in humans, however, transmission between elephants seemed unlikely because human-to-human transmission of this organism has never been reported and a third elephant in the herd was not affected. In addition to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial organisms need to be considered potentially pathogenic in elephants

Mahmood, I., 2007. Application of allometric principles for the prediction of pharmacokinetics in human and veterinary drug development. Adv Drug Deliv Rev  2007 Aug 16; [Epub ahead of print].
Abstract: The concept of correlating pharmacokinetic parameters with body weight (termed as pharmacokinetic interspecies scaling) from different animal species has become a useful tool in drug development. Interspecies scaling is based on the power function, where the body weight of the species is plotted against the pharmacokinetic parameter of interest. Clearance, volume of distribution, and elimination half-life are the three most frequently extrapolated pharmacokinetic parameters. The predicted pharmacokinetic parameter clearance can be used for estimating a first-in-human dose. Over the years, many approaches have been suggested to improve the prediction of aforementioned pharmacokinetic parameters in humans from animal data. A literature review indicates that there are different degrees of success with different methods for different drugs. Interspecies scaling is also a very useful tool in veterinary medicine. The knowledge of pharmacokinetics in veterinary medicine is important for dosage selection, particularly in the treatment of large animals such as horses, camels, elephants, or other large zoo animals. Despite the potential for extrapolation error, the reality is that interspecies scaling is needed across many veterinary practice situations, and therefore will be used. For this reason, it is importantto consider mechanisms for reducing the risk of extrapolation errors that can seriously affect animal safety and therapeutic response. Overall, although interspecies scaling requires continuous refinement and better understanding, the rationale approach of interspecies scaling has a lot of potential during the drug development process.

Millspaugh, J.J., Burke, T., van Dyk, G., Slotow, R., Washburn, B.E., Woods, R.J., 2007. Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and   Safari Adventures. Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 1257-1260.
African elephants (/Loxodonta africana/) are intensively managed in southern Africa and are routinely translocated between reserves. Domesticated elephants are used for elephant-back safaris and interactions with guests. Understanding how elephants respond to such activities is critical because of welfare issues associated with both humans and elephants. We investigated the stress response (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolite secretion [FGM]) of working elephants in Letsatsing Game Reserve, South Africa, over 1 year to evaluate their response to transportation and ecotourism activities. We used free-ranging elephants in adjacent Pilanesburg National Park as controls. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were greatest prior to and during translocation and declined over the year. Within 1–2 months of transportation, FGM levels in working elephants became indistinguishable from those in wild elephants. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were higher during human interaction days than days without interaction. The highest observed FGM levels were associated with transportation and episodic loud noises. Transportation is a stressful activity for elephants, and ?3 months should be provided to translocated elephants to acclimate to their new surroundings. Although stress levels of elephants increased slightly when interacting with humans in the contexts we studied, evaluating interactions under a wider range of contexts is necessary to minimize danger to elephants and humans.

Oni, O., Sujit, K., Kasemsuwan, S., Sakpuaram, T., Pfeiffer, D.U., 2007. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in domesticated Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in north and west Thailand in 2004. Veterinary Record 160, 368-371.
Abstract: Serum samples from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the Kanchanaburi, Chiang Mai and Lampang provinces of Thailand were tested using the microscopic agglutination test against 22 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A titre of more than 1:100 was used as evidence of infection. In northern Thailand, the seroprevalence was 58 per cent and the prevalent serovars were Leptospira interrogans serovar Sejroe, Leptospira interrogans serovar Tarassovi, Leptospira interrogans serovar Ranarum and Leptospira interrogans serovar Shermani. In western Thailand, the seroprevalence was 57 per cent and the prevalent serovars were L Tarassovi, L Sejroe, L Ranarum, Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae and L Shermani. These results were similar to studies in domestic livestock and stray dogs in the Bangkok district. Among the elephants from Kanchanaburi there were significant associations between seropositivity and between the camp and between the prevalent serovars and the camp

Pan, D., 2007. Hippo signaling in organ size control. Genes Dev. 21, 886-897.
Abstract: The control of organ (or organism) size is a fundamental aspect of life that has long captured human imagination. What makes an elephant grow a million times larger than a mouse? How do our two hands develop independently of each other yet reach very similar size? How does a liver precisely regenerate its original mass when two-thirds of it is removed? The recent discovery of a novel signaling network in Drosophila, known as the Hippo (Hpo) pathway, might provide an important entry point to these fascinating questions. The Hpo pathway consists of several negative growth regulators acting in a kinase cascade that ultimately phosphorylates and inactivates Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator that positively regulates cell growth, survival, and proliferation. Components of the Hpo pathway are highly conserved throughout evolution, suggesting that this pathway may function as a global regulator of tissue homeostasis in all metazoan animals. Here, I provide a historical review of this potent growth-regulatory pathway and highlight outstanding questions that will likely be the focus of future investigation

Savage, V.M., West, G.B., 2007. A quantitative, theoretical framework for understanding mammalian sleep. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 104, 1051-1056.
Abstract: Sleep is one of the most noticeable and widespread phenomena occurring in multicellular animals. Nevertheless, no consensus for a theory of its origins has emerged. In particular, no explicit, quantitative theory exists that elucidates or distinguishes between the myriad hypotheses proposed for sleep. Here, we develop a general, quantitative theory for mammalian sleep that relates many of its fundamental parameters to metabolic rate and body size. Several mechanisms suggested for the function of sleep can be placed in this framework, e.g., cellular repair of damage caused by metabolic processes as well as cortical reorganization to process sensory input. Our theory leads to predictions for sleep time, sleep cycle time, and rapid eye movement time as functions of body and brain mass, and it explains, for example, why mice sleep approximately 14 hours per day relative to the 3.5 hours per day that elephants sleep. Data for 96 species of mammals, spanning six orders of magnitude in body size, are consistent with these predictions and provide strong evidence that time scales for sleep are set by the brain's, not the whole-body, metabolic rate

Sinclair, A.R., Mduma, S.A., Hopcraft, J.G., Fryxell, J.M., Hilborn, R., Thirgood, S., 2007. Long-term ecosystem dynamics in the Serengeti: lessons for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21, 580-590.
Abstract: Data from long-term ecological studies further understanding of ecosystem dynamics and can guide evidence-based management. In a quasi-natural experiment we examined long-term monitoring data on different components of the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem to trace the effects of disturbances and thus to elucidate cause-and-effect connections between them. The long-term data illustrated the role of food limitation in population regulation in mammals, particularly in migratory wildebeest and nonmigratory buffalo. Predation limited populations of smaller resident ungulates and small carnivores. Abiotic events, such as droughts and floods, created disturbances that affected survivorship of ungulates and birds. Such disturbances showed feedbacks between biotic and abiotic realms. Interactions between elephants and their food allowed savanna and grassland communities to co-occur. With increased woodland vegetation, predators' capture of prey increased. Anthropogenic disturbances had direct (hunting) and indirect (transfer of disease to wildlife) effects. Slow and rapid changes and multiple ecosystem states became apparent only over several decades and involved events at different spatial scales. Conservation efforts should accommodate both infrequent and unpredictable events and long-term trends. Management should plan on the time scale of those events and should not aim to maintain the status quo. Systems can be self-regulating through food availability and predator-prey interactions; thus, culling may not be required. Ecosystems can occur in multiple states; thus, there may be no a priori need to maintain one natural state. Finally, conservation efforts outside protected areas must distinguish between natural change and direct human-induced change. Protected areas can act as ecological baselines in which human-induced change is kept to a minimum

Stoeger-Horwath, A.S., Stoeger, S., Schwammer, H.M., Kratochvil, H., 2007. Call repertoire of infant African elephants: first insights into the early vocal ontogeny. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 3922-3931.
Abstract: African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) have a complex acoustic communication system, but very little is known about their vocal ontogeny. A first approach in ontogenetic studies is to define the call repertoire of specific age groups. Twelve hundred calls of 11 infant elephants from neonatal to 18 months of age recorded at the Vienna Zoo in Austria and at the Daphne Sheldrick's orphanage at the Nairobi National Park, Kenya were analyzed. Six call types were structurally distinguished: the rumble, the bark, the grunt, the roar (subdivided into a noisy-, tonal-, and mixed-roar), the snort, and the trumpet. Generally, within-call-type variation was high in all individuals. In contrast to adult elephants, the infants showed no gender-dependent variation in the structure or in the number of call types produced. Male infants, however, were more vocally adamant in their suckle behavior than females. These results give a first insight to the early vocal ontogeny and should promote further ontogenetic studies on elephants. Due to their vocal learning ability in combination with the complex fission-fusion society, elephants could be an interesting model to study the role of imitation in the vocal ontogeny of a nonprimate terrestrial mammal

Teixeira, C.P., Schetini de Azevedo, C., Mendl, M., Cipreste, C.F., Young, R.J., 2007. Revisiting translocation and reintroduction programmes: the importance of considering stress. Animal Behaviour 73,  1-13.
Abstract: It is widely known that the adverse effects of stress must be considered in animal conservation programmes. However, a full consideration of how and where stress occurs in animal conservation programmes has not been undertaken, especially in translocation and reintroduction programmes. The literature concerning these types of programmes shows high levels of mortality, despite researchers' consideration of the effects of stress. However, an analysis of the literature shows that many conservation biologists have only a superficial knowledge about stress. For example, most do not understand the importance of subclinical stress or the fact that the effect of successive stressors can be additive or accumulative. While most conservation biologists know that stress is bad for animal health, few have considered its adverse effects on cognitive abilities, which an animal needs to survive in the wild (e.g. memory). In this paper we conclude with suggestions for improving the efficiency of animal conservation programmes in terms of the number of animals surviving after reintroduction or translocation. The most important conclusion from this review of the literature is that there needs to be a greater interchange of information between animal welfare and animal conservation scientists.

Une, Y., Mori, T., 2007. Tuberculosis as a zoonosis from a veterinary perspective. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Aug 13; [Epub ahead of print].
Abstract: Tuberculosis is an important disease among many zoonoses, because both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, which are the major causes of tuberculosis, are highly pathogenic, infect many animal species and thus are likely to be the source of infection in humans. In particular, monkeys are highly susceptible to these bacteria and are important spreaders. Recently, two outbreaks of M. tuberculosis occurred in four different kinds of monkeys and humans were also infected with the disease in Japan. In zoos, tuberculosis was reported not only in monkeys, but also in several different kinds of animals, including elephants. Pets such as dogs and cats are believed to be generally less susceptible to M. tuberculosis, but in this article we introduce a case of infection from man to dog by close contact. Japan is one of the few countries that have been able to control M. bovis infection. In other countries, however, cases of bovine tuberculosis and human M. bovis infection have been reported, and thus further attention is still required in the future.

Wittemyer, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Douglas-Hamilton, I., 2007. Breeding phenology in relation to NDVI variability in free-ranging African elephant. Ecography 30, 42-50.
Abstract: The phenology of reproduction is often correlated with resource availability and is hypothesized to be shaped by selective forces in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. African elephants have the distinctive life history traits of a 22 month gestation and extended offspring investment, necessitating a long-term strategy of energy acquisition and reproductive expenditure to ensure successful offspring recruitment. We investigated the relationship between the reproductive phenology of a wild elephant population and resource availability using remotely sensed Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) data as a measure of time-specific primary productivity and hence forage quality. The initiation of female elephants' 3+yr reproductive bout was dependent on conditions during the season of conception but timed so parturition occurred during the most likely periods of high primary productivity 22 months later. Thus, the probability of conception is linked to the stochastic variation in seasonal quality and the phenology of parturition is related to the predictable seasonality of primary productivity, indicating elephants integrate information on known current and expected future conditions when reproducing. Juvenile mortality was not correlated with ecological variability, hence female fecundity rather than calf mortality appears to drive demographic processes in the study population. Extreme climatic events, such as those associated with the El Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO), acted to synchronize female fecundity in the population. This study suggests that the relationship between fecundity and ecological variability instigates the characteristic demographic fluctuations in elephant populations, rather than the mortality-driven fluctuations observed in many ungulate populations.

Yon, L., Kanchanapangka, S., Chaiyabutr, N., Meepan, S., Stanczyk, F.Z., Dahl, N., Lasley, B., 2007. A longitudinal study of LH, gonadal and adrenal steroids in four intact Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus) and one castrate African bull (Loxodonta africana) during musth and non-musth periods. Gen. Comp Endocrinol. 151, 241-245.
Abstract: During their annual musth cycle, adult African and Asian bull elephants have increased gonadal androgens (testosterone [T], dihydrotestosterone [DHT], androstenedione [A4]). Because musth is a physiologically and psychologically stressful time, this study was conducted to investigate whether the adrenal glands (stimulated by stress) increase production of both glucocorticoids and androgens during musth. Weekly serum samples were taken for 11-15 months from four intact adult Asian bull elephants, and from a castrate African bull elephant who exhibits musth. Testosterone, androstenediol (A5), A4, luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured in each sample. In three of the four intact bulls, all hormones measured increased during musth. Adrenal androgens were strongly correlated with LH and testicular androgens, though not to cortisol. None of the hormones measured in the castrate bull increased during his musth cycles. While the significance of adrenal activity in the elephant during musth has yet to be determined, this study provides evidence that the adrenal gland actively produces both glucocorticoids and androgens during musth in the Asian elephant

Agnew, D.W. Brain removal in charismatic mega-vertebrates:  A not-so-charismatic chore.  2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Examination of the central nervous system, both grossly and histologically, is an important component of a complete necropsy.  Cerebral nematodiasis, West Nile Virus infection, rabies, distemper, and organophosphate toxicity are just a few of the possible diseases with serious herd and public health significance which may only be diagnosed by careful analysis of the brain and/or spinal cord.  Removal of the brain is strongly suggested for a complete necropsy, and though it may appear a daunting task, a few guidelines and power tools will allow efficient removal of the brain and a complete necropsy.
It is usually preferred that the brain be removed whole by removal of the skull cap.  This technique has been well documented in necropsy texts and is commonly taught in veterinary schools.  Briefly, after skinning the skull, a saw or ax may be used to cut on either side from the foramen magnum and the occipital condyles cranially and dorsally in a circular pattern (Fig. 1). This technique is useful to examine the brain in situ and remove it whole, but unfortunately requires skinning of the head, can be time-consuming, and is almost impossible to complete in rhinoceros and elephants. There are many alternative approaches to brain removal, but the author has found the following methods using commonly available tools are quick, leave a relatively intact skull, and the brain itself is removed in two parts.  Certainly, the techniques presented here can be adapted to the individual preferences of the prosector and to other similar species.  If nothing else, a discussion of brain removal techniques will reinforce the importance of collecting a complete set of tissues during a post-mortem examination.

Ball, R., Fad, O. Serum cortisols in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in different management systems at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay.  2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  177-180. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Introduction:Cortisol is a widely accepted measure of stress in wild and captive animals.  In the past, captive elephant management systems have been criticized as potential stress inducers. The analysis of fecal cortisols is non-invasive and has been used to give long term evalutions of social and ecologic pressures in elephants and other species.  Salivary cortisols have also been used as a minimally invasive technique to measure social stress in captive elephants. The herd of Asian elephants at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay (BGT) changed from a traditional contact managemnt (free ccontact, FC) to a protected contact (PC) system utilizing positive-reinforcement based operant conditioning in 2004.  Serum cortisols were measured after the change and evaluated along wth banked samples from before. Long term sampling will be utilized to measure this transition but evaluating a single process will hopefully reflect the overall changes that can be expected with this change in management. While the individual variations are notable and other issues potentially confound the issue, it appears that this transition has lowered the serum cortisols in this herd.  In addition to serum cortisol measurements, the actual process of collecting the samples appears to be less stressful behaviorally. Pathologic processes should not be discounted when considering cortisol levels in evalauting stress in captive elephants.

Methods and Materials: Six female Asian elephants (Studbook numbers 30, 32, 304, 34, 35, 3) had been managed in a free contact system for many years.  Studbook number 304 was captive born and the others were wild born. Serum was collected intermittently during this management system to bank and for reproductive hormone analysis.  The elephants were placed in lateral recumbency by the handlers and blood collected from the ear vein on the caudal aspect of the down ear.  Reproductively sound animals were bled more frequently than the others.  Serum was frozen at -80°C until analyzed.  In August 2004, the first group of three animals was moved to the new barn and started the new positive-reinforcement, PC management system.  Within 5 wk, all animals had been moved over. All animals had been trunkwashed and were culture negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and negative on the newly developed MultiAntigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow technology (Rapid Test) developed to detected antigen to M. tuberculosis.  As the caudal aspect of the ear was used for sampling, each elephant was asked to station in a static chute designed to allow training of voluntary ear-presentation for manipulation and blood collection. Handler safety and creating an effective learning environment for the elephants required training each to proceed to the chute solo and station there calmly. General desensitization techniques were applied as session durations were increased. Within the chute,individual elephants had significant room to maneuver. Since no physical restraint or sedation was utilized,animals were trained to cooperate fully and voluntarily allowing for blood sampling and other husbandry procedures. By May 2005, training for voluntary bloods draws was firmly established on all six animals.  The first approximately 20 samples collected under this new system were matched against the samples collected in the previous system.  Samples were selected against if the animal had an active problem or was on therapy for any reason.  Several animals had undergone a drug trial and these samples were selected against as well.  Serum was again stored in -80°C freezer until analyzed at Conservation and Research Center (CRC) Endocrine Research Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA.  T-tests were utilized to discern any statistically significant results in the mean serum cortisols collected from animals before and after the implementation of the new husbandry systems.  Results were considered significant at alpha levels <0.05.

Results: The results and simple means of serum cortisols are listed in Table 1. Elephant No. 34 had essentially the same level of cortisol in both systems.  Elephant No. 32 had a reduction in the mean cortisol level of approximately 32% (20.84 versus 14.28 ng/ml) from the FC to the PC system.  Elephant No. 304 had a similar reduction of 37% in the mean cortisol (22.59 versus 14.29 ng/ml).  Statistical analyses results are reported here (means, standard deviations, t-test results).

Discussion: Serum was chosen over salivary and fecal sampling as a means to measure cortisol for several reasons. While fecal and salivary cortisol changes can reflect stresses within a reasonable period after the stressor (approximately 24 hr), serum cortisols is more likely to be reflective of the stressors closer to the moment of sampling.  The methodology is straightforward and less subject to the hazards for sample storage.  Timeliness of the sample result is also a benefit to serum sampling.  Blood sampling is a required husbandry practice in all elephant holding facilities belonging to the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA).  While fecal cortisol samples may be useful to look at over a long term period to evaluate the transition from FC to PC, we choose to additionally look at how one specific task, blood collection, was affected by making this transition.  Fecal cortisols have been used to measure stress in transportation and environmental stress in some species, but are not thought to be reflective of the stress in a diagnostic procedure itself.  For this evaluation, the lag time period between the potential stressor (blood collection) and the means to measure the stressor are same.  Elephants No. 304 and 32 both had significant reductions in the mean serum cortisol levels.  Both are in good health and had no apparent inflammatory problems.  The logical deduction here is that the sampling process itself is less stressful in the PC management than the FC management.  Elephant 34 and 30 had essentially the same level of serum cortisol as measured by the mean in the different management systems.  Elephant 34 has developed significant uterine leiomyomas during the time period measured.  Elephant 30 has recently had clinical bouts of anterior enteritis and is suspected of having a dietary hypersensitivity to wheat.  Even with these two pathologic processes, the serum cortisol did not rise.  Elevations in cortisol are quite often explained as resulting from social, behavioral, or environmental causes and little attention is paid to inflammatory causes.  Associations between infections and elevated cortisols  have been noted in wild animals.  It is reasonable to assume that if these two processes did not exist, these levels would indeed be lower. Based on the other two elephants, a reduction of approximately 30% could be expected. Overall it appears that collecting blood from the elephants at BGT in the PC system is less stressful that the FC system.  As this is an example of how the routine husbandry and medical husbandry is now conducted, it can be expected that the overall net effect is going to be lowered stress in the elephants at BGT. ……………………………………………………………………………

Bertschinger, H., Delsink, A., Kirkpatrick, J.F., Human, A., Grobler, D., van Altena, J.J. Management of elephant populations in private South African game reserves with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.  2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  283-285. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Control of African elephant populations has become an absolute necessity in a number of game reserves in southern Africa.  The two main methods used to control populations so far are culling and translocation. Culling, besides being regarded as inhumane and unacceptable in many quarters, is not suitable for smaller populations.  It requires that whole family units are culled simultaneously which could mean that in reserves with 10 to 50 elephants a considerable portion, if not the entire population, is killed.  As far as translocation is concerned, limited new space is available for elephants. The only alternative to the two above options is to control the rate of reproduction. The porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine has been used to successfully contracept wild horses and other wildlife species.  Work on the contraception of African elephants was initiated in the Kruger National Park in 1995 when the potential for using the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) was investigated. Subsequently the first field trials on wild elephants were carried out in Kruger and the results clearly showed that elephants could be contracepted with the pZP vaccine, although the efficacy achieved was 80%. During these field trials safety and reversibility werecould be demonstrated. In 2000 an elephant contraceptive program was initiated at Makalali Private Game Reserve, RSA, which has become the flagship model for immunocontrol in African elephants. The preliminary findings have been reported in three publications.During the first year, all 18 cows that were individually identified and older than 12 yr of age were treated.  During the next 4 yr the number of cows contracepted increased to 23 as young animal
s were added to the program. The standard vaccination procedure during the first year consisted of a primary vaccination (600 μg or 400 μg pZP with 0.5 ml Freund's modified complete adjuvant) followed by boosters (200 μg pZP with 0.5 ml Freund's incomplete adjuvant) at 3 to 6-wk intervals. Annual boosters to maintain antibody titers and contraceptive effect followed.  To date, the success rate on cows that have passed reserve-specific intercalving period of 56 mo has been 100%. The population stabilized within 3 yr by which time when all cows that had been pregnant at the time of first vaccination in 2000 had calved. Once again safety during pregnancy (14 cows pregnant at 2-21 mo gestation when first treated gave birth to normal healthy calves) as well as side effects that were limited to occasional lumps at the site of vaccination could be shown. Following ground darting, behavioral patterns returned to pre-darting status within 2 days. During 2003 and 2004 most boosters were administered from a helicopter; whereas, previously they had been done from a vehicle or on foot.  In all cases, drop-out darts were used. Time taken for vaccination from helicopter take-off to landing was about 30 min (1.5 min per cow; 30 min for total time). This required prior knowledge of the locations of family units or that an individual in each unit is radio-collared. Herds settled down much more quickly (1-2 days) than if darted from the ground. Since then we have vaccinated another 107 elephant cows in eight game reserves.  The cow populations have ranged from 4 to 43. In one of the reserves, Mabula, RSA, two of the four cows vaccinated have passed the mean intercalving intervals of the reserve with neither of them producing a calf. Treatment at the remaining reserves was initiated in 2004 or 2005 and it is too early to evaluate results.  The most difficult reserve in terms of the vaccination process was Welgevonden, RSA, (35 000 ha) with 43 cows.  The reserve is mountainous and heavily wooded. None of the elephants were collared and individuals could not be easily identified on the day of primary vaccination.  The total flying time during which individuals were identified and vaccinated was 4.5 hr.  Administration of the first booster took about 2 hr to locate and vaccinate each cow. Between the first and second booster the first rains occurred, followed by the spring flush of the vegetation. By the time the second booster was attempted late in November, the trees all had foliage. Only half the cows were located and darted because the elephants were very difficult to spot under the tree canopies.  The valuable lessons we learned from this were: 1) that helicopter vaccinations should be performed when most trees are bare, and 2) when larger populations are vaccinated repeatedly during the first year, one cow in each family unit should be radio-collared. This makes rapid location of each unit possible and cuts down on the major cost factor that is flying time. Elephant behavior is being monitored in all eight reserves where contraception is being applied. Because most of them have been contracepted recently, only the data from Makalali is available. The elephants at Makalali have been monitored intensively almost on a daily basis. To date, no anomalies in terms of aggressive or indifferent behavior with regards to nursing time, nursing behavior and calf proximity have been noted. No change in the cows' social hierarchy has been noted. Since January 2003, a total of 15 heats were observed in 10 cows (nine in 2003 and six in 2004) with four mating episodes. For the same period, 38 musth occasions were seen in five bulls (26 in 2003 and 12 in 2004). These occasions include musth displayed in the same bull during consecutive days or within the same musth cycle. The greatest occurrence of musth was recorded in the largest, dominant bull. Bulls were not observed harassing or separating cows off from their herds or calves as a result of increased estrous frequency. Thus, the Makalali program demonstrates that pZP does not cause herd fragmentation, harassment by bulls, change in rank and other negative behaviors normally associated with hormonal contraceptives. In conclusion we feel that it is important to emphasize the following points: The pZP vaccine can be used successfully to contracept African elephants The vaccine is safe during pregnancy and has no negative effect on birth or calf raising It has no side effects other than occasional swelling at the site of vaccination It is reversible Other than an increased incidence of heat no behavioral side effects were seen.

Bojesen, A.M., Olsen, K.E., Bertelsen, M.F., 2006. Fatal enterocolitis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) caused by Clostridium difficile
456. Vet. Microbiol. 116, 329-335.
Abstract: Two cases of fatal enteritis caused by Clostridium difficile in captive Asian elephants are reported from an outbreak affecting five females in the same zoo. Post mortem examination including histopathology demonstrated fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis. C. difficile was isolated by selective cultivation from two dead and a third severely affected elephant. Four isolates were obtained and found positive for toxin A and B by PCR. All isolates were positive in a toxigenic culture assay and toxin was demonstrated in the intestinal content from one of the fatal cases and in a surviving but severely affected elephant. PCR ribotyping demonstrated that the C. difficile isolates shared an identical profile, which was different from an epidemiologically unrelated strain, indicating that the outbreak was caused by the same C. difficile clone. It is speculated that the feeding of large quantities of broccoli, a rich source of sulforaphane, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of many intestinal microorganisms may have triggered a subsequent overgrowth by C. difficile. This is the first report of C. difficile as the main cause of fatal enterocolitis in elephants. The findings emphasize the need to regard this organism as potentially dangerous for elephants and caution is recommended concerning antibiotic treatment and feeding with diets containing antimicrobials, which may trigger an expansion of a C. difficile population in the gut

Cerling, T.E., Wittemyer, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Vollrath, F., Cerling, C.E., Robinson, T.J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., 2006. Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes
521. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 103, 371-373.
Abstract: We use chronologies of stable isotopes measured from elephant (Loxodonta africana) hair to determine migration patterns and seasonal diet changes in elephants in and near Samburu National Reserve in northern Kenya. Stable carbon isotopes record diet changes, principally enabling differentiation between browse and tropical grasses, which use the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, respectively; stable nitrogen isotopes record regional patterns related to aridity, offering insight into localized ranging behavior. Isotopically identified range shifts were corroborated by global positioning system radio tracking data of the studied individuals. Comparison of the stable isotope record in the hair of one migrant individual with that of a resident population shows important differences in feeding and ranging behavior over time. Our analysis indicates that differences are the result of excursions into mesic environments coupled with intermittent crop raiding by the migrant individual. Variation in diet, quantified by using stable isotopes, can offer insight into diet-related wildlife behavior

Dangolla, A., Ekanayake, D.K., Rajapakse, R.P., Dubey, J.P., Silva, I.D., 2006. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive elephants (Elephaus maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka
516. Veterinary Parasitology 137, 172-174.
Abstract: Serum samples collected during August 2003-June 2004 from 45 privately owned captive and 8 elephants from the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the direct modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in sera of 14 of 45 (32%) privately owned elephants with titers of 1:25 in three, 1:50 in three, 1:100 in three, 1:200 in three, and 1:400 in three elephants. The elephants from Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were seronegative. This is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in elephants in Sri Lanka

Drews, B., Göritz, F., Hermes, R., Streich, J.W., Rich, P., Schmitt, D., Lung, N., Renfree, M.B., Gaeth, A.P., Short, R.V., Hildebrandt, T.B. Morphological and ultrasonographic characterization of the embryonic development in elephants. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  82-83. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Fischer, M.S., Blickhan, R., 2006. The tri-segmented limbs of therian mammals: kinematics, dynamics, and self-stabilization--a review
397. J. Exp. Zool. A Comp Exp. Biol. 305, 935-952.
Abstract: The evolution of therian mammals is to a large degree marked by changes in their motion systems. One of the decisive transitions has been from the sprawled, bi-segmented to the parasagittal, tri-segmented limb. Here, we review aspects of the tri-segmented limb in locomotion which have been elucidated in our research groups in the last 10 years. First, we report the kinematics of the tri-segmented therian limb from mouse to elephant in order to explore general principles of the therian limb configuration and locomotion. Torques will be reported from a previous paper (Witte et al., 2002. J Exp Biol 205:1339-1353) for a better understanding of the anti-gravity work of all limb joints. The stability of a limb in z-configuration will be explained and its advantage with respect to other potential solutions from modeling will be discussed. Finally, we describe how the emerging concept of self-stability can be explained for a tri-segmented leg template and how it affects the design of the musculoskeletal system and the operation of legs during locomotion. While locomotion has been considered as mainly a control problem in various disciplines, we stress the necessity to reduce control as much as possible. Central control can be cheap if the limbs are "intelligent" by means of their design. Gravity-induced movements and self-stability seem to be energy-saving mechanisms

Fraunfelder, F.T., Finnegan, M., Wilson, D.J., 2006. Conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasm in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 37, 424-426.
Abstract: An adult female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) presented with an enlarging nasal limbal mass of the left eye. The mass was excised and the surgical bed treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Histopathologic examination of the excised tissue showed the mass to be a superficial dysplastic ocular lesion, or conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasm. A 5-yr follow-up period has passed without complications or recurrence, suggesting that as is the case in humans (Homo sapiens), excision and cryotherapy is an effective treatment for these lesions in elephants. This is the first report of any ocular neoplasia in an elephant

Galanti, V., Preatoni, D., Martinoti, A., Wauters, L.A., Tosi, G., 2006. Space and habitat use of the African elephant in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, Tanzania: Implications for conservation. Mammalian Biology 71, 99-114.
Abstract: As migratory animals, sustainable management of African elephant populations, both within and around protected areas, is a major challenge in the conservation policy of many African countries. We captured seven female elephants, representative members of family groups, in different parts of Tarangire National Park (TNP), Tanzania, and used GPS satellite radio-tracking (November 1997-June 2000) to monitor their space and habitat use and seasonal migrations throughout wet and dry seasons. Patterns of home range overlap revealed the existence of two Large clans that occupied the north-central and southern parts of TNP, respectively. At the end of the dry season, elephants from the southern clan migrated about 100 km southeast of the park boundary, those from the northern clan remained mostly inside the park, or used periodically wet-season core areas in the nearby Game Controlled Areas. No natural mortality occurred during the study, but two elephants were poached outside the park. Human disturbance also affected activity patterns, and elephants were Less active at day outside than inside the park. Home range size varied from 477 to 1078 km(2) for the northern elephants, and from 1630 to 5060 km(2) for the southern elephants. Migration routes were characterised by higher cover (open and closed forest) than core areas. Our results indicate that elephant management must be considered across park boundaries and that migration corridors must be protected against human disturbance and land cultivation. Society problems Linked to elephant conservation can be solved by creating alternative, sustainable, use of natural resources that enhance the livelihood of local communities.

Gough, K.F., Kerley, G.I.H., 2006. Demography and population dynamics in the elephants Loxodonta africana of Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa: Is there evidence of density dependent regulation? Oryx 40, 434-441.
Abstract: Density dependence of the Addo Elephant National Park (South Africa) elephants Loxodonta africana was assessed using a long-term data set. Estimated carrying capacity is 0.1-0.5 elephants km(-2) but stocking rates have been up to 4 elephants km(-2). Population growth rate was found to be positively correlated with increasing density. There was no relationship between birth rate, the age of first calving or calf sex ratio and elephant density but there was a positive relationship between birth rate and rainfall during conception year. Mortality rates, particularly for juveniles, were low, and mean inter-calf interval was 3.3 years. There is no evidence of density dependent regulation in this population, despite the population being consistently above the estimated sustainable carrying capacity and a loss of phytomass and biodiversity. This is interpreted in light of the characteristics of the a seasonal habitat, succulent thicket vegetation and the ability of elephants to utilize accumulated vegetation biomass. These findings indicate that density dependence should not be considered as an option in the control of elephant numbers in this Park, or where elephant resources are not seasonally limited.

Helke, K.L., Mankowski, J.L., Manabe, Y.C., 2006. Animal models of cavitation in pulmonary tuberculosis
534. Tuberculosis. (Edinb. ) 86, 337-348.
Abstract: Transmission of tuberculosis occurs with the highest frequency from patients with extensive, cavitary, pulmonary disease and positive sputum smear microscopy. In animal models of tuberculosis, the development of caseous necrosis is an important prerequisite for the formation of cavities although the immunological triggers for liquefaction are unknown. We review the relative merits and the information gleaned from the available animal models of pulmonary cavitation. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction important to the formation of cavities may lead to new strategies to prevent cavitation and thereby, block transmission

Henderson, D.M., 2006. Burly gaits: Centers of mass, stability, and the trackways of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26, 907-921.
Abstract: The narrow- and wide-gauge trackways attributed to sauropod dinosaurs are hypothesized to be a consequence of the relative positions of their centers of mass. This hypothesis was tested using three-dimensional, trackwayproducing computer models of two sauropods and studies of Asian elephants. Centers of mass of sauropod models were computed using density distributions that reflect the high degree of pneumatization of the skeletons and air sacs within the body. A close correspondence was found between the relative areas of hand and foot prints in different trackways and the relative fractions of the body weight borne by the forefeet and hindfeet in the different types of sauropods inferred to have made the trackways. Experimental studies of Asian elephants corroborated the close correspondence between relative areas of the hindfeet and forefeet and body weight distribution. Replicating actual sauropod trackways with the walking models enabled testing of proposed gaits for a sauropod model. Brachiosaurus brancai, with its more centrally positioned center of mass, was stable and possessed a wide safety margin only when replicating a wide trackway. Conversely, Diplodocics carnegii, with a more posteriorly placed center of mass, was most stable when replicating a narrow trackway. A trend for large sauropods (> 12 tons), independent of clade, to have more anteriorly positioned centers of mass was identified, and it is proposed that all large sauropods were restricted to producing wide-gauge trackways for stability reasons. The primitive gait state for Sauropodomorpha was determined to be one that produced narrow-gauge trackways.

Hutchins, M., 2006. Death at the Zoo: The Media, Science, and Reality. Zoo Biology 25, 101-115.
Abstract: Media characterizations of zoo and aquarium animal deaths were randomly monitored on the internet for a 20-month period (September 2003-May 2005). Based on 148 samples collected, it was possible to classify articles into one of four categories, which were operationally defined: 1) dispassionate observers; 2) accusers; 3) sympathizers; and 4) balancers. In addition, with the notable exception of seven cases, all of the articles examined focused on large, charismatic mammals, such as gorillas, dolphins, lions, and elephants. Although a majority
of the articles examined (70.4%) were either dispassionate and objective or sympathetic, nearly a third (29.6%) were either accusatory or attempted to balance the accusatory statements of animal rights activists with sympathetic statements from zoo professionals. Recommendations are offered for how zoos should deal with the increasing media and public interest in zoo animal deaths, including: 1) a greater commitment to studying the reasons for mortality in a wide variety of species; and 2) an increased investment in record keeping and analysis,
which should allow zoos to calculate average life spans in animal populations and to monitor and assess the risk of certain lethal diseases on a real-time basis. Comparisons are drawn between zoo veterinary practices and human medicine, which are both inexact sciences. Suggestions are made for how the public and key decision-makers can distinguish between media reports on zoo animal deaths that are legitimate cause for concern vs. those that are sensationalist and meant to generate controversy and sell papers. A greater focus on the science of zoo animal death is necessary for accredited zoos to maintain the public's confidence in their animal care practices.

Hutchinson, J.R., Schwerda, D., Famini, D.J., Dale, R.H., Fischer, M.S., Kram, R., 2006. The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size
410. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 3812-3827.
Abstract: For centuries, elephant locomotion has been a contentious and confusing challenge for locomotion scientists to understand, not only because of technical difficulties but also because elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s(-1) to the fastest reliably recorded speed for elephants, 6.8 m s(-1). These data reveal that African and Asian elephants have some subtle differences in how size-independent kinematic parameters change with speed. Although elephants use a lateral sequence footfall pattern, like many other quadrupeds, they maintain this footfall pattern at all speeds, shifting toward a 25% phase offset between limbs (singlefoot) as they increase speed. The duty factors of elephants are greater for the forelimbs than for the hindlimbs, so an aerial phase for the hindquarters is reached at slower speeds than for the forequarters. This aerial phase occurs at a Froude number of around 1, matching theoretical predictions. At faster speeds, stance and swing phase durations approach asymptotes, with the duty factor beginning to level off, concurrent with an increase in limb compliance that likely keeps peak forces relatively low. This increase of limb compliance is reflected by increased compression of the hindlimbs. Like other tetrapods, smaller elephants are relatively more athletic than larger ones, but still move very similarly to adults even at <500 kg. At any particular speed they adopt greater relative stride frequencies and relative stride lengths compared to larger elephants. This extends to near-maximal locomotor performance as well - smaller elephants reach greater Froude numbers and smaller duty factors, hence likely reach relatively greater peak loads on their limbs and produce this force more rapidly. A variety of lines of kinematic evidence support the inference that elephants change their mechanics near a Froude number of 1 (if not at slower speeds), at least to using more compliant limbs, if not spring-like whole-body kinetics. In some ways, elephants move similarly to many other quadrupeds, such as increasing speed mainly by increasing stride frequency (except at fast speeds), and they match scaling predictions for many stride parameters. The main difference from most other animals is that elephants never change their footfall pattern to a gait that uses a whole-body aerial phase. Our large dataset establishes what the normal kinematics of elephant locomotion are, and can also be applied to identify gait abnormalities that may signal musculoskeletal pathologies, a matter of great importance to keepers of captive elephants

Isaza, R., Davis, R.D., Moore, S.M., Briggs, D.J., 2006. Results of vaccination of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with monovalent inactivated rabies vaccine. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67, 1934-1936.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the humoral immune response of Asian elephants to a primary IM vaccination with either 1 or 2 doses of a commercially available inactivated rabies virus vaccine and evaluate the anamnestic response to a 1-dose booster vaccination. ANIMALS: 16 captive Asian elephants. PROCEDURES: Elephants with no known prior rabies vaccinations were assigned into 2 treatment groups of 8 elephants; 1 group received 1 dose of vaccine, and the other group received 2 doses of vaccine 9 days apart. All elephants received one or two 4-mL IM injections of a monovalent inactivated rabies virus vaccine. Blood was collected prior to vaccination (day 0) and on days 9, 35, 112, and 344. All elephants received 1 booster dose of vaccine on day 344, and a final blood sample was taken 40 days later (day 384). Serum was tested for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies by use of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. RESULTS: All elephants were seronegative prior to vaccination. There were significant differences in the rabies geometric mean titers between the 2 elephant groups at days 35, 112, and 202. Both groups had a strong anamnestic response 40 days after the booster given at day 344. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results confirmed the ability of Asian elephants to develop a humoral immune response after vaccination with a commercially available monovalent inactivated rabies virus vaccine and the feasibility of instituting a rabies virus vaccination program for elephants that are in frequent contact with humans. A 2-dose series of rabies virus vaccine should provide an adequate antibody response in elephants, and annual boosters should maintain the antibody response in this species

Josh, D.C., Berger, J., Bock, C.E., Bock, J.H., Burney, D.A., Estes, J.A., Foreman, D., Martin, P.S., Roemer, G.W., Smith, F.A., Soule, M.E., Greene, H.W., 2006. Pleistocene rewilding: an optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation
386. Am. Nat. 168, 660-681.
Abstract: Large vertebrates are strong interactors in food webs, yet they were lost from most ecosystems after the dispersal of modern humans from Africa and Eurasia. We call for restoration of missing ecological functions and evolutionary potential of lost North American megafauna using extant conspecifics and related taxa. We refer to this restoration as Pleistocene rewilding; it is conceived as carefully managed ecosystem manipulations whereby costs and benefits are objectively addressed on a case-by-case and locality-by-locality basis. Pleistocene rewilding would deliberately promote large, long-lived species over pest and weed assemblages, facilitate the persistence and ecological effectiveness of megafauna on a global scale, and broaden the underlying premise of conservation from managing extinction to encompass restoring ecological and evolutionary processes. Pleistocene rewilding can begin immediately with species such as Bolson tortoises and feral horses and continue through the coming decades with elephants and Holarctic lions. Our exemplar taxa would contribute biological, economic, and cultural benefits to North America. Owners of large tracts of private land in the central and western United States could be the first to implement this restoration. Risks of Pleistocene rewilding include the possibility of altered disease ecology and associated human health implications, as well as unexpected ecological and sociopolitical consequences of reintroductions. Establishment of programs to monitor suites of species interactions and their consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health will be a significant challenge. Secure fencing would be a major economic cost, and social challenges will include acceptance of predation as an overriding natural process and the incorporation of pre-Columbian ecological frameworks into conservation strategies

Joubert, D., 2006. Hunting behaviour of lions (Panthera leo) on elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Chobe National Park, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology 44, 279-281.
Abstract: Megaherbivores like elephants and rhinos have been regarded as invulnerable to predation as adults (Owen-Smith, 1988; G. B. Schaller pers. comm.), although Guthrie (1990) suggests that lions hunted such large prey during the Pleistocene. Recently, there have been a number of observations of elephants killed by lions in northern Botswana, going as far back as 1985 (M. Slogrove pers. comm.). The hunting behaviour of lions on elephants, and the age and sex structure of the elephants killed, were observed at a waterhole in the Savute region of Chobe National Park. The first observed elephant kill was recorded in August 1991. Systematic records of elephants killed were made between 1993 and 1996.

Keay, J.M., Singh, J., Gaunt, M.C., Kaur, T., 2006. Fecal glucocorticoids and their metabolites as indicators of stress in various mammalian species: a literature review. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37, 234-244.

Kilgallon, C., Flach, E., Boardman, W., Routh, A., Strike, T., Jackson, B. Biochemical markers of bone in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a cross sectional analysis of two serum markers of bone formation and one serum marker of bone resorption.
2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  183-184. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Conventional radiography has traditionally been employed for investigations of skeletal disease of captive elephants.  However, it is predominantly cortical bone which is assessed by standard radiography, and quantitative assessment of bone is only possible when pathology is advanced. A precise and relatively non-invasive method of quantitatively assessing bone, in isolation, or as a compliment to standard radiography would have positive health and welfare implications for elephants, because skeletal disease is prevalent in both extant species in captivity. The advent of biochemical markers of bone metabolism represents a watershed in non-invasive diagnostics of normal bone homeostasis and pathology in humans and animals alike. These markers are classified as markers of formation and resorbtion and are comprising of enzymes expressed by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, or organic compounds released during the synthesis or resorption of bone matrix. In this study, two human enzyme immunoassays (METRA™ Osteocalcin EIA kit, METRA™ BAP EIA kit, Quidel Corporation, San Diego, California 92121 USA) and one radioimmunoassay (UniQ™ ICTP RIA, Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) were validated and used to measure osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the C-terminal telopeptide domain of type I collagen (ICTP) respectively, three biochemical markers of bone, in serum procured from a small sample population (n=12) of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) of various ages, from three European zoos. Serum from four adult females sampled on 7 days consecutively were as also analyzed to assess the existence and magnitude of the intra-individual, day-to-day variability of these markers. Excellent cross reactivity was found to exist between assay antibodies and elephants marker antigens. Significant inverse correlations were found between the age of the animals and concentrations of all three markers. Strong significant positive correlations were also noted between serum concentrations of all three markers. No statistically significant intra-individual variability was found over 7 days in the population of adult females for any of the markers assessed. The results suggest a promising role for biochemical markers of bone turnover in monitoring skeletal growth and bone disease in captive Asian elephants.

Langbauer, W., Philp, K., Frydman, G., Galvanek, J. The effect of human contact on African elephant heart rate. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  253-255. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Larke, A., Crews, D.E., 2006. Parental investment, late reproduction, and increased reserve capacity are associated with longevity in humans. J Physiol Anthropol 25, 119-131.
Abstract: Throughout the living world trade-offs between reproductive success and longevity have been observed. In general, two extremes of life history patterning are reported, r- and K-selected species. The latter tend toward larger body sizes, few offspring from any one pregnancy, few offspring over the female reproductive span, longer life spans, and greater parental investment (PI: all efforts and expenses associated with the production, gestation, post-natal care, feeding, and protection of young) (e.g., whales, elephants, hominids). r-selected species tend toward smaller body size, multiple births/litters per pregnancy, female production of many gametes and offspring over the life span, and low levels of PI (e.g., most plants, insects, mice). These differences have significant influences on physiological variation among human populations.Across human samples, reproductive success (RS: the number of offspring successfully birthed and reared to reproductive age) has been reported to vary positively, negatively, and not at all with longevity of women. This complexity may be in part due to the fact that both early-life and late-life fecundity are associated with longevity in women, while total parity seems a poor gauge of female longevity in humankind. Large variations in associations of RS with longevity in women suggest that multiple factors may confound this association. One confounding factor is that among women, RS is largely determined not by fecundity, but by the quality of PI available to offspring. Among modern humans, PI is more complex, longer lasting (both relatively and absolutely), and extensive than for any other ammal. This suggests that modern human life history is a reflection of the co-evolution of longevity and extensive PI as part of our species' biocultural evolution. The need for long-term PI has greatly shaped human physiological variation and patterns of longevity.

Liang, Y., McMeeking, R.M., Evans, A.G., 2006. A finite element simulation scheme for biological muscular hydrostats
478. Journal of Theoretical Biology 242, 142-150.
Abstract: An explicit finite element scheme is developed for biological muscular hydrostats such as squid tentacles, octopus arms and elephant trunks. The scheme is implemented by embedding muscle fibers in finite elements. In any given element, the fiber orientation can be assigned arbitrarily and multiple muscle directions can be simulated. The mechanical stress in each muscle fiber is the sum of active and passive parts. The active stress is taken to be a function of activation state, muscle fiber shortening velocity and fiber strain; while the passive stress depends only on the strain. This scheme is tested by simulating extension of a squid tentacle during prey capture; our numerical predictions are in close correspondence with existing experimental results. It is shown that the present finite element scheme can successfully simulate more complex behaviors such as torsion of a squid tentacle and the bending behavior of octopus arms or elephant trunks

Lutze-Wallace, C., Turcotte, C., 2006. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Canada for calendar year 2005
401. Canadian Veterinary Journal 47, 871-873.

Mahmood, I., Martinez, M., Hunter, R.P., 2006. Interspecies allometric scaling. Part I: prediction of clearance in large animals
415. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 29, 415-423.
Abstract: Interspecies scaling is a useful tool for the prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters from animals to humans, and it is often used for estimating a first-time in human dose. The knowledge of pharmacokinetics in veterinary species is important for dosage selection, particularly in the treatment of large zoo animal species, such as elephants, giant cats and camels, for which pharmacokinetic data are scant. Therefore, the accuracy in clearance predictions in large animal species, with and without the use of correction factors (rule of exponents), and the impact of species selection in the prediction of clearance in large animal species was examined. Based upon this analysis, it was determined that there is a much larger risk of inaccuracies in the clearance estimates in large animal species when compared with that observed for humans. Unlike in humans, for large animal species, correction factors could not be applied because there was no trend between the exponents of simple allometry and the appropriate correction factor for improving our predictions. Nevertheless, we did see an indication that the exponents of simple allometry may alert us as to when the predicted clearance in the large animal may be underestimated or overpredicted. For example, if a large animal is included in the scaling, the predicted clearance in a large animal should be considered overestimated if the exponent of simple allometry is >1.3. Despite the potential for extrapolation error, the reality is that allometric scaling is needed across many veterinary practice situations, and therefore will be used. For this reason, it is important to consider mechanisms for reducing the risk of extrapolation errors that can seriously affect target animal safety, therapeutic response, or the accuracy of withdrawal time predictions

Martinez, M., Mahmood, I., Hunter, R.P., 2006. Interspecies allometric scaling: prediction of clearance in large animal species: part II: mathematical considerations
414. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 29, 425-432.
Abstract: Interspecies scaling is a useful tool for the prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters from animals to humans, and it is often used for estimating a first-time in human dose. However, it is important to appreciate the mathematical underpinnings of this scaling procedure when using it to predict pharmacokinetic parameter values across animal species. When cautiously applied, allometry can be a tool for estimating clearance in veterinary species for the purpose of dosage selection. It is particularly valuable during the selection of dosages in large zoo animal species, such as elephants, large cats and camels, for which pharmacokinetic data are scant. In Part I, allometric predictions of clearance in large animal species were found to pose substantially greater risks of inaccuracies when compared with that observed for humans. In this report, we examine the factors influencing the accuracy of our clearance estimates from the perspective of the relationship between prediction error and such variables as the distribution of body weight values used in the regression analysis, the influence of a particular observation on the clearance estimate, and the 'goodness of fit' (R(2)) of the regression line. Ultimately, these considerations are used to generate recommendations regarding the data to be included in the allometric prediction of clearance in large animal species

Morris, S., Humphreys, D., Reynolds, D., 2006. Myth, marula, and elephant: an assessment of voluntary ethanol intoxication of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) following feeding on the fruit of the marula tree (Sclerocarya birrea)
485. Physiol Biochem. Zool. 79, 363-369.
Abstract: Africa can stir wild and fanciful notions in the casual visitor; one of these is the tale of inebriated wild elephants. The suggestion that the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) becomes intoxicated from eating the fruit of the marula tree (Sclerocarya birrea) is an attractive, established, and persistent tale. This idea now permeates the African tourist industry, historical travelogues, the popular press, and even scholastic works. Accounts of ethanol inebriation in animals under natural conditions appear mired in folklore. Elephants are attracted to alcohol, but there is no clear evidence of inebriation in the field. Extrapolating from human physiology, a 3,000-kg elephant would require the ingestion of between 10 and 27 L of 7% ethanol in a short period to overtly affect behavior, which is unlikely in the wild. Interpolating from ecological circumstances and assuming rather unrealistically that marula fruit contain 3% ethanol, an elephant feeding normally might attain an ethanol dose of 0.3 g kg(-1), about half that required. Physiological issues to resolve include alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol clearance rates in elephants, as well as values for marula fruit alcohol content. These models were highly biased in favor of inebriation but even so failed to show that elephants can ordinarily become drunk. Such tales, it seems, may result from "humanizing" elephant behavior

Oni, O., Wajjwalku, W., Boodde, O., Chumsing, W., 2006. Canine distemper virus antibodies in the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus)
407. Veterinary Record 159, 420-421.

Reid, C.E., Hildebrandt, T.B., Marx, N., Hunt, M., Thy, N., Reynes, J.M., Schaftenaar, W., Fickel, J., 2006. Endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) infection. The first PCR-confirmed fatal case in Asia
436. Vet. Q. 28, 61-64.
Abstract: Since 1995, 4 suspected cases of Endotheliotropic Elephant Herpes Virus (EEHV) infection, i.e. based on clinical presentation, have occurred in Asia without resulting in epidemic outbreaks as expected. In order to confirm the presence of EEHV on the continent of Asia, viral DNA particles from liver samples of a wild-caught 3-year-old elephant found dead at a Cambodian elephant sanctuary and clinically diagnosed with EEHV, were PCR processed using known EEHV strain primers. The presence of EEHV viral nucleic acids was confirmed and the nucleic acids had a 99% sequence similarity to the U.S.A strain (gene bank locus: AF117265) and 97% sequence similarity to the European strain (gene bank locus: AF354746) assigning this case to the EEHV-1 cluster. More than the confirmation of EEHV on the continent of Asia, is the phylogenic relationship to the USA and European strains with no corresponding contact or transport of USA or European elephants to Asia. Thus, this brings many of the traditional theories into question. Although almost forgotten, this disease is still ramped in captive elephant populations worldwide and continues to devastate particularly the neonatal and weaning-age population. Special attention and continued research are needed specifically in the area of basic virology and epidemiology

Riley, L.W., 2006. Of mice, men, and elephants: Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope lipids and pathogenesis
454. J. Clin. Invest 116, 1475-1478.
Abstract: Mycolic acids and structures attached to them constitute a major part of the protective envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and for this reason, their role in tuberculosis pathogenesis has been extensively studied. In this issue of the JCI, Rao et al. examine the effect of trans-cyclopropanation of oxygenated mycolic acids attached to trehalose dimycolate (TDM) on the murine immune response to infection (see the related article beginning on page 1660). Surprisingly, they found that an M. tuberculosis mutant lacking trans-cyclopropane rings was hypervirulent in mice. The recent recognition of a hypervirulence phenotype in mice associated with laboratory and clinical M. tuberculosis strains with altered cell wall components has provided new insights into how M. tuberculosis may establish persistent infection. However, to date, characterization of these bioactive products in pathogenesis has been largely reductionistic; the relationship of their effects observed in mice to the persistent infection and tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis observed in humans remains obscure

Rothschild, B.M., Martin, L.D., 2006. Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis? Naturwissenschaften 93, 565-569.
Abstract: Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible
with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio-Pleistocene) North American mammals, including
114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an
accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the
proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely "culprits" in its spread.

Ruf, T., Valencak, T., Tataruch, F., Arnold, W., 2006. Running speed in mammals increases with muscle n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. PLoS. One. 1, e65.
Abstract: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important dietary components that mammals cannot synthesize de novo. Beneficial effects of PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 class, for certain aspects of animal and human health (e.g., cardiovascular function) are well known. Several observations suggest, however, that PUFAs may also affect the performance of skeletal muscles in vertebrates. For instance, it has been shown that experimentally n-6 PUFA-enriched diets increase the maximum swimming speed in salmon. Also, we recently found that the proportion of PUFAs in the muscle phospholipids of an extremely fast runner, the brown hare (Lepus europaeus), are very high compared to other mammals. Therefore, we predicted that locomotor performance, namely running speed, should be associated with differences in muscle fatty acid profiles. To test this hypothesis, we determined phospholipid fatty acid profiles in skeletal muscles of 36 mammalian species ranging from shrews to elephants. We found that there is indeed a general positive, surprisingly strong relation between the n-6 PUFAs content in muscle phospholipids and maximum running speed of mammals. This finding suggests that muscle fatty acid composition directly affects a highly fitness-relevant trait, which may be decisive for the ability of animals to escape from predators or catch prey

Shakespeare, A., Strydom, S., 2006. A method for determining the extent of thermal burns in elephants
379. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 77, 70-74.
Abstract: A practical method was developed to assess the extent of burns suffered by elephants caught in bush fires. In developing this method, the surface areas of the different body parts of juvenile, subadult and adult elephants were first determined using standard equations, and then expressed as a percentage of the total body surface area. When viewed from a distance, the burnt proportion of all body segments is estimated, converted to percentages of total body surface area, and then summed to determine the extent of burns suffered

Shakespeare, A., Strydom, S., 2006. A method for determining the extent of thermal burns in elephants. J S Afr Vet Assoc 77, 70-74.
Abstract: A practical method was developed to assess the extent of burns suffered by elephants caught in bush fires. In developing this method, the surface areas of the different body parts of juvenile, subadult and adult elephants were first determined using standard equations, and then expressed as a percentage of the total body surface area. When viewed from a distance, the burnt proportion of all body segments is estimated, converted to percentages of total body surface area, and then summed to determine the extent of burns suffered.Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa. tony.shakespeare@up.ac.za

Shakespeare, A., Steyl, J., Strydom, S., 2006. Investigating the depth of thermal burns in elephants
375. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 77, 134-140.
Abstract: Histological examination of burn injuries in elephants revealed that the depth was not as severe as expected from clinical observation. Although the actual burn depth was deep, the thickness of elephant skin, especially the dermis, resulted in the lesions being classified as less severe than expected. Examination of skin samples from selected areas showed that most lesions were either superficial (1st degree) or superficial partial-thickness (superficial 2nd degree) burns with the occasional deep partial thickness (deep 2nd degree) wound. These lesions however, resulted in severe complications that eventually led to the death of a number of the elephants

Shannon, G., Page, B.R., Duffy, K.J., Slotow, R., 2006. The role of foraging behaviour in the sexual segregation of the African elephant
419. Oecologia. 150, 344-354.
Abstract: Elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit pronounced sexual dimorphism, and in this study we test the prediction that the differences in body size and sociality are significant enough to drive divergent foraging strategies and ultimately sexual segregation. Body size influences the foraging behaviour of herbivores through the differential scaling coefficients of metabolism and gut size, with larger bodied individuals being able to tolerate greater quantities of low-quality, fibrous vegetation, whilst having lower mass-specific energy requirements. We test two distinct theories: the scramble competition hypothesis (SCH) and the forage selection hypothesis (FSH). Comprehensive behavioural data were collected from the Pongola Game Reserve and the Phinda Private Game Reserve in South Africa over a 2.5-year period. The data were analysed using sex as the independent variable. Adult females targeted a wider range of species, adopted a more selective foraging approach and exhibited greater bite rates as predicted by the body size hypothesis and the increased demands of reproductive investment (lactation and pregnancy). Males had longer feeding bouts, displayed significantly more destructive behaviour (31% of observations, 11% for females) and ingested greater quantities of forage during each feeding bout. The independent ranging behaviour of adult males enables them to have longer foraging bouts as they experience fewer social constraints than females. The SCH was rejected as a cause of sexual segregation due to the relative abundance of low quality forage, and the fact that feeding heights were similar for both males and females. However, we conclude that the differences in the foraging strategies of the sexes are sufficient to cause spatial segregation as postulated by the FSH. Sexual dimorphism and the associated behavioural differences have important implications for the management and conservation of elephant and other dimorphic species, with the sexes effectively acting as distinct "ecological species"

Shannon, G., Page, B.R., Duffy, K.J., Slotow, R., 2006. The consequences of body size dimorphism: Are African elephants sexually segregated at the habitat scale? Behaviour 143, 1145-1168.
Abstract: Sexual segregation is a commonly observed phenomenon in dimorphic ungulates, which has been categorised into two distinct components: social segregation and habitat segregation. In this study we investigated whether elephants were sexually segregated at the habitat scale. The locations of 12 family groups and 16 males, in three distinct populations were recorded over a period of 2.5 years. Selection ratios were calculated for each habitat type and a Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the analyses. The habitat and foraging preferences were firstly tested for concordance within sex, and then between the sexes. Female habitat preferences showed significant concordance across all reserves and they also exhibited strong concordance in their summer foraging preferences. Their weakest association with habitat and foraging preference was during winter, which may be related to resource scarcity. Males exhibited significant concordance in their habitat preferences in two out of the three reserves. They had their weakest associations in the summer months and this may be linked to avoidance of other males in musth and the abundance of forage. There were no significant differences in habitat preference between males and females and it is likely that individual preferences vary as much within sex as between sexes. Differential habitat utilisation does not appear to be driving sexual segregation in elephants and it is postulated that sociality, divergent reproductive strategies and foraging behaviour at the plant scale play a more significant role. The results of this study highlight the importance of scale in elucidating the mechanisms involved in sexual segregation.

Sharam, G., Sinclair, A.R.E., Turkington, R., 2006. Establishment of broad-leaved thickets in Serengeti, Tanzania: The influence of fire, browsers, grass competition, and elephants. Biotropica 38, 599-605.
Abstract: The role of Euclea divinorum in the establishment of broad-leaved thickets was investigated in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Thickets are declining due to frequent fires, but have not reestablished when fires have been removed. Seedlings of E. divinorum, a fire-resistant tree, were found in grassland adjacent to thickets and as thicket canopy trees and may function to facilitate thicket establishment. Seedlings of thicket species were abundant under E. divinorum canopy trees but not in the grassland, indicating that E. divinorum can facilitate forest establishment. We examined E.divinorum establishment in grassland by measuring survival and growth of seedlings with respect to fire, browsers, elephants, and competition with grass. Seedling survival was reduced by fire (50%), browsers (70%), and competition with grass (50%), but not by elephants. Seedling growth rate was negative unless both fire and browsers, or grass was removed. Establishment of thickets via E. divinorum is not occurring under the current conditions in Serengeti of frequent fires, abundant browsers, and dense grass in riparian areas. Conditions that allowed establishment may have occurred in 1890-1920s during a rinderpest epizootic, and measurements of thicket canopy trees suggest they established at that time.

Shoshani, J., Kupsky, W.J., Marchant, G.H., 2006. Elephant brain. Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution. Brain Res Bull 70, 124-157.
Abstract: We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally. Humans and elephants have three parallel temporal gyri: superior, middle, and inferior. Hippocampal sizes in elephants and humans are comparable, but proportionally smaller in elephant. A possible carotid rete was observed at the base of the brain. Brain size appears to be related to body size, ecology, sociality, and longevity. Elephant adult brain averages 4783 g, the largest among living and extinct terrestrial mammals; elephant neonate brain averages 50% of its adult brain weight (25% in humans). Cerebellar weight averages 18.6% of brain (1.8 times larger than in humans). During evolution, encephalization quotient has increased by 10-fold (0.2 for extinct Moeritherium, approximately 2.0 for extant elephants). We present 20 figures of the elephant brain, 16 of which contain new material. Similarities between human and elephant brains could be due to convergent evolution; both display mosaic characters and are highly derived mammals. Humans and elephants use and make tools and show a range of complex learning skills and behaviors. In elephants, the large amount of cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal lobe, and the well-developed olfactory system, structures associated with complex learning and behavioral functions in humans, may provide the substrate for such complex skills and behavior.

Shoshani, J., Kupsky, W.J., Marchant, G.H., 2006. Elephant brain. Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution
446. Brain Res. Bull. 70, 124-157.
Abstract: We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally. Humans and elephants have three parallel temporal gyri: superior, middle, and inferior. Hippocampal sizes in elephants and humans are comparable, but proportionally smaller in elephant. A possible carotid rete was observed at the base of the brain. Brain size appears to be related to body size, ecology, sociality, and longevity. Elephant adult brain averages 4783 g, the largest among living and extinct terrestrial mammals; elephant neonate brain averages 50% of its adult brain weight (25% in humans). Cerebellar weight averages 18.6% of brain (1.8 times larger than in humans). During evolution, encephalization quotient has increased by 10-fold (0.2 for extinct Moeritherium, approximately 2.0 for extant elephants). We present 20 figures of the elephant brain, 16 of which contain new material. Similarities between human and elephant brains could be due to convergent evolution; both display mosaic characters and are highly derived mammals. Humans and elephants use and make tools and show a range of complex learning skills and behaviors. In elephants, the large amount of cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal lobe, and the well-developed olfactory system, structures associated with complex learning and behavioral functions in humans, may provide the substrate for such complex skills and behavior

Shrader, A.M., van Aarde, R.J., 2006. Digital photogrammetry and laser rangefinder techniques to measure African elephants. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36, 1-7.
Abstract: Photogrammetry can be used to measure the body dimensions of a variety of mammals. We developed a digital photogrammetry technique and used an infrared laser rangefinder to measure the shoulder heights of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Measures of the height of objects of known size using digital photogrammetry were between 0.7% shorter to 0.6% taller than the real values. The rangefinder recorded values that ranged from 0.8% to 3.6% larger than the real height. When we applied digital photogrammetry to tame elephants, measured shoulder heights were 1.6% to 3.4% shorter than those recorded using a custom-made calliper. For these elephants, the rangefinder recorded shoulder heights that were 3.8 to 9.4% smaller than the real values. The digital photogrammetric technique described here is less time-consuming and as or more precise than other techniques used to measure African elephants.

Shrader, A.M., McElveen, M.E., Lee, P.C., Moss, C.J., van Aarde, R.J., 2006. Growth and age determination of African savanna elephants. Journal of Zoology, London 270, 40-48.
Abstract: Understanding the population dynamics of savanna elephants depends on estimating population parameters such as the age at first reproduction, calving interval and age-specific survival rates. The generation of these parameters, however, relies on the ability to accurately determine the age of individuals, but a reliable age estimation technique for free-ranging elephants is presently not available. Shoulder heights of elephants were measured in 10 populations in five countries across southern and eastern Africa. Data included shoulder height measurements from two populations where the age of each individual was known (i.e. Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa and Amboseli National Park, Kenya). From the known-age data, Von Bertalanffy growth functions were constructed for both male and female elephants. Savanna elephants were found to attain similar asymptotic shoulder heights in the 10 populations, while individuals in the two known-age populations grew at the same rate. The Von Bertalanffy growth curves allowed for the accurate age estimation of females up to 15 years of age and males up to 36 years of age. The results indicate that shoulder height can serve as an indicator of chronological age for elephants below 15 years of age for females and 36 years of age for males. Ages derived from these growth curves can then be used to generate age-specific population variables, which will help assess the demographic status of savanna elephant populations across Africa.

Siegal-Willott, J., Isaza, R., Johnson, R., Blaik, M. Clinical evaluation of distal limb radiography and growth plate closure in the juvenile Asian elephant  (Elephas maximus).
2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  181-182. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The thoracic limb digits of 11 healthy juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were evaluated radiographically to assess normal developmental anatomy.  Parameters evaluated included: the location(s) of centers of ossification, relative age at time of phalangeal ossification, and relative times of growth plate closure in the bones of the distal forelimb.  Specifically, the third phalanx (P3) of each digit was evaluated, as well as the first (P1) and second (P2) phalanges of the third digit (D3). A retrospective evaluation of radiographs from juvenile elephants was also done to augment the data set.  This study reports the methods used to obtain high-quality radiographs of the elephant foot, the locations of centers of ossification based on radiographic evaluation, and the relative times of growth plate closure within the digital bones. The settings used to obtain the radiographs used in this study for P3 are presented in Table 1. Radiographs of D3, P1, and P2 were obtained in a similar manner, using a 45° angle for focal spot positioning.  The kilovoltage power and milliampere seconds were adjusted as needed. Radiographic evaluation of the juvenile Asian elephants revealed variability in the shape of P3 based on age of the animal and degree of ossification of P3.  The relative times of growth plate closure and number of ossifications were also determined.  The information presented will help clinicians in radiographing elephants, interpreting foot radiographs, and recognizing normal versus abnormal anatomy.  It will also help in aging juvenile elephants, investigating diseases and deaths, and recognizing normal patterns of toe and foot development.

Singh, R.R., Goyal, S.P., Khanna, P.P., Mukherjee, P.K., Sukumar, R., 2006. Using morphometric and analytical techniques to characterize elephant ivory. Forensic Sci. Int. 162, 144-151.
Abstract: There is a need to characterize Asian elephant ivory and compare with African ivory for controlling illegal trade and implementation of national and international laws. In this paper, we characterize ivory of Asian and African elephants using Schreger angle measurements, elemental analysis {X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS)} and isotopic analysis. We recorded Schreger angle characteristics of elephant ivory at three different zones in ivory samples of African (n=12) and Asian (n=28) elephants. The Schreger angle ranged from 32 degrees to 145 degrees and 30 degrees to 153 degrees in Asian and African ivory, respectively. Elemental analysis (for Asian and African ivory) by XRF, ICP-AES and ICP-MS provided preliminary data. We attempted to ascertain source of origin of Asian elephant ivory similarly as in African ivory based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and strontium. We determined isotopic ratios of carbon (n=31) and nitrogen (n=31) corresponding to diet and rainfall, respectively. Reference ivory samples from five areas within India were analyzed using collagen and powder sample and the latter was found more suitable for forensic analysis. During our preliminary analysis, the range of delta13C values (-13.6+/-0.15 per thousand and -25.6+/-0.15 per thousand) and delta15N values (10.2+/-0.15 per thousand and 3.5+/-0.15 per thousand) were noted

Stremme, C., Lubis, A., Wahyu, M. Veterinary care for elephants used for clearings works in the devastated areas after the tsunami in Banda Aceh. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  271-272. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Stremme, C., Lubis, A., Wahyu, M. Implementation of regular veterinary care for captive Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) throughout north Sumatra and Aceh. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  182-188. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Suedmeyer, W.K., Fine, D. Indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement in four African elephants (Loxodonta africana).
2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  170-172. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The elephant is the largest living land mammal and in danger of extinction. The few literature citations involving blood pressure (BP) measurements have utilized direct arterial measurement of immobilized or stationary conditioned elephants. These investigations determined that BP's in the healthy elephant are generally higher than most other clinically normal mammals studied but similar to unsedated domestic cattle and horses, and increased in laterally recumbent elephants. This project was undertaken to compare cited direct arterial measurements to indirect oscillometric BP measurement of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in four stationary, non-sedated African elephants. Four female African elephants ranging in age from 28-38 yr of age were used in this study. One elephant (E3) had a history of fetal retention of 5 yr and bilateral scleral injection but was clinically normal in all other regards. The three remaining elephants had no significant clinical histories. All four elephants were conditioned to present the tail for placement of a standard occlusive BP cuff (Cardell™, CAS Medical Systems, Inc. Branford, Connecticut 06405 USA). Use of this indirect oscillometric unit has been compared with simultaneous direct arterial measurement in anesthetized African lions (Panthera leo), and an immobilized African elephant at the Kansas City Zoo. Blood pressure results in each animal studied were virtually identical in both techniques. The width of the cuff was approximately 40% the circumference of the tail (12 cm cuff on an average 27.5 cm tail circumference) of the elephant, in accordance with general recommendations for obtaining BP measurements in domestic animals. Cuff placement was at the distal extent of the caudal tail fold. Three sets of BP's, heart rates, and respiratory rates were obtained on three different occasions in each elephant (Table 1). Each elephant was sampled at the same time of day and had not been exercised. Blood pressure measurements obtained in three of the four elephants in this population compared favorably with reference ranges obtained invasively (direct arterial) in unsedated African elephants. In the elephant with scleral injection and retained fetal mummy (E3), overall BP measurements were higher, on average, than the other three elephants and ranges reported in a previous study of direct arterial pressures in unsedated African elephants. This may reflect a hypertensive state related to increased systemic vascular resistance associated with a retained calf. However, this elephant is the oldest of the four animals studied, and blood pressure parameters generally increase with age in humans and this may be the case with this elephant. Further investigation into the potential causes for a clinical hypertensive state in this elephant is being pursued. The advantages of this technique are the non-invasive application, portability, and comparable results to direct arterial measurement. Disadvantages are that BP measurement can be altered by cuff size, placement, and movement. In this study, cuff placement and size was identical in all elephants, and the only movement was associated with masticatory efforts involved with positive food enrichment, eliminating two of the three variables. Additional elephants are being evaluated and refinement of BP measurement techniques is being completed to help define normal indirect oscillometric BP values in the African elephant. Use of an indirect oscillometric measuring device for obtaining BP measurements in African elephants may prove to be an easily applied valuable ancillary diagnostic tool when evaluating cardiovascular parameters without the need for sedation or immobilization.

Takahashi, H., Yamashita, M., Shigehara, N., 2006. Cranial photographs of mammals on the web: The Mammalian Crania Photographic Archive (MCPA2) and a comparison of bone image databases. Anthropological Science 114, 217-222.
Abstract: The Mammalian Crania Photographic Archive (MCPA2) is a website (http://1kai.dokkyomed.ac.jp/mammal/en/mammal.html) that includes a collection of 10,950 photographs of mammalian crania, which have been taken with a high-resolution digital camera. In the present report, we outline the characteristics of MCPA2 and how it was created, and make brief comparisons with several similar websites currently accessible via the internet. The archived MCPA2 materials include 1825 cranial specimens, ranging from insectivores to elephants, which have been macerated in Japan during the past 35 years and prepared for osteological study. Of the 16 orders represented in the database, primates comprise the major group with 704 specimens. Each cranium was placed with the orbitomeatal (Frankfort) or palatine plane horizontal, and was photographed in six perpendicular views from a long distance using a telephoto or telemacro lens. These long-distance shots decrease perspective distortion that lead to measurement errors when studying cranial profiles and landmark positions, and enable detailed observation and measurement of specific bony characteristics on a computer screen. From our website, images can be searched using (1) the taxonomic table, (2) Japanese name, (3) English name, and (4) scientific name. In the page of search results, in addition to the images, four caliper measurements and additional text (taxonomy, sex, and age) are available for every specimen.

Uni, S., Bain, O., Agatsuma, T., Katsumi, A., Baba, M., Yanai, T., Takaoka, H., 2006. New filarial nematode from Japanese serows (Naemorhedus crispus: Bovidae) close to parasites from elephants
403. Parasite 13, 193-200.
Abstract: A new onchocercid species, Loxodontofilaria caprini n. sp. (Filarioidea: Nematoda), found in subcutaneous tissues of 37 (33%) of 112 serows (Noemorhedus crispus) examined in Japan, is described. The female worm had the characteristics of Loxodontofilaria, e.g., the large body size, well-developed esophagus with a shallow buccal cavity, and the long tail with three caudal lappets. The male worm of the new species, which was first described in the genus, had unequal length of spicules, 10 pairs of pre- and post-caudal papillae, and three terminal caudal lappets. Deirids were present in both sexes. Among four species of the genus loxodontofiloria: one from the hippopotamus and three from the Elepantidae, L. caprini n. sp. appears close to L. asiatica Bain, Baker & Chabaud, 1982, a subcutaneous parasite of Elephas indicus in Myanmar (Burma). However, L. caprini n. sp. is distinct from L. asiatica in that the Japanese female worm has an esophagus half as long and the microfilariae also half as long with a coiled posterior. The microfilariae were found in the skin of serows. The new parasite appears to clearly illustrate a major event in the evolution of onchocercids: the host-switching. This might have occurred on the Eurasian continent, where elephantids and the lineage of rupicaprines diversified during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, or in Japan, into which some of these hosts migrated

Vinogradov, I.V., Kochneva, G.V., Shchelkunov, S.N., Riabchikova, E.I., 2006. [Reproduction of cowpox virus strain EP-2 isolated from an elephant in primary fibroblast cultures and chorion-allantoic chick embryos]
451. Vopr. Virusol. 51, 44-48.
Abstract: Electron microscopy was used to study the reproduction of cowpox virus strain EP-2 in the cells of a primary fibroblast cultures (PFC) and chorion-allantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos (CE). The sequential stages of viral morphogenesis and the structure of A-type inclusions were described. The parameters of viral reproduction in PFC and CE CAM were compared. The formation of crystalloid tubular structures in PFC, unusual electron dense inclusions in the cells of CE CAN, and different variants of A-type inclusions in the cells of a pock was found. The histological and ultrastructural characteristics of pocks in CE CAM are described

Weissenböck, N.M. How do elephants deal with various climate conditions? Previous results, recent data and new hypotheses. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  217-224. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Weissengruber, G.E., Fuss, F.K., Egger, G., Stanek, G., Hittmair, K.M., Forstenpointner, G., 2006. The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations
513. Journal of Anatomy 208, 59-72.
Abstract: Elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. In elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. In addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. Here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight African (Loxodonta africana) and three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Furthermore, we performed radiography in five African and two Asian elephants and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one African elephant. Macerated bones of 11 individuals (four African, seven Asian elephants) were measured with a pair of callipers to give standardized measurements of the articular parts. In one Asian and three African elephants, kinematic and functional analyses were carried out using a digitizer and according to the helical axis concept. Some peculiarities of healthy and arthrotic knee joints of elephants were compared with human knees. In contrast to those of other quadruped mammals, the knee joint of elephants displays an extended resting position. The femorotibial joint of elephants shows a high grade of congruency and the menisci are extremely narrow and thin. The four-bar mechanism of the cruciate ligaments exists also in the elephant. The main motion of the knee joint is extension-flexion with a range of motion of 142 degrees . In elephants, arthrotic alterations of the knee joint can lead to injury or loss of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament

Wemmer, C., Krishamurthy, V., Shrestha, S., Hayek, L.A., Thant, M., 2006. Assessment of Body Condition in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus). Zoo Biology 25, 187-200.
Abstract: A method of assessing body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is presented. The method uses visual assessment to assign numerical scores to six different regions of the body, which are totaled to give a numerical index ranging from 0-11. The relationship between the index and morphometric variables is compared for a sample of 119 juvenile and young adult elephants from southern India, Nepal, and Myanmar. Mean ages of males and females were similar. Mean index of body condition (with standard error [SE]) was 7.370.2 points. No significant correlation was found between index of body condition and age over both sexes (r50.01, n550). Results were equivalent when sexes were treated separately (females: r50.03, n524; males: r50.01, n526). Sexes did not differ in height of the shoulder or body condition in our sample, but there was significant sexual dimorphism in breadth of the zygomatic arch and three measures of subcutaneous fat: girth of neck, thickness of cervical fold, and thickness of anal flap. These three measures were also significantly correlated with each other. Our assessment method should prove a practical tool for ecologic studies, but the relationship of the index topercentage of body fat should be determined using heavy water dilution

Agnew, D.W., Hagey, L., Shoshani, J., 2005. The elephants of Zoba Gash Barka, Eritrea: part 4. Cholelithiasis in a wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 36, 677-683.
Abstract: A 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Eritrea. Analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. Bacteria were also found in the cholelith. Similar, but smaller, bile stones have been identified previously in other wild African elephants and an excavated mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). Choleliths have been reported only once in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Elephants, along with hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and manatees (Trichechus manatus), are unique among mammals in producing only bile alcohols and no bile acids, which may predispose them to cholelithiasis, particularly in association with bacterial infection. Dietary factors may also play an important role in cholelith formation.

Benz, A. The elephant's hoof: macroscopic and microscopic morphology of defined locations under consideration of pathological changes.  2005.  Vetsuisse-Fakultät Universität Zürich.
Ref Type: Thesis/Dissertation

Bertelsen, M.F., Bojesen, M., Olsen, K.E.P. Fatal enterocolitis in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) caused by Clostridium difficile. 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  66-67. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Altered behavior, anorexia and listlessness were observed in four of five adult captive female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Two animals recovered, while two died after 2 days. The dead elephants were subjected to post mortem examination including histopathology, demonstrating fibrinonecrotic enteritis and colitis. Clostridium difficile was isolated from both dead elephants and from the feces of the two surviving affected animals, and identified by selective cultivation and PCR identification. All isolates had the tcdA and tcdB toxin genes and were positive in a toxigenic culture assay. C. difficile toxin from the intestinal content of one of the fatal cases was demonstrated using cell-culture based cytotoxin assays. Clostridium perfringens type A and Clostridium septicum were also isolated from both dead animals. Although C. perfringens has been associated with ulcerative enteritis in an elephant,1 in this case these isolates likely are incidental, as C. perfringens enterotoxin was not demonstrated, and as C. septicum is well known for producing rapid post mortem overgrowth.  Amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, showed that the C. difficile isolates recovered from the outbreak, all had the same fingerprint profile, indicating that all four elephants were affected by the same bacterial clone. These findings appear to be the first to demonstrate that C. difficile may cause enterocolitis in elephants. The results emphasize the need to regard this organism as potentially dangerous for elephants. Although there was no prior exposure to antibiotic agents in this case, caution is recommended when treating elephants with antibiotics, as this may trigger C. difficile induced enterocolitis in other species, most notably humans and horses.2
1 Bacciarini, L.N., O. Pagan, J. Frey, and A. Grone. 2001. Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) with ulcerative enteritis. Vet. Rec. 149: 618-20.
2 Songer, J.G. 1996. Clostridial enteric diseases of domestic animals. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 216-234.

Bonar, C.J., Lewandowski, A.H., Arafah, B., Capen, C.C., 2005. Pheochromocytoma in an aged female African elephant (Loxodonta africana). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 36, 719-723.
Abstract: A 43 yr-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) collapsed acutely and died. Necropsy revealed an enlarged right adrenal medulla. Histologic appearance was typical of pheochromocytoma. Special stains and electron microscopy demonstrated chromaffin granules, suggesting that the tumor was derived from catecholamine secreting cells of the adrenal medulla, and may have been functionally secretory. Serum levels of both norepinephrine and epinephrine were elevated at time of death, supporting the functional nature of the tumor. Histologic findings of arteriolar sclerosis and smooth muscle hyperplasia suggested that the animal may have suffered from chronic systemic hypertension. Pheochromocytoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of suspected hypertension and acute death in elephants

Bradshaw, G.A., Schore, A.N., Brown, J.L., Poole, J.H., Moss, C.J., 2005. Elephant breakdown
639. Nature 433, 807.

Deem, S.L., Brown, J.L., Eggert, L., Wemmer, C., Htun, W., Nyunt, T., Murray, S., Leimgruber, P. Health and management of working elephants in Myanmar (Burma). Procedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  228-231. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Myanmar has approximately 6,000 working elephants.  Remaining wild elephants are declining, partly because of live-capture for captivity.  Through health and reproductive assessments, genetic analyses and GPS tracking of captive and wild elephants, we are exploring linkages between the two populations and conducting studies to reduce morbidity and mortality of captive elephants. Captive elephants live and work in Myanmar's forests in close proximity and contact to the remaining wild herds. We propose that reducing morbidity and mortality in the captive elephants will decrease the need for live-capture, and the risk of disease transmission, to wild elephants.
There are an estimated 6,000 working elephants in Myanmar - half owned by the government operated Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE) and half owned privately.5 This may be one of the largest captive elephant populations in the world and its management will have a significant impact on remaining wild herds in Myanmar.4,6,8  With mortality rates higher than birth rates, the working population is probably maintained by supplementing it with elephants captured from the wild.5 There is evidence that continued harvest of wild elephants may have reduced the remaining wild populations of Myanmar.  Recent surveys of wild populations in two of Myanmar's protected elephant ranges revealed extremely low dung counts, indicative of small and declining herds. Constant contact with captive elephants in Myanmar's forests may exacerbate the threat to Myanmar wild elephants by increasing the transmission of disease between these two groups. For both the above reasons, we believe that the conservation of wild elephants in Myanmar will require significant improvements in the care and management of currently existing captive populations.  
Elephants owned by MTE receive veterinary care from the Burmese veterinarians that work for the timber company and travel extensively throughout the country to sites were the elephants are located.1 There is a dire need for veterinary supplies and laboratory capabilities in the country. Currently, veterinary practices are based on the extensive field experience of lead MTE veterinarians. However, MTE veterinarians frequently rely on older published work 3,7 and would benefit significantly from training that incorporates new insights into elephant health and new veterinary techniques. Similarly, because of their close-up experience of elephant health problems in the forests, MTE veterinarians may be able to make important new contributions to the care and management of elephants elsewhere.     
The overall objective of our study is to work jointly with MTE veterinarians to develop long-term captive population management strategies to reduce mortality and increase births in the working timber elephants and stop the continued off-take of animals from the wild to supplement captive herds.
The health component of this study has five major objectives.  These are to:
1              Conduct a training workshop, in conjunction with MTE veterinarians, on elephant management and veterinary care. 
2              Develop protocols so that the MTE veterinarians can collect samples for reproductive, genetic, and health status assessments.
3              Analyze samples and provide data to MTE veterinarians to improve husbandry, preventive care and disease treatment of working elephants.
4              Develop a comprehensive bibliography of all published information on the health and management of Myanmar elephants.
5              Perform an epidemiologic evaluation of records available on the historic and current working elephant population.
Specific steps to achieve these objectives include: 
1              Determine causes and rates of morbidity and mortality of captive MTE elephants.
2              Determine causes of low rates of reproduction in captivity.
3              Develop a genetic profile of the captive herds.
4              Develop a protocol to assess oozies-Burmese mahout-expertise in parallel with endocrine and health assessments to determine quality of care and potentially related stress.
5              Develop small population viability models to assess how current mortality effects long-term survival of the captive population and what supplementation from the wild is needed for short- and long-term sustainability.
6              Use population viability models to demonstrate how supplementation from the wild will negatively affect that population.
7              Get baseline health parameter data on free-ranging elephants.
8              Quantify habitat/space use using GPS and satellite tracking of captive and wild elephants. 
Results and Discussion
During an initial exploratory visit in November 2004, we learned that the annual mortality rate for MTE working elephants was 2.4% (66) in 2003.  Deaths occurred in all age groups (>18 yr, n = 40; 4 - 17 yr, n = 11; <4 yr, n = 15) and included preventable diseases (i.e., poor nutrition, heat stroke, diarrhea, dystocia, infectious and parasitic agents).  Additionally, we collected samples for performing health, genetic and endocrine analyses of 22 elephants maintained in one of the working camps (results to be presented). A relationship also was established with the veterinary staff at the Yangon Zoo, including follow up donations of veterinary literature and journals to the zoo. We provided medical advice for the care of an orphaned elephant calf and other animals housed at the zoo during our brief visit. We are seeking funds for a training course to be conducted in late 2005 and hope to perform health evaluations on a larger number of zoo and working elephants during that visit.
The National Zoo already has an extensive conservation program for wild elephants in Myanmar.4,6,8  This program has focused on assessing wild elephant populations in protected areas and satellite-tracking of four wild elephants to learn more about their conservation status and ecology in Myanmar.  Currently this work is being extended to a national elephant survey. Part of this work included collecting fecal samples for genetic and health assessments.
The Smithsonian team of researchers involved in this project includes a veterinarian, reproduction physiologist, geneticist, conservation biologist, and landscape ecologist.  All members of this multidisciplinary team have extensive experience working with elephants and together provide the necessary expertise to study and understand the numerous factors affecting Myanmar's captive elephants and the long-term survival of elephants in Myanmar.  These challenges range from human land use and elephant population fragmentation, human-elephant conflict, poor reproduction and health care of captive elephants and lack of information on the health status of the wild elephants.  A viable conservation initiative for the elephants of Myanmar requires that health issues be addressed as one component of a comprehensive program to address the anthropogenic pressures on both working and wild elephants.2
The elephants of Myanmar are an excellent example of the fine line that exists between captive and wild animals, especially as it relates to health.  Captive and wild elephants are regularly in direct and indirect contact.  The working elephants live with their oozies who may expose them to diseases, such as tuberculosis.  The working elephants in turn may encounter wild elephants at night in the forests where they forage and live during non-working hours. In fact, the majority of captive born calves are said to be sired by wild bulls.  Potentially, the use of working elephants in selectively extracting valuable timber provides new strategies for the conservation of elephants and forests. Most likely, "elephant-logging" is less damaging than machine-operated timbering projects that tend to clear-cut areas and also damage the soil and streams.  However, decreasing the negative impact of such practices (i.e., minimizing off-take of elephants from the wild, decreasing disease risks to the wild elephants) is imperative.  
1 Aung, T., and T. Nyunt.  2002.  The care and management of the domesticated Asian elephant in Myanmar.  In: Baker, I., and M. Kashio (eds.): Giants on our hands. Proc. Int. Workshop Domesticated Asian Elephant. Dharmasarn Co., Ltd. Bangkok, Thailand. Pp. 89 - 102.
2 Deem, S.L., W.B. Karesh, and W. Weisman.  2001.  Putting theory into practice: wildlife health in conservation.  Conserv. Biol. 5: 1224-1233.
3 Evans, G.H. 1910.  Elephants and Their Diseases.  Government Printing. Rangoon. 323 
4 Kelly, D.S. 2005.  Habitat selection in declining elephant populations of Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park. Masters Thesis.  George Mason University.
5 Lair, R.C. 1997.  Myanmar. In: Gone Astray: The Care and Management of the Asian Elephant in Domesticity. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand.  RAP Publication. Pp. 99-131
6 Leimgruber, P., and C. Wemmer.  2004.  National elephant symposium and workshop. Report to the USFWS and the Myanmar Forest Department.
7 Pfaff, G. 1930.  Reports on Diseases of Elephants.  Government Printing. Rangoon. 91
8 Wemmer, C., P. Leimgruber and D. S. Kelly.  2005.  Managing wild elephants in Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park and Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary.  Report to the USFWS and the Myanmar Forest Department.

Delves, P.J., Roitt, I.M., 2005. Vaccines for the control of reproduction--status in mammals, and aspects of comparative interest
592. Dev. Biol. (Basel) 121, 265-273.
Abstract: The objective of producing vaccines which target elements of the reproductive system to control fertility has been pursued for many years. Of the many targets for such vaccines, several sperm-associated antigens have been proposed for antibody-mediated intervention before fertilization but the very abundance of antigen to be neutralized has been a barrier. Zona pellucida antigens associated with the surface of the oocyte have also been targeted and used successfully for control of 'wild' elephant populations but worries concerning immunopathologically-mediated tissue damage have been mooted. Vaccines using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which is required for the implantation and maintenance of the fertilized egg, although of interest for the development of fertility control in human populations, has no relevance in the context of the present conference because external fertilization of fish eggs is independent. The pathways by which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted by the hypothalamus promote release of luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which govern the physiological maturation and maintenance of the reproductive organs, provide many targets for immunological intervention. Most consistent success has been reported using GnRH-based vaccines which are immunosterilizing in a variety of mammalian species such as pigs, rodents and white-tailed deer. The fact that the structure of the decapeptide, GnRH, has been maintained over so many years of evolution and been conserved across so many animal species, encourages the view that a strategy for control of sexual maturation in fish based upon stimulation of GnRH antibodies may well prove to be a practical proposition, provided the formulation of an appropriate highly immunogenic vaccine can be achieved

Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Hodges, K., 2005. Physical, physiological, and behavioral correlates of musth in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
594. Physiol Biochem. Zool. 78, 505-514.
Abstract: Although musth in male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is known to be associated with increased aggressiveness, urine dribbling (UD), temporal gland secretion (TGS), and elevated androgens, the temporal relationship between these changes has not been examined. Here, we describe the pattern of musth-related characteristics in 14 captive elephant bulls by combining long-term observations of physical and behavioral changes with physiological data on testicular and adrenal function. The length of musth periods was highly variable but according to our data set not related to age. Our data also confirm that musth is associated with elevated androgens and, in this respect, show that TGS and UD are downstream effects of this elevation, with TGS responding earlier and to lower androgen levels than UD. Because the majority of musth periods were associated with a decrease in glucocorticoid levels, our data also indicate that musth does not represent a physiological stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the occurrence of musth is associated with increased aggression and that this is presumably androgen mediated because aggressive males had higher androgen levels. Collectively, the information generated contributes to a better understanding of what characterizes and initiates musth in captive African elephants and provides a basis for further studies designed to examine in more detail the factors regulating the intensity and duration of musth

Ganswindt, A., Rasmussen, H.B., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J.K., 2005. The sexually active states of free-ranging male African elephants (Loxodonta africana): defining musth and non-musth using endocrinology, physical signals, and behavior
652. Horm. Behav. 47, 83-91.
Abstract: Musth in male African elephants, Loxodonta africana, is associated with increased aggressive behavior, continuous discharge of urine, copious secretions from the swollen temporal glands, and elevated androgen levels. During musth, bulls actively seek out and are preferred by estrous females although sexual activity is not restricted to the musth condition. The present study combines recently established methods of fecal hormone analysis with long-term observations on male-female associations as well as the presence and intensity of physical signals to provide a more detailed picture about the physical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of different states of sexual activity in free-ranging African elephants. Based on quantitative shifts in individual bull association patterns, the presence of different physical signals, and significant differences in androgen levels, a total of three potential sub-categories for sexually active bulls could be established. The results demonstrate that elevations in androgen levels are only observed in sexually active animals showing temporal gland secretion and/or urine dribbling, but are not related to the age of the individual. Further, none of the sexually active states showed elevated glucocorticoid output indicating that musth does not represent an HPA-mediated stress condition. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the term "musth" should be exclusively used for the competitive state in sexually active male elephants and that the presence of urine dribbling should be the physical signal used for defining this state

Ganswindt, A., Rasmssen, H.B., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J.K., 2005. The sexually active states of free-ranging male African elephants (Loxodonta africana): defining musth and non-musth using endocrinology, physical signals, and behavior. Horm Behav 47, 83-91.
Abstract: Musth in male African elephants, Loxodonta africana, is associated with increased aggressive behavior, continuous discharge of urine, copious secretions from the swollen temporal glands, and elevated androgen levels. During musth, bulls actively seek out and are preferred by estrous females although sexual activity is not restricted to the musth condition. The present study combines recently established methods of fecal hormone analysis with long-term observations on male-female associations as well as the presence and intensity of physical signals to provide a more detailed picture about the physical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of different states of sexual activity in free-ranging African elephants. Based on quantitative shifts in individual bull association patterns, the presence of different physical signals, and significant differences in androgen levels, a total of three potential sub-categories for sexually active bulls could be established. The results demonstrate that elevations in androgen levels are only observed in sexually active animals showing temporal gland secretion and/or urine dribbling, but are not related to the age of the individual. Further, none of the sexually active states showed elevated glucocorticoid output indicating that musth does not represent an HPA-mediated stress condition. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the term "musth" should be exclusively used for the competitive state in sexually active male elephants and that the presence of urine dribbling should be the physical signal used for defining this state.

Glickman, S.E., Short, R.V., Renfree, M.B., 2005. Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies
566. Horm. Behav. 48, 403-417.
Abstract: The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical stages of development accounts for the full range of sexually dimorphic urogenital traits observed at birth. Jost's concept was subsequently expanded to encompass sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Although the central focus of this review involves urogenital development, we assume that the novel mechanisms described in this article have potentially significant implications for sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, a transposition with precedent in the history of this field. Contrary to the "specific" requirements of Jost's formulation, female spotted hyenas and elephants initially develop male-type external genitalia prior to gonadal differentiation. In addition, the administration of anti-androgens to pregnant female spotted hyenas does not prevent the formation of a scrotum, pseudoscrotum, penis or penile clitoris in the offspring of treated females, although it is not yet clear whether the creation of masculine genitalia involves other steroids or whether there is a genetic mechanism bypassing a hormonal mediator. Wallabies, where sexual differentiation occurs in the pouch after birth, provide the most conclusive evidence for direct genetic control of sexual dimorphism, with the scrotum developing only in males and the pouch and mammary glands only in females, before differentiation of the gonads. The development of the pouch and mammary gland in females and the scrotum in males is controlled by genes on the X chromosome. In keeping with the "expanded" version of Jost's formulation, secretion of androgens by the fetal testes provides the best current account of a broad array of sex differences in reproductive morphology and endocrinology of the spotted hyena, and androgens are essential for development of the prostate and penis of the wallaby. But the essential circulating androgen in the male wallaby is 5alpha androstanediol, locally converted in target tissues to DHT, while in the pregnant female hyena, androstenedione, secreted by the maternal ovary, is converted by the placenta to testosterone (and estradiol) and transferred to the developing fetus. Testicular testosterone certainly seems to be responsible for the behavioral phenomenon of musth in male elephants. Both spotted hyenas and elephants display matrilineal social organization, and, in both species, female genital morphology requires feminine cooperation for successful copulation. We conclude that not all aspects of sexual differentiation have been delegated to testicular hormones in these mammals. In addition, we suggest that research on urogenital development in these non-traditional species directs attention to processes that may well be operating during the sexual differentiation of morphology and behavior in more common laboratory mammals, albeit in less dramatic fashion

Gunther, B., Morgado, E., 2005. Allometric scaling of biological rhythms in mammals
555. Biol. Res. 38, 207-212.
Abstract: A wide spectrum of cyclic functions in terrestrial mammals of different size, from the 3-gram shrew to the 3-ton elephant, yields an allometric exponent around 0.25, which is correlated--as a kind of common denominator--with the specific metabolic rate. Furthermore, the applicability of these empirical findings could be extrapolated to chronological events in the sub-cellular realm. On the other hand, the succession of growth periods (T98%) until sexual maturity is reached also follows the 1/4 power rule. By means of Verhulst's logistic equation, it has been possible to simulate three different biological conditions, which means that by modifying the numerical value of only one parameter, revertible physiological and pathological states can be obtained, as for instance isostasis, homeostasis and heterostasis

Gunther, B., Morgado, E., Cocina, M., 2005. [Homeostatic range of the oxidative metabolism: 60 years of integrative fisiometry]. Rev Med Chil 133, 362-370.
Abstract: The energetic metabolism and its relationship with body weight generated a vivid controversy, since the Rubner's surface law was introduced into biology. Recently, the multifactor theory (Darveau et al) has caused again a revival of this polemic topic. Moreover, the investigations concerning metabolism and body weight include all terrestrial mammals, from the shrew (3 grams) to the elephant (three tons). The corresponding allometric exponent for standard metabolic rate, both theoretical and empirical, fluctuates around an average value of 0.75, in contrast with the surface law, which postulated a value of 0.67. The "metabolic range" (rest vs maximal exercise) does vary from 1 to 10, due to the prevalent influence of the skeletal muscle activity. Recent investigations have emphasized the fact that the allometric exponent is not unique (0.75), but it should be subjected to statistical variability, both in standard and in maximal exercise.

Gunther, B., Morgado, E., Cocina, M., 2005. [Homeostatic range of the oxidative metabolism: 60 years of integrative fisiometry]. Rev. Med. Chil. 133, 362-370.
Abstract: The energetic metabolism and its relationship with body weight generated a vivid controversy, since the Rubner's surface law was introduced into biology. Recently, the multifactor theory (Darveau et al) has caused again a revival of this polemic topic. Moreover, the investigations concerning metabolism and body weight include all terrestrial mammals, from the shrew (3 grams) to the elephant (three tons). The corresponding allometric exponent for standard metabolic rate, both theoretical and empirical, fluctuates around an average value of 0.75, in contrast with the surface law, which postulated a value of 0.67. The "metabolic range" (rest vs maximal exercise) does vary from 1 to 10, due to the prevalent influence of the skeletal muscle activity. Recent investigations have emphasized the fact that the allometric exponent is not unique (0.75), but it should be subjected to statistical variability, both in standard and in maximal exercise

Hildebrandt, T.B., Hermes, R., Ratanakorn, P., Rietschel, W., Fickel, J., Frey, R., Wibbelt, G., Reid, C., Goritz, F., 2005. Ultrasonographic assessment and ultrasound-guided biopsy of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)
552. Veterinary Record 157, 544-548.
Abstract: Endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes a fatal disease in young Asian elephants, but there are no methods for identifying latent carriers of the virus. During the postmortem study of one female African elephant and three male and two female Asian elephants, a lymph node located bilaterally caudoventral to the parotid gland, approximately 1.5 to 5 cm below the skin, was identified as suitable for transcutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy. An ultrasonographic assessment and two biopsies were performed on 39 Asian elephants, and these lymph nodes were classified ultrasonographically as active, inactive or chronically active. The calculated mean (se) volume of 10 active lymph nodes was 17.4 (6.9) cm(3), and that of three chronically active lymph nodes was 10.6 (1.0) cm(3), whereas the mean volume of 17 inactive lymph nodes was 3.1 (0.6) cm(3). The presence of lymph node tissue in samples obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy from three animals that were maintained under conditions that allowed for additional sampling was confirmed histologically. The dna extracted from the lymphoid tissue and the whole blood of all the elephants was negative for endotheliotropic herpesvirus by PCR.

Lacasse, C., Gamble, K.C., Terio, K., Farina, L.L., Travis, D.A., Miller, M. Mycobacterium szulgai osteoarthritis and pneumonia in an African elephant (Loxodonta Africana). 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  170-172. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis, particularly Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis, is an important health issue in zoological collections.  Zoos are a particular public health concern because of the close contact between tuberculosis-susceptible animals and humans, specifically animal handlers and visitors.16 Evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission between humans and elephants, confirmed by DNA fingerprinting, has been reported.13 Between 1994 and 2001, M. tuberculosis was isolated from trunk washes of captive elephants from 11 herds in the United States.17  To date, most reported cases of tuberculosis have occurred in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).14 In 1997, the National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species partnered with the USDA to formulate the "Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants." 15 This document outlines criteria for the testing, surveillance, and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants. The guidelines recommend annual monitoring of elephants by mycobacterial culture of three direct trunk washes collected over 1 wk.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium and non-tuberculous mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash samples is common, but these organisms have not been associated with clinical disease.14,18 This case report details clinical disease with fatal complications of an atypical mycobacterial infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). In September 2003, an African elephant presented with acute, severe lameness of the left rear limb with subsequent swelling of the stifle.  Diagnostic procedures included aspiration cytology of the swelling, radiographs, and thermographic imaging.  The exact location of the injury could not be detected, but a lesion to the stifle or coxofemoral articulation was suspected.  After 13 mo of treatment, including pulse therapy with a variety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), weekly to biweekly injections of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan, and intensive foot care efforts to treat secondary pedal lesions of both rearlimbs, the animal died acutely.  Gross necropsy revealed granulomatous osteomyelitis with necrosis/loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas.  Both of these lesions contained acid-fast bacteria on cytology. While awaiting confirmatory culture results, quarantine procedures were established for the elephant facility and a program was established to screen all zoo personnel in close contact with the elephant or who participated in the necropsy.  All personnel were tested by the Chicago Department of Public Health without documented conversion. Mycobacterium szulgai was ultimately cultured from both coxofemoral and pulmonary lesions. Mycobacterium szulgai is an uncommon nontuberculous mycobacterium that is usually isolated from pathologic lesions in humans.21 This bacterial species was first identified in 1972.11 The lungs are the main locality for pathologic manifestation in humans and several cases have been in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.9,20,21 Infection due to M. szulgai most frequently produces thin-walled cavities in lungs resembling tuberculosis.4 Other documented sites of infection include the skin, bone, and tendon sheath (causing a carpal tunnel syndrome).2,9,10,12,19,20  Intra-operative contamination from ice water has led to M. szulgai keratitis after laser-assisted ophthalmic surgeries.6 A case of disseminated disease in a previously healthy young human has been reported.5  No evidence of human-to-human transmission of this organism has been documented and human cases are believed to originate from environmental sources.12  The natural habitat of the organism is unknown, but previous reports suggest an association of the bacteria with water of swimming pools and fish tanks.1,21 The organism has been cultured from a snail and tropical fish.1,3 No standard recommendation for the treatment of M. szulgai infection currently exists.  In general, triple antibiotic therapies used in standard mycobacterial treatments are reported with a low rate of relapses and sterilization of sputum cultures within a mean of 3 mo.3 Pulmonary lesions in this elephant were chronic; it was not possible to determine when initial infection occurred. Infection could have occurred in captivity or in the wild prior to captivity. Three trunk washes over the past year had been negative for mycobacterial culture. Osteomyelitis in the hip may have developed secondary to hematogenous spread from the lungs with the acute lameness resulting from a pathologic fracture associated with this infection. Alternatively, though considered less likely, a traumatic fracture of the hip could have occurred, with bacterial inoculation and secondary osteomyelitis as a result of increased blood flow to the site. The source of infection for this elephant remains unknown.  Prevalence of this organism in the natural habitat or captive environment of the elephants has not been previously documented.
1 Abalain-Colloc, M.L., D. Guillerm, M. Salaun, S. Gouriou, V. Vincent, and B. Picard.  2003.  Mycobacterium szulgai isolated from a patient, a tropical fish, and aquarium water.  Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.  22: 768-769.
2.Cross, G.M., M. Guill, and J.K. Aton.  1985.  Cutaneous Mycobacterium szulgai infection. Arch. Dermatol. 121: 247-249.
3. Davidson, P.T. 1976. Mycobacterium szulgai: a new pathogen causing infection of the lung.  Chest 69: 799- 801.
4. Dylewski, J.S., H.M. Zackon, A.H. Latour, and G.R. Berry.  1987.  Mycobacterium szulgai: an unusual pathogen.  Rev. Infect. Dis.  9: 578-580.
5. Gur, H., S. Porat, H. Haas, Y. Naparstek, and M. Eliakim.  1984.  Disseminated mycobacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium szulgai. Arch. Intern. Med. 144: 1861-1863.
6.Holmes, G.P., G. Bond, R.C. Fader, and S.F. Fulcher.  2002. A cluster of cases of Mycobacterium szulgai keratitis that occurred after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.  Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 1039-1046.
7.Horusitzky, A., X. Puechal, D. Dumont, T. Begue, M. Robineau, and M. Boissier.  2000.  Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by Mycobacterium szulgai. J. Rheumatol 27: 1299-1302.
8.Hurr, H., and T. Sorg.  1998.  Mycobacterium szulgai osteomyelitis.  J. Infect.  37: 191-192.
9.Luque, A.E., D. Kaminski, R. Reichman, and D. Hardy. 1998.  Mycobacterium szulgai osteomyelitis in an AIDS patient. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30: 88-91.
10.Maloney, J.M., C.R. Gregg, D.S. Stephens, F.A. Manian, and D. Rimland.  1987.  Infections caused by Mycobacterium szulgai in humans.  Rev. Infect. Dis.  9: 1120-1126.
11.Marks, J., P.A. Jenkins, and M. Tsukamura.  1972.  Mycobacterium szulgai: a new pathogen.  Tubercle 53: 210.
12.Merlet, C., S. Aberrane, F. Chilot, and J. Laroche.  2000.  Carpal tunnel syndrome complicating hand flexor tenosynovitis due to Mycobacterium szulgai. Joint Bone Spine 67: 247-248.
13.Michalak, K., C. Austin, S. Diesel, J.M. Bacon, P. Zimmerman, and J. N. Maslow.  1998. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a zoonotic disease: transmission between humans and elephants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 283-287.
14.Mikota, S.K., R.S. Larsen, and R.J. Montali.  2000.  Tuberculosis in elephants in North America.  Zoo Biol. 19: 393-403.
15.National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species. 2000. Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in elephants.  USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services.
16.Oh, P., R. Granich, J. Scott, B. Sun, M. Joseph, C. Stringfield, S. Thisdell, J. Staley, D. Workman-Malcolm, L. Borenstein, E. Lehnkering, P. Ryan, J. Soukup, A. Nitta, and J. Flood.  2002.  Human exposure following  Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo.  Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1290-1293.
17.Payeur, J.B., J.L. Jarnagin, J.G. Marquardt, and D.L. Whipple.  2002.  Mycobacterial isolations in captive elephants in the United States.  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 969: 256-258.
18.Shojaei, H., J.G. Magee, R. Freeman, M. Yates, N.U. Horadagoda, and M. Goodfellow.  2000. Mycobacterium elephantis sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-chromogenic Mycobacterium isolated from an elephant.  Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.  50: 1817-1820.
19.Stratton, C.W., D.B. Phelps, and L.B. Reller.  1978.  Tuberculoid tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome caused by Mycobacterium szulgai.  Am. J. Med.  65: 349-351.
20.Tappe, D., P. Langmann, M. Zilly, H. Klinker, B. Schmausser, and M. Frosch.  2004.  Osteomyelitis and skin ulcers caused by Mycobacterium szulgai in an AIDS patient.  Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 36: 883-885.
21.Tortoli, E., G. Besozzi, C. Lacchini, V. Penati, M.T. Simonetti, and S. Emler.  1998.  Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium szulgai, case report and review of the literature.  Eur. Respir. J.  11: 975-977.

Larsen, R.S., Kay, M., Triantis, J., Salman, M.D. Update on serological detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants. 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  62-63. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis has become an important disease in captive elephants, particularly Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Diagnosing tuberculosis in elephants has been problematic as many tests have inadequate sensitivity or specificity.2-4 A multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was previously investigated for detecting infection in Asian elephants and African elephants (Loxodonta africana); this test had excellent sensitivity and specificity, but needed further evaluation.1 Modifications to the multiple-antigen ELISA panel have since been made. Valuable antigens were retained, other antigens were removed, and new ones were added.  This modified ELISA was re-evaluated, using serum from 68 Asian elephants. Sixteen had M. tuberculosis -positive trunk cultures, while 52 were either culture negative at necropsy or had a history of negative trunk cultures and no contact with infected elephants. Seven elephants were evaluated over time. The test was 100% (95% CI; 95-100%) specific and 94% (95% CI; 79-100%) sensitive using two of the six antigens (M. bovis strain AN5 culture filtrate and M. tuberculosis early secretory antigenic target 6). "Effectively-treated" elephants had decreasing seroreactivity, but those that were culture-positive post-treatment were more consistently seroreactive.  Although "effectivelytreated" elephants had declining seroreactivity, they still usually had higher values than animals that had never been infected. Serology continues to show great promise in detecting tuberculosis in elephants, often detecting infection months-to-years sooner than trunk wash culture.  Advances in techniques may soon make serology even more practical.  While serology should not replace trunk-wash culture, it is a useful adjunct for early detection of infection in elephants and for monitoring treatment.
ACKNOLWEDGMENTS We thank the many veterinarians, owners, caretakers, and managers of elephant-owning institutions that participated in this investigation, as well as Drs. Michele Miller and Susan Mikota for helping to coordinate sample collection. We also thank Kimberly Deines and other laboratory personnel who processed ELISA samples.  The study was partially funded by a grant from USDA, CSREES to Colorado State University Program of Economically Important Infectious Animal Diseases.
1.Larsen, R.S., M.D. Salman, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, R.J. Montali, and J. Triantis. 2000.  Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31: 291-302.
2. Mikota, S.K., L. Peddie, J. Peddie, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, G. West, W. Lindsay, R.S. Larsen, M.D. Salman, D. Chatterjee, J. Payeur, D. Whipple, C. Thoen, D.S. Davis, R.J. Montali and J. Maslow.  2001. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in six groups of elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 32: 1-16.
3. Mikota, S.K., R.S. Larsen, and R.J. Montali.  2000.  Tuberculosis in elephants in North America.  Zoo Biol. 19: 393-403.
4. U.S. Department of Agriculture.  2003.  Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in elephants.  Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Animal Care. Washington, D.C. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/TBGuidelines2003.pdf.

Lewerin, S.S., Olsson, S.L., Eld, K., Roken, B., Ghebremichael, S., Koivula, T., Kallenius, G., Bolske, G., 2005. Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo
637. Veterinary Record 156, 171-175.
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2003, there was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a Swedish zoo which involved elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. Cultures of trunk lavages were used to detect infected elephants, tuberculin testing was used in the giraffes and buffaloes, and tracheal lavage and tuberculin testing were used in the rhinoceroses. The bacteria isolated were investigated by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five elephants and one giraffe were found to have been infected by four different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Luikart, K.A., Stover, S.M., 2005. Chronic sole ulcerations associated with degenerative bone disease in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 36, 684-688.
Abstract: Chronic foot lesions and degenerative joint disease are common causes of morbidity in elephants. Lesions may become intractable and progressive despite intensive treatment regimens. The forelimbs of two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with chronic nonhealing sole ulcerations were examined using manual dissection and computed tomography. Both elephants had abnormal limb conformation that preceded the development of sole ulcerations. In both cases, sole ulcers were associated with remodeling and degeneration of underlying bones of the digits. Conformational abnormalities and altered weight distribution in these individuals may have induced compensatory bony degeneration and secondary ulcer formation. Sole ulcerations associated with digital abnormalities may have a guarded prognosis for resolution, even with aggressive treatment. Because limb conformational abnormalities could predispose to or result from chronic digital lesions, elephants with conformational abnormalities may have increased likelihood of having chronic sole ulcerations

Lyashchenko, K., Miller, M., Waters, W.R. Application of MAPIA (Multiple antigen print immunoassay) and rapid lateral flow technology for tuberculosis testing of elephants. 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  64-65. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious re-emerging disease in wildlife and zoo animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been isolated from 30 captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus within 14 herds in the United States (1994-2004) and Mycobacterium bovis has been isolated from one African elephant (Loxodonta africana) (Mikota, pers. comm.).3 There are several challenges with elephant TB diagnosis. Culture of trunk wash has relatively poor sensitivity and is subject to contamination.  Skin test is not validated in elephants and there is little reliability in these results.4   Serologic tests are appealing because  samples can be stored for future analysis, archived samples can be analyzed, various assay platforms can be directly compared, and these assays are amenable to serial analysis (e.g., to monitor therapy).  There is currently a multiple antigen ELISA test available for experimental use in elephants.1

To improve tuberculosis control, new diagnostic tools should be rapid, accurate, and host species-independent. Two novel serologic methods, MultiAntigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow technology (Rapid Test), have been adapted for use in white-tailed deer, European badger, cattle, and Asian and African elephants for the detection of TB-specific antibody. Serologic markers of diagnostic importance have been identified for each host tested so far. With MAPIA, a machine prints specific antigens horizontally on a nitrocellulose membrane which can be cut into strips and used in Western blot.2   Strips are incubated with test serum samples, then an anti-Ig conjugate and color developer.  Using this assay, an antibody response to multiple mycobacterial antigens has been observed in sera from M. tb-infected elephants. No antibody response was detected to any antigens in non-infected elephant sera.  Additionally, the kinetics of antibody responses by elephants undergoing antibiotic therapy indicates that the MAPIA could be used for monitoring treatment and to determine recrudescence of infection. 

Using selected antigens, a lateral-flow test was developed for rapid antibody detection that can be used in multiple species. The Rapid Test can use serum, plasma, or whole blood and provides results within 15 min.  These tests are similar to in-clinic tests for FIV/FeLV detection (snap test, IDDEX). If a band is present in the test strip, it indicates a positive reaction (antibody present).
A panel of sera from healthy and TB infected elephants showed good correlation between the MAPIA and the rapid test (Table 1).

In summary, it appears that TB-infected elephants produce a robust antibody response that can be detected in serologic assays.  Of special significance is the kinetics of the response, which may permit earlier detection of infection than current diagnostic methods.  While initial results are promising, additional studies are required to validate these two assays.  A relatively small set of serum samples from documented infected and non-infected elephants was used, and more samples are needed to further validate the tests. MAPIA has been used to optimize antigen selection in order to make the most sensitive and specific Rapid Test. This strategy may also allow for identification of "treatment-sensitive" antigens that could be used in the MAPIA format to monitor TB therapy.  While elephants will be used as an initial "proof of concept" species for test development, additional samples from other species will also be evaluated to determine applicability to other species (i.e., a host species-independent test), thus benefiting other groups such as primates, rhinos, cervids, etc.


The authors thank the zoos and individuals that have provided samples and assistance with this research, including Ray Ball, Carol Buckley, Jenifer Chatfield, Genny Dumonceaux, Javan Esfandiary, Rena Greenwald, Scott Larsen, Susan Mikota, Torsten Moller, Dick Montali, Mike Richards, Heidi Riddle, Mo Salman, Scott Terrell, and many others.  This research was supported by Chembio Diagnostics, Inc.
1 Larsen, R.S., M.D. Salman, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, R.J. Montali, and J. Triantis. 2000.  Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  
  infection in captive elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31:291-302.
2 Lyashchenko, K., et al.  2000. A multiantigen print immunoassay for the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases.  J. Immunol. Methods  242:91-100. 
3 Mikota, S.K., and J. Maslow.  2002.  Epidemiology and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants:  2002.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Annu. Meet.  Pp. 384-387.

Morrison, T.A., Chiyo, P.I., Moss, C.J., Alberts, S.C., 2005. Measures of dung bolus size for known-age African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for age estimation. Journal of Zoology 266, 89-94.
Abstract: The availability of a population of mostly known-age African elephants  Loxodonta africana from Amboseli National Park, Kenya, provided a  unique  opportunity to assess the use of dung bolus diameter for estimating  age. A predictive equation for estimating dung bolus diameters from elephants of known age was derived and was found to follow the typical growth pattern exhibited by changes in shoulder height and foot length. The relationship between measurements of dung bolus and age was particularly strong when growth rates were high (age 0-25 years). The dung bolus growth curve from Amboseli elephants was similar to that derived from another wild population of African elephants, suggesting that dung bolus diameter can be used to assess age structure in areas where it is impossible to construct independent prediction curves of age and dung bolus.

Natiello, M., Lewis, P., Samuelson, D., 2005. Comparative anatomy of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and selected species. Vet. Ophthalmol. 8, 375-385.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the anatomy of the ciliary body in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), paying close attention to its vascularization and to compare to those of its distant relative, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the amphibious hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the aquatic short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus). PROCEDURE: Specimens from each species were preserved in 10% buffered formalin, and observed stereomicroscopically before being embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained by Masson trichrome, hematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff for light microscopic evaluation. RESULTS: The network of blood vessels in the ciliary processes of the West Indian manatee appear to have an intricate pattern, especially with regard to venous outflow. Those of the elephant are slightly less complex, while those of the hippopotamus and whale have different vascular patterns within the ciliary body. Musculature within the ciliary body is absent within the manatee and pilot whale. CONCLUSIONS: In general, there appears to be a direct relationship between the increased development of vasculature and the loss of musculature within the ciliary bodies of the aquatic and amphibious mammals presently studied. Specifically, the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee has a comparatively unique construction, especially with regard to its vasculature.

Panzer, R., 2005. Traditional Chinese veterinary medical therapy. In: Colahan, P.T., Merritt, A.M., Moore, J.N., Mayhew, I.G. (Eds.), Equine Medicine and Surgery. Mosby, St. Louis MO USA, pp. 201-208.

Perez-Barberia, F.J., Gordon, I.J., 2005. Gregariousness increases brain size in ungulates
586. Oecologia. 145, 41-52.
Abstract: The brain's main function is to organise the physiological and behavioural responses to environmental and social challenges in order to keep the organism alive. Here, we studied the effects that gregariousness (as a measurement of sociality), dietary habits, gestation length and sex have on brain size of extant ungulates. The analysis controlled for the effects of phylogeny and for random variability implicit in the data set. We tested the following groups of hypotheses: (1) Social brain hypothesis-gregarious species are more likely to have larger brains than non-gregarious species because the former are subjected to demanding and complex social interactions; (2) Ecological hypothesis-dietary habits impose challenging cognitive tasks associated with finding and manipulating food (foraging strategy); (3) Developmental hypotheses (a) energy strategy: selection for larger brains operates, primarily, on maternal metabolic turnover (i.e. gestation length) in relation to food quality because the majority of the brain's growth takes place in utero, and finally (b) sex hypothesis: females are expected to have larger brains than males, relative to body size, because of the differential growth rates of the soma and brain between the sexes. We found that, after adjusting for body mass, gregariousness and gestation length explained most of the variation in brain mass across the ungulate species studied. Larger species had larger brains; gregarious species and those with longer gestation lengths, relative to body mass, had larger brains than non-gregarious species and those with shorter gestation lengths. The effect of diet was negligible and subrogated by gestation length, and sex had no significant effect on brain size. The ultimate cause that could have triggered the co-evolution between gestation length and brain size remains unclear

Rahman, S.A., Walker, L., Ricketts, W., 2005. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania
536. Rev. Sci. Tech. 24, 597-612.
Abstract: In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities

Rasmussen, H.B., Wittemyer, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I., 2005. Estimating age of immobilized elephants from teeth impressions using dental silicon. African Journal of Ecology 43, 215-219.
Abstract: High precision condensation dental silicon, ZetalaborTM, was used to create moulds of the lower jaw molars from 22 immobilized African elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenback) during radio collaring operations. These moulds were used to determine the elephant's age using Laws and Jachmann's molar aging criteria. The technique proved easy and fast and produced useful imprints in 90% of the cases. We found our age estimates, based on physical appearance, made prior to immobilizations were relatively accurate, with 75% within ±3 years and 95% within ±5 years from the age indicated from molar evaluation. When re-collaring the same individuals in 2-3 years, new moulds will be made to compare a known time period with the degree of tooth wear. This will provide verification of Laws age estimates from free-ranging elephants.

Raubenheimer, E.J., Ngwenya, S.P., 2005. The role of ivory in the survival of the African elephant
510. SADJ. 60, 426, 430.
Abstract: The unique chequered pattern of polished ivory has created a perverted commercial demand for elephant tusks. The morphologic basis of the pattern, which makes ivory a sought after product for the manufacturing of works of art, is discussed. Chemical analyses of ivory holds great potential in tracing the source of illegally harvested tusks and exposing poorly managed elephant sanctuaries. The impact of uncontrolled ivory hunting on the population genetics of the African elephant is briefly reviewed

Roth, G., Dicke, U., 2005. Evolution of the brain and intelligence
612. Trends Cogn Sci. 9, 250-257.
Abstract: Intelligence has evolved many times independently among vertebrates. Primates, elephants and cetaceans are assumed to be more intelligent than 'lower' mammals, the great apes and humans more than monkeys, and humans more than the great apes. Brain properties assumed to be relevant for intelligence are the (absolute or relative) size of the brain, cortex, prefrontal cortex and degree of encephalization. However, factors that correlate better with intelligence are the number of cortical neurons and conduction velocity, as the basis for information-processing capacity. Humans have more cortical neurons than other mammals, although only marginally more than whales and elephants. The outstanding intelligence of humans appears to result from a combination and enhancement of properties found in non-human primates, such as theory of mind, imitation and language, rather than from 'unique' properties

Slotow, R., Garai, M.E., Reilly, B., Page, B., Carr, R.D., 2005. Population dynamics of elephants re-introduced to small fenced reserves in South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35, 23-32.
Abstract: By 2001, elephants had been translocated (mainly from Kruger National Park) to 58 small, fenced reserves in South Africa. All but two introductions took place since 1989. We document important aspects of the population dynamics of elephants in these reserves using data collected in a survey conducted in 2001. The mean population size was 45 elephants, with an average density of 0.25 elephants/square km. Populations have a female bias with 0.79 males to females. Populations have 19% adult males, and 31% adult females. On average, almost 50% of the population comprises adult and subadult females, indicating an immanent potential for large population growth. Births were not significantly different from a 1:1 sex ratio. When two extreme populations were removed, mean mortality rate was 0.4% per annum. Population growth rates averaged 8.3%, but five reserves had growth rates above 13%, and the highest annual growth rate was 16.5% per annum. Twenty-seven populations already have densities above 0.2 elephants/square km, and eight reserves have densities above 0.4 2 elephants/square km. Assuming a 12% per annum growth (feasible given the data presented), over half the reserves will have densities above 0.33 elephants/square km within five years. These results indicate that the translocation of elephants has been successful, with most populations reproducing at a rate far exceeding expectations. This has serious implications for owners and managers, as some form of population control (contraception, removals, culling etc.) needs to be urgently planned for implementation as soon as possible in most, and probably all small reserves.

Soltis, J., Leong, K., Savage, A., 2005. African elephant vocal communication II: Rumble variation reflects the individual identity and emotional state of callers. Animal Behaviour 70, 589-599.
Abstract: The most common vocalization of the African elephant, Loxodonta  africana, is the rumble, but there is no consensus as to how many rumble subtypes exist. From the standpoint of social function, many types of rumble have been proposed. From a structural standpoint, however, few studies have examined detailed acoustic measurements of a large number of calls. We analysed 270 rumbles from six adult female African elephants housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom (Lake Buena Vista, Florida, U.S.A.). Subjects wore collars outfitted with microphones and radiotransmitters that allowed recording of vocalizations from identified individuals. Rumble vocalizations were digitized and both source and filter features were measured for each call. Behavioural and endocrine data were collected so that acoustical data could be placed into the context of ongoing social behaviour and reproductive state. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that, from a structural standpoint, rumbles from this captive setting could not be divided into distinct subtypes, but there was extensive acoustic variation across rumbles. Discriminant function analysis and MANOVA were employed to further explore this variation. First, acoustic characteristics varied according to the individual identity of the caller. Second, rumbles varied as a function of negative emotional arousal. When associating with dominant animals, subordinate females produced rumbles with lower cepstral coefficients, suggesting low tonality and unstable pitch in the voice, compared to rumbles produced outside of the presence of dominant animals. Rumbles as a whole did not cluster into distinct acoustic types, but structural variation in rumbles reflected the individual identity and emotional state of callers.

Speakman, J.R., 2005. Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan
613. J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1717-1730.
Abstract: Bigger animals live longer. The scaling exponent for the relationship between lifespan and body mass is between 0.15 and 0.3. Bigger animals also expend more energy, and the scaling exponent for the relationship of resting metabolic rate (RMR) to body mass lies somewhere between 0.66 and 0.8. Mass-specific RMR therefore scales with a corresponding exponent between -0.2 and -0.33. Because the exponents for mass-specific RMR are close to the exponents for lifespan, but have opposite signs, their product (the mass-specific expenditure of energy per lifespan) is independent of body mass (exponent between -0.08 and 0.08). This means that across species a gram of tissue on average expends about the same amount of energy before it dies regardless of whether that tissue is located in a shrew, a cow, an elephant or a whale. This fact led to the notion that ageing and lifespan are processes regulated by energy metabolism rates and that elevating metabolism will be associated with premature mortality--the rate of living theory. The free-radical theory of ageing provides a potential mechanism that links metabolism to ageing phenomena, since oxygen free radicals are formed as a by-product of oxidative phosphorylation. Despite this potential synergy in these theoretical approaches, the free-radical theory has grown in stature while the rate of living theory has fallen into disrepute. This is primarily because comparisons made across classes (for example, between birds and mammals) do not conform to the expectations, and even within classes there is substantial interspecific variability in the mass-specific expenditure of energy per lifespan. Using interspecific data to test the rate of living hypothesis is, however, confused by several major problems. For example, appeals that the resultant lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is 'too variable' depend on the biological significance rather than the statistical significance of the variation observed. Moreover, maximum lifespan is not a good marker of ageing and RMR is not a good measure of total energy metabolism. Analysis of residual lifespan against residual RMR reveals no significant relationship. However, this is still based on RMR. A novel comparison using daily energy expenditure (DEE), rather than BMR, suggests that lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is NOT independent of body mass, and that tissue in smaller animals expends more energy before expiring than tissue in larger animals. Some of the residual variation in this relationship in mammals is explained by ambient temperature. In addition there is a significant negative relationship between residual lifespan and residual daily energy expenditure in mammals. A potentially much better model to explore the links of body size, metabolism and ageing is to examine the intraspecific links. These studies have generated some data that support the original rate of living theory and other data that conflict. In particular several studies have shown that manipulating animals to expend more or less energy generate the expected effects on lifespan (particularly when the subjects are ectotherms). However, smaller individuals with higher rates of metabolism live longer than their slower, larger conspecifics. An addition to these confused observations has been the recent suggestion that under some circumstances we might expect mitochondria to produce fewer free radicals when metabolism is higher--particularly when they are uncoupled. These new ideas concerning the manner in which mitochondria generate free radicals as a function of metabolism shed some light on the complexity of observations linking body size, metabolism and lifespan

Vinogradov, I.V., Kochneva, G.V., Malkova, E.M., Shchelkunov, S.N., Riabchikova, E.I., 2005. [Intranasal infection in mice inoculated with cowpox virus strain EP-2 isolated from the elephant]
579. Vopr. Virusol. 50, 37-42.
Abstract: The specific features of reproduction of EP-2 strain of cowpox virus (CPV) were studied in intranasally infected BALC/C mice by light and electron microscopy. Virus replication was found in the ciliated, intercalary, basal, and goblet cells (the nasal respiratory area), basal and supporting cells (the nasal olfactory area), ciliated, intercalary, goblet cells (the tracheal and bronchial epithelium), and collagen-producing, Schwann's, endothelial, smooth muscle, and adventitial cells. It has been shown that the CPV strain EP-2 locally replicates in the nasal cavity, trachea, and large bronchi and that there is no generalized infection

Wittemyer, D., Daballen, H., Rasmussen, H., Kahindi, O., Douglas-Hamilton, I., 2005. Demographic status of elephants in the Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 43, 44-47.
Abstract: Individual based demographic records of the elephants utilizing Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves were collected from 1998 through 2003 and indicate that this elephant population was increasing at an average rate of 4.6% per year. Although the majority of carcasses were not found, known sources of mortality include disease, injury, and predation by lions and humans. Poaching did occur during the study period, however the population is increasing and thus our findings indicate ivory poaching has limited impact on the demographic status of these elephants. This population is part of the Samburu/Laikipia MIKE Site and thus its status is relevant to CITES legislation.

Agatsuma, T., Rajapakse, R.P., Kuruwita, V.Y., Iwagami, M., Rajapakse, R.C., 2004. Molecular taxonomic position of the elephant schistosome, Bivitellobilharzia nairi, newly discovered in Sri Lanka
745. Parasitol. Int. 53, 69-75.
Abstract: Bivitellobilharzia nairi (Mudaliar and Ramanujachar, 1945) Dutt and Srivastava, 1955 was first recorded in India. A number of adult worm specimens of this schistosome species were recovered from a domestic elephant, which died in 1999 in Sri Lanka. This is the first report of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. In the present study, in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationship with other species of schistosomes, sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal gene repeat, part of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S), and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from B. nairi were analyzed. Two intraspecific variations were seen within 13 individuals in the ITS2 region. In the CO1 region of the mitochondrial DNA, there were four haplotypes in the nucleotide sequences and two haplotypes in the amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear DNA showed that B. nairi was basal to all of species of the genus Schistosoma. The 28S tree also showed that the mammalian lineage was monophyletic. However, phylogenetic analysis using the mitochondrial DNA showed that B. nairi was nested within the genus Schistosoma. The taxonomical position for this species as well as the contradiction between the results from the nuclear and mitochondrial genes were discussed

Agnew, D.W., Munson, L., Ramsay, E.C., 2004. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in elephants
741. Vet. Pathol. 41, 179-183.
Abstract: Most captive female elephants are nulliparous and aged and many have endometrial disease, factors that may hinder fertility. This study characterized the pathologic features and demographic distribution of endometrial lesions from 27 captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and 13 African elephants (Loxodonta africanus), 12- to 57-years of age. The principal lesion was marked cystic and polypoid endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), present in 67% of Asian and 15% of African elephants ranging from 26 to 57 years. The lower prevalence in African elephants likely reflects their younger age range in this study. Fourteen of 15 affected elephants with breeding information were nulliparous. These results suggest that CEH and polyps are common in aged nulliparous elephants, and the severity of these lesions may impair fertility. These findings will be useful in the interpretation of ultrasonographic findings during reproductive examinations of potential breeding cows. Also, breeding programs should focus on younger animals

Aguirre, A.A., Pearl, M.C. New technology and sorta situ: conservation medicine linking captive and wildlife populations. 2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE.  453-455. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: At Conservation medicine is defined as the study of the relationship between human ecologicalisturbance and the biologic health of populations and ecosystems, and the practice of applying this knowledge to biodiversity conservation and attempting to achieve ecological health. The applied goal of conservation medicine is both to improve the health of all living organisms and to conserve biodiversity. Through this discipline, veterinarians, physicians, wildlife ecologists and other conservation professionals are working together to provide an ecological context for health management in relation to many complex environmental issues facing the world today.Conservation Medicine places an emphasis on system thinking and discovering linkages, and consequently, is transdisciplinary.1,2

Human impact on the environment and ecological processes is well documented. Habitat destruction and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions that include, the alteration of disease transmission patterns (i.e., emerging diseases), the accumulation of environmental contaminants and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. The health implications of these disturbing events require novel strategies for disease prevention, health management and conservation. Complex environmental problems increasingly require transdisciplinary solutions, new technologies that can be facilitated through interinstitutional collaborations. These changes call for a sorta situ approach to conservation, a fusion of ex-situ developed skills including small population management, hands-on care and special skills (veterinary, molecular, reproductive physiology) linked to field skills that include habitat restoration, community-based conservation
and behavioral ecology (Table 1).

The presence of disease in individuals and populations can be an indicator of environmental health including local and global environmental impacts and ecosystem changes. All over the world, previously contiguous expanses of wild lands are being fragmented by encroachment of agriculture and other human activities. Habitat fragmentation and destruction are having many serious effects on threatened species. Using science, wildlife management, veterinary care, training and education, we are working toward mitigating the impacts of fragmentation on species whose survival will necessarily be within small, often isolated, habitat patches. A key area for this work is the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, the most endangered rainforest on the planet and only 2% of its original extent remains. Within these forest fragments are some of world's most endangered wildlife and planet species including the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). This ecosystem creates opportunities for disease transmission among species of wildlife, livestock, and humans.  However, the species of wildlife, the diseases, the climate, and the forest structure and composition are all different, as are the economics and sociology of managing these issues. Wildlife Trust is developing a buffer zone research effort and examining the health, the risk of disease transmission among fragments, and the viability of black lion tamarins  inhabiting this rainforest.

Human population expansion and unsustainable rural development are serious problems for much of the developing world, and climatic and environmental change has exacerbated the situation. The environmental consequences of these two issues are vast including loss of species and genetic diversity, and the spread of disease. In much of the developing world, these issues are reflected in an overall drop in the quality of life, with an increased proportion of the people living in abject poverty, and the ever-increasing unsustainable use of what should be renewable natural resources. In Southeast Asia these pressures have led the fragmentation or loss of much of elephant habitat. India has experienced extensive loss of most of the major wildlife populations over the years, leading to vegetative imbalances and a general deterioration in ecosystem health. Wildlife Trust is working with several local institutions to reverse these trends, and to stabilize or even restore elephant critical ecosystems. This endeavor will require a truly integrated sorta situ approach, and the collaborative efforts of many partners.the present time, the importance of wildlife diseases is recognized by private and governmentalagencies in few countries. Wildlife Trust has ongoing collaboration with Mexican institutionsregarding efforts to diagnose and control disease in migratory Neotropical bird populations duringtheir wintering migration. Increasing data on disease agents in a greater number of species and scattered locations raise questions regarding the possibilities of disease introduction and exchange between geographic areas. There is supported evidence of annual reintroduction of pathogens from areas south of the US by migratory birds such as West Nile encephalitis, avian influenza, equine encephalitis, Newcastle disease and avian cholera. Surveillance for currently known diseases and isolation of new etiologic agents can be the initial attempt to establish the status of these diseases in Mexico. We are coordinating the effort to form a wildlife health cooperative in Mexico.


1. Aguirre, A. A., R. S. Ostfeld, G. M. Tabor, C. A. House and M. C. Pearl (eds.). 2002. ConservationMedicine: Ecological Health in Practice. Oxford University Press, New York, 407 pp.
2. Tabor, G. M., R. S. Ostfeld, M. Poss, A. P. Dobson, and A. A. Aguirre. 2001. Conservation biology and the health sciences: defining the research priorities of conservation medicine. In: M. E. Soulé and G. H. PrioritieOrians, eds. Research s in Conservation Biology. 2nd edition. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Pp 165-173

Albrecht, K., Breitmeier, D., Fieguth, A., Troger, H.D., 2004. Fatalities after injuries by wild animals. Arch Kriminol 212, 96-103.
Abstract: The article summarises three fatalities after attacks by wild animals. The first case describes a 90-year-old woman who died as a result of pneumonia after a bear fell on her and caused multiple chest fractures. The second case deals with a 76-year-old woman who was hit in the middle face by the hoof of a camel and, thereafter, died of myocardial infarction. The third case describes a 27-year-old biologist who died from severe blunt trauma after an attack of a wild living elephant. The article gives a summary of typical injury patterns of selected wild animals and outlines potential reasons of death as a result of the injuries.  Institut fur Rechtsmedizin, Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover.

Boy, S.C., Steenkamp, G., 2004. Neural innervation of the tusk pulp of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)
730. Veterinary Record 154, 372-374.

Bradshaw, I.G.A., 2004. Not by Bread Alone: Symbolic Loss, Trauma, and Recovery in Elephant Communities. Society And Animals 12, 143-158.
Abstract: Like many humans in the wake of genocide and war, most wildlife today has sustained trauma. High rates of mortality, habitat destruction, and social breakdown precipitated by human actions are unprecedented in history. Elephants are one of many species dramatically affected by violence. Although elephant communities have processes, rituals, and social structures for responding to trauma - grieving, mourning, and socialization - the scale, nature, and magnitude of human violence have disrupted their ability to use these practices. Absent the cultural, carrier groups (murdered elephant matriarchs and elders) who traditionally lead and teach these healing practices, humans must assume the role. Trauma theory has brought attention to victims' severe, sustained psychological damage. Looking through the lens of trauma theory provides a better understanding of how systematic violence has affected individuals and groups and how the pervasive nature of traumatic events affects human-nonhuman animal relationships. The framing of recent trauma theory compels conservationists to create new relationships - neither anthropocentric nor powerbased - with nonhuman animals. The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, Kenya, shows how humans, taking on the role of interspecies witness, bring orphan elephants back to health and help re-build elephant communities shattered by genocide.

Brown, J.L., Walker, S.L., Moeller, T., 2004. Comparative endocrinology of cycling and non-cycling Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants
729. Gen. Comp Endocrinol. 136, 360-370.
Abstract: Up to 14% of Asian and 29% of African elephants in captivity are not cycling normally or exhibit irregular cycles based on progestin profiles. To determine if ovarian acyclicity is related to other disruptions in endocrine activity, serum pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and ovarian hormones in weekly samples collected for 6-25 months were compared between normal cycling (n=22 each species) and non-cycling (n=6 Asian; n=30 African) elephants. A subset of cycling females (n=4 Asian, 7 African) also were blood sampled daily during the follicular phase to characterize the peri-ovulatory period. In normal cycling females, two leutinizing hormone (LH) surges were observed 3 weeks apart during a normal follicular phase, with the second inducing ovulation (ovLH). Serum FSH concentrations were highest at the beginning of the non-luteal phase, declining to nadir concentrations within 4 days of the ovLH surge. FSH remained low until after the ovLH surge and then increased during the luteal phase. A species difference was noted in prolactin secretion. In the African elephant, prolactin was increased during the follicular phase, but in Asian elephants concentrations remained stable throughout the cycle. Patterns of thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH; free and total thyroxine, T4; free and total triiodothyronine, T3) and cortisol secretion were not affected by estrous cycle stage or season in cycling elephants. In non-cycling elephants, there were no fluctuating patterns of LH, FSH, or prolactin secretion. Overall mean concentrations of all hormones were similar to those in cycling animals, with the exception of FSH, prolactin, and estradiol. Mean serum FSH concentrations were lower due to females not exhibiting normal cyclic increases, whereas serum estradiol was higher overall in most acyclic females. Prolactin concentrations were significantly increased in 11 of 30 non-cycling females, all of which were African elephants. In sum, while there were no consistent endocrine anomalies associated with ovarian acyclicity, hyperprolactinemia may be one cause of ovarian dysfunction. The finding of elevated estrogens in some acyclic females also deserves further investigation, especially determining how it relates to reproductive tract pathologies

Brown, J.L., Olson, D., Keele, M., Freeman, E.W., 2004. Survey of the reproductive cyclicity status of Asian and African elephants in North America. Zoo Biology 23, 309-321.
Abstract: The Asian and African elephant populations in North America are not self sustaining, and reproductive rates remain low. One problem identified from routine progestagen analyses is that some elephant females do not exhibit normal ovarian cycles. To better understand the extent of this problem, the Elephant TAG/SSP conducted a survey to determine the reproductive status of the captive population based on hormone and ultrasound evaluations. The survey response rates for facilities with Asian and African elephants were 81% and 71%, respectively, for the studbook populations, and nearly 100% for the SSP facilities. Of the elephants surveyed, 49% of Asian and 62% of African elephant females were being monitored for ovarian cyclicity via serum or urinary progestagen analyses on a weekly basis. Of these, 14% of Asian and 29% of African elephants either were not cycling at all or exhibited irregular cycles. For both species, ovarian inactivity was more prevalent in the older age categories (>30 years); however, acyclicity was found in all age groups of African elephants. Fewer elephant females (B30%) had been examined by transrectal ultrasound to assess reproductive-tract integrity, and corresponding hormonal data were available for about three-quarters of these females. Within this subset, most (B75%) cycling females had normal reproductive-tract morphologies, whereas at least 70% of noncycling females exhibited some type of ovarian or uterine pathology. In summary, the survey results suggest that ovarian inactivity is a significant reproductive problem for elephants held in zoos, especially African elephants. To increase the fecundity of captive elephants, females should be bred at a young age, before reproductive pathologies occur. However, a significant number of older Asian elephants are still not being reproductively monitored. More significantly, many prime reproductive-age (10-30 years) African females are not being monitored. This lack of information makes it difficult to determine what factors affect the reproductive health of elephants, and to develop mitigating treatments to reinitiate reproductive cyclicity.

Buchanan, K.L., Goldsmith, A.R., 2004. Noninvasive endocrine data for behavioural studies: The importance of validation. Animal Behaviour 67, 183-185.
Abstract: There has been a substantial growth recently in the use of noninvasive methods to quantify hormone production, through the measurement of excreted hormones or hormone levels from saliva, sweat or hair (e.g.Wasser et al. 2000; Cook 2002; Pfeffer et al. 2002). These measures can quantify either current (e.g. Berg & Wynne-Edwards 2002; Maso et al. 2002) or past (e.g. Wasser et al. 2000; Ostner et al. 2002) levels of hormone production and the data can be used to determine the relations between a range of hormone levels and animal behaviour across taxa (Wasser et al. 2000). Such techniques have been used extensively to examine social stress (Goymann et al. 2001), the effects of environmental stress (Creel et al. 2002), reproductive cycles (Curtis et al. 2000) and social dominance (von Engelhardt et al. 2000; Langmore et al. 2002). They may have important applications in conservation science (Ishii 1999). There are several reasons why noninvasive methods of sampling are highly desirable. Importantly, animal suffering can potentially be reduced. In practical terms there are also several advantages: noninvasive methods allow samples to be obtained retrospectively, which represent average hormone production over a certain time frame, and the time spent handling the animal does not affect the levels obtained, which is advantageous for highly pulsatile hormones such as corticosteroids. In addition, the licensing constraints for noninvasive methods of sampling are less restrictive. However, such techniques also have disadvantages. In particular, faecal, hair or feather samples can indicate only average hormone levels over a considerable, and possibly unknown, period. Compared with plasma levels, noninvasive measures may result in a loss of sensitivity in any further analyses examining the relations between hormone levels and other variables (Shirtcliff et al. 2002). Furthermore, faecal samples in particular may not be available from known individuals a known amount of time after excretion, preventing reliable determination of individual hormone levels. It is also worth considering that while noninvasive sampling will not cause large increases in pulsatile 'stress' hormones as caused by capture and restraint, some increase may occur merely as a result of the presence of the sampler. In addition, there are a number of validation issues concerning the quantification of steroids from noninvasive samples which we outline below. Koren et al. (2002) documented a protocol for the extraction of testosterone and cortisol from hair obtained from the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis. They used this technique to quantify the levels of hormones contained in plucked hair samples, allowing hormone levels during the period of hair production to be determined, noninvasively. They found that the levels of testosterone extracted correlated positively with the dominance rank of male hyraxes. Although such methods are highly desirable, it is important to emphasize that all new methods of measuring levels of hormone production using hormone extracted from organic substrates should be appropriately validated, such that the limitations of the technique can be defined. This requires: (1) that the assay is validated for each new species and substrate and (2) that the extraction efficiency is determined for the target hormone in the species and substrate of interest. Although ready-made endocrine kits are provided with some data on the assay validation, the validation is relevant only for the species and substrate tested by the commercial supplier, generally in a limited range of biological media. It is essential to extend these validations for the species and substrate to which the kit is being applied. For example, a methanol extract of hair may contain substances that interfere with the assay procedure and thus would give misleading results.

Burks, K.D., Mellen, J.D., Miller, G.W., Lehnhardt, J., Weiss, A., Figueredo, A.J., Maple, T.L., 2004. Comparison of two introduction methods for African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology 23,  109-126.
Managers must consider an animal's potential for aggression when they decide to change or form a captive social group formation. In this study we compared two introduction methods (termed "sequential" and "nonsequential" introductions) in African elephants to assess their effectiveness in managing aggression and minimizing stress. Both introduction methods included four phases: baseline, visual contact, limited tactile contact, and physical introduction. In the sequential introduction, these steps were followed sequentially, and empirical data were considered during decision-making. In the nonsequential introduction, these steps were not followed sequentially, and decision-making was based primarily on intuitive assessments by animal managers. Behavioral data and fecal corticoid concentrations were measured throughout both types of introduction. The behavior categories measured included active aggression, passive aggression, submissive behavior, undesirable/stress-related behavior, and affiliative behavior. While the role of affiliative behavior was surprising, general behavior patterns were characterized by increases in behavior as animals progressed to the next phase of introduction regardless of introduction type. These increases then attenuated over time during each phase. Overall, less behavior was observed during the sequential introduction, as predicted.  The data suggest that the sequential introduction managed aggression more effectively. Similar patterns were predicted for undesirable/stress-related behavior and fecal corticoid concentration. Undesirable/stress-related behavior was a poor predictor of observed behavior patterns. Although the patterns differed from those predicted, higher concentrations of fecal corticoids were measured during the nonsequential introduction and correlated significantly only with submissive behavior. While more investigation is warranted, the data indicate that the nonsequential introduction brought about an increased physiological response. Overall, the sequential introduction method appeared to manage aggression and stress better than the nonsequential technique. Every introduction is subject to factors that can influence success, such as staff experience, the design of the facility, and the animals' social histories. It is hoped that the rigorous sequential protocol will be a useful tool in the animal manager's "toolbox" for planning and implementing introductions. Applications of this introduction method are also discussed.

Dangolla, A., Silva, I., Kuruwita, V.Y., 2004. Neuroleptanalgesia in wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus maximus)
662. Vet. Anaesth. Analg. 31, 276-279.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the suitability of etorphine with acepromazine for producing prolonged neuroleptanalgesia in wild Asian elephants. ANIMALS: Ten adult wild elephants (four males, six females), free-roaming in the jungles of the north-western province of Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten wild elephants were tranquilized for attachment of radio transmitter collars from September to November 1997, using Large-Animal Immobilon (C-Vet Veterinary Products, Leyland, UK), which is a combination of etorphine (2.45 mg mL(-1)) and acepromazine (10 mg mL(-1)). This was injected using projectile syringes fired from a Cap-Chur gun (Palmer Chemical Co. Inc., Atlanta, USA). A volume of 3.3 (2.5-4.5) mL Immobilon (6.12-11.02 mg of etorphine and 25-45 mg acepromazine) was injected intramuscularly after body mass estimation of individual elephants. RESULTS: The body condition of all darted elephants was good, and the mean (minimum-maximum) shoulder height was 225 (180-310) cm. The average approximate distance to elephants at firing was 26 (15-50) m. The average time to recumbency after injection was 18 (15-45) minutes. Nine out of 10 elephants remained in lateral recumbency (and did not require additional dosing) for a period of 42 (28-61) minutes. The respiratory and heart rates during anaesthesia were 7 (4-10) breaths and 52 (40-60) beats minute(-1), respectively. An equal volume (8.15-14.67 mg) of diprenorphine hydrochloride (Revivon, 3.26 mg mL(-1) diprenorphine; C-Veterinary Products, Leyland, UK) was given intravenously when the procedure was completed. Recovery (return to standing position) occurred in 6 (2-12) minutes after diprenorphine injection. Immediately afterwards, all elephants slowly retreated into the jungle without complications. Continuous radio tracking of the animals involved in this study indicated no post-operative mortality for several months after restraint. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Etorphine-acepromazine combinations can be used safely in healthy wild Asian elephants for periods of restraint lasting up to 1 hour

Debruyne, R., 2004. [Contribution of molecular phylogeny and morphometrics to the systematics of African elephants]
590. J. Soc. Biol. 198, 335-342.
Abstract: African elephants are conventionally classified as a single species: Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach 1797). However, the discovery in 1900 of a smaller form of the African elephant, spread throughout the equatorial belt of this land, has given rise to a debate over the relevance of a second species of elephant in Africa. The twentieth century has not provided any definite answer to this question. Actually, recent molecular analyses have sustained this issue by advocating either a division of forest elephants into a valid species, or their inclusion as a subspecies of L. africana. Our work initiated at the National Museum of Natural History of Paris provides new molecular (mitochondrial) and morphological (and morphometrical) evidence making it possible to propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. It appears that there is no conclusive argument to keep forest elephants (cyclotis form) and savannah elephants (africana form) apart in two distinct species. A high level of mitochondrial introgression between the two forms, as well as a continuum in the morphology of the skulls of the two morphotypes rather suggests that, despite an ancient division, these two taxa freely interbreed wherever their ranges intersect. We thus adopt a conservative systematic position in considering these two forms as two subspecies, respectively: L. africana africana, the savannah elephant, and L. africana cyclotis, the forest elephant. We finally discuss the conservation topic in the light of this systematic framework

Dembiec, D.P., Snider, R.J., Zanella, A.J., 2004. The effects of transport stress on tiger physiology and behavior. Zoo Biology 23, 335-346.
Abstract: Tigers are often transported for education, conservation, and zoo enhancement purposes, however the effect of transfer on them has not yet been documented. Our objective was to evaluate how transport affects the behavior and physiology of tigers, taking into account previous experience with the transport procedure. We simulated transport by relocating naive tigers in a small individual transfer cage. Two tigers had prior experience with the procedure, and three tigers were naive to it. After 30 min, each tiger was released back into their original enclosure. Physiological measurements were recorded for four of the naive tigers; these included respiration rate and immune-reactive fecal cortisol response using radioimmunoassay. We also recorded the behavior of all naive tigers before, during, and after transport. Our behavioral analysis included activity level, pacing behavior, time spent investigating, respiration rate, and ear position. Average respiration rates of all tigers increased from 56.1 breaths/min to 94.6 breaths/min during transport and to 132.3 breaths/min 10 min following release into their enclosures. Average immune-reactive cortisol concentrations peaked 3-6 days after transport at 239% above baseline and returned to baseline levels 9-12 days afterward. During t
heir peak time block, naýve tigers exhibited a higher average increase in cortisol levels (482% above baseline) than the experienced tigers (158% above baseline). The naýve tigers' average immune-reactive cortisol concentration remained elevated for a longer period (9-12 days) than the experienced tigers' (3-6 days). In both groups, behavioral responses ranged from active to inactive, however naýve tigers performed these repertoires with greater intensity by pacing faster and performing fewer state changes. Results suggest that prior exposure to elements of the transport procedure may lead to some level of habituation, thus reducing the effects of transportation stress.

Elvin, M., 2004. The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. Yale University Press.
Abstract: Review from Nature 430, 505 - 506 (29 July 2004):                
Pity the poor elephants! Over more than 4,000 years they were gradually forced from living all over China to a few protected enclaves near the border with Burma. The main reason was the destruction of their habitat as humans cut down forests and introduced agriculture. Farmers found the dwindling elephant herds a nuisance, as crops were trampled and plundered. Others came to value elephants for military, transport and ceremonial purposes: their ivory was prized and their trunks became a gourmet delicacy. Elephant numbers shrank until they were little more than a memory for most Chinese. Mark Elvin uses the decline of the elephant as an allegory to illustrate the transformation of the Chinese environment to the end of pre-industrial times. Some of the same story can be seen in Africa today.

Elvin's book is not so much an environmental history of China as a collection of its fragments. With copious quotations from Chinese written sources of all kinds, he shows what happened in different places and why. Even if we can see from archaeology that comparable events took place elsewhere, only in China are there such written records, giving a unique account of how it felt to live through them. It was not always a pleasant or edifying process, and as usual the voices of those worst affected will never be heard.

In broad terms, the transformation of the Chinese environment, which was faster in some areas than others, had certain characteristics. First, deforestation made way for agriculture. There was then a bonanza as resources were exploited, species were lost and human numbers rose. This triggered the growth of towns, cities and states with social stratification, followed by increasing competition between them, with war as the spur and the environment sometimes used as a weapon. Better technology was mitigated by mismanagement of resources. Entrapment in limited local circumstances
left people vulnerable to change. Finally, there was a greater risk of social and economic collapse affecting society as a whole. Elvin shows the differences clearly in three areas: Jiaxing to the south of the Yangzi river; Guizhou in the south, where the Han people gradually displaced the indigenous Miao; and Zunhua in the mountainous northeast.

Everywhere, control of water was essential. 'Hydraulic despotism' may tell only part of the story, but communities and even states grew partly out of the need to manage this precious and sometimes capricious resource. The struggle to run irrigation systems, limit marine incursions, maintain banks and walls, undertake dredging, cope with floods and storms, and adapt to ever-changing weather patterns is as difficult today as it ever was. With huge populations dependent on particular systems, any change can become increasingly difficult to cope with.

The complexity of Chinese attempts to manage human effects on the environment is remarkable. Even more special are the Chinese beliefs and attitudes towards the environment that have existed over the millennia. Generalizations are bound to be misleading but, in general terms, the Chinese were driven, in Elvin's words, by a desire for rational mastery of the world. They had little hesitation in uprooting forests, redirecting and polluting rivers, destroying natural landscapes and giving political and military needs absolute priority. They had remarkable powers of organization, and ran projects far beyond European capacities at the time. But in doing so, the Chinese paid scant regard to the environment and unwittingly created many long-term problems.

On the other hand, the Chinese had a particularly sensitive respect for nature and natural beauty in all its forms. Even as forests were destroyed, individual trees were singled out for admiration. Heaven and Earth were closely linked, and the line between the natural and the supernatural was blurred. There was a confluence of matter leading to energy, and energy leading to life, each a product of Bright Force and Dark Force. Dragons and spirits were sometimes seen above the surface in thunder and lightning, and sometimes below it in earthquakes. They formed part of a living world that
sustained and punished humans. They even related the behaviour of the weather to human activity, so there was morality in meteorology.

In such a world, it was crucial to divine what the invisible forces felt or did. This could involve sacrificing animals or humans, or burning cracks in the shoulder blades of mammals or the undershells of turtles. In Shang times, such practices had political significance as the ruler was the intermediary between the visible and the invisible world. This was also true in other epochs when the apparatus of authority was given almost divine attributes.

It is as difficult for us to enter into this mental cosmology as into that of our own ancestors in pre-scientific times. Elvin shows that searching for observable and verifiable facts about the world, and putting them to use in programmes of thought, was almost entirely alien to the Chinese. As a result, the shock of change was more abrupt in China than it was in Europe, where the scientific revolution began earlier. Traces of the old thinking may have survived Mao Zedong and persist in fundamental ways today.

The Retreat of the Elephants is not an easy book to read. Some of the quotations seem scarcely relevant, and the whole text could have been usefully pruned. At the end there is an unilluminating venture into equations, as if sustainability could be reduced to an algorithm. Yet taken as a whole, the book is a fascinating, scholarly miscellany of stories, poetry and ideas from the history of the longest continuous civilization on Earth. The relationship of that civilization with its fragile and often tortured surroundings contains lessons for others - particularly at a time when industrial society in China, as elsewhere, is pressing harder than ever on the environment. This will be a source book, elephants and all, for generations to come.

Enders, A.C., Carter, A.M., 2004. What can comparative studies of placental structure tell us?--A review
739. Placenta 25 Suppl A , S3-S9.
Abstract: The diversity of placental structures in Eutherian mammals is such that drawing generalizations from the definitive forms is problematic. There are always areas of reduced interhaemal distance whether the placenta is epitheliochorial, synepitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or haemochorial. However, the thinning may be achieved by different means. The presence of a haemophagous area as an iron transport facilitator is generally associated with endotheliochorial placentae but is also found in sheep and goats (synepitheliochorial) and in tenrecs and hyaenas (haemochorial). Although similar chorioallantoic placentae are found within families, structure begins to diverge at the ordinal level and there is little correlation at the supraordinal level of phylogeny. Differences in formation and function of the yolk sac provide additional variation. There would appear to be considerable adaptive pressure for development or retention of the haemochorial type of chorioallantoic placenta. This type of placenta has several possible drawbacks including more ready passage of fetal cells to the maternal organism and, should the haemochorial condition be achieved early, oxidative stress. At any rate no animal larger than the human and gorilla has this type of placenta. The endotheliochorial condition is found in animals as large as the bears, manatee and elephants. In addition to the ungulates, the epitheliochorial condition is present in the largest animals with the longest gestation periods, the whales. Considering the length of time since the early stages of mammalian evolution, it is probable that few unmodified structural features are present in any currently surviving mammal. Nevertheless, more complete studies of divergent types of mammalian placenta should help our understanding of mammalian interrelationships as well as placental function

Gobbel, L., Fischer, M.S., Smith, T.D., Wible, J.R., Bhatnagar, K.P., 2004. The vomeronasal organ and associated structures of the fetal African elephant, Loxodonta africana (Proboscidea, Elephantidae). Acta Zoologica 85, 41-52.
Abstract: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure of the nasal septum found in most tetrapods. Although potential behavioural correlates of VNO function have been shown in two of the three elephant species, its morphology in Loxodonta africana has not been studied. The development of the VNO and its associated structures in the African elephant are described in detail using serially sectioned material from fetal stages. The results show that many components of the VNO complex (e.g. neuroepithelium, receptor-free epithelium, vomeronasal nerve, paravomeronasal ganglia, blood vessels, vomeronasal cartilage) are well developed even in a 154-day-old fetus, in which the VNO opens directly into the oral cavity with only a minute duct present. However, the vomeronasal glands and their ducts associated with the VNO were developed only in the 210-day-old fetus. Notably, in this fetus, the vomeronasal-nasopalatine duct system had acquired a pathway similar to that described in the adult Asian elephant; the VNOs open into the oral cavity via the large palatal parts of the nasopalatine ducts, which are lined by a stratified squamous epithelium. The paired palatal ducts initially coursed anteriorly at an angle of  45degrees from the oral recess and/or the oral cavity mucosa, and merged into the vomeronasal duct. This study confirms the unique characteristics of the elephant VNO, such as its large size, the folded epithelium of the VNO tube, and the dorsomedial position of the neuroepithelium. The palatal position and exclusive communication of the VNO with the oral cavity, as well as the partial reduction of the nasopalatine duct, might be re

Goheen, J.R., Keesing, F., Allan, B.F., Ogada, D.L., Ostfeld, R.S., 2004. Net effects of large mammals on Acacia seedling survival in an African Savanna. Ecology 85, 1555-1561.
Abstract: Trees of the genus Acacia are widespread and important components of savanna ecosystems. Factors or organisms that influence the survival of Acacia seedlings are likely to affect tree recruitment and therefore community and ecosystem dynamics. In African savannas, large mammals, especially elephants, have been considered the most important agents of mortality for adult trees, but their impacts on tree seedlings are not well known. We investigated the effects of large mammals on Acacia seedling survival by excluding large mammals from replicated 4-ha plots. Approximately twice as many seedlings were killed in plots with large mammals absent as on plots with large mammals present. Rodents and some invertebrates were more abundant on plots without large mammals and were responsible for these higher predation rates. Seedlings in areas with large mammals were more likely to die of desiccation; however, net seedling survival was approximately twice as high in the presence of large mammals. Our results indicate that large mammals may indirectly increase Acacia seedling survival and thus accelerate, rather than inhibit, tree recruitment.

Greenwood, A.D., Englbrecht, C.C., MacPhee, R.D., 2004. Characterization of an endogenous retrovirus class in elephants and their relatives
667. BMC. Evol. Biol. 4, 38.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endogenous retrovirus-like elements (ERV-Ls, primed with tRNA leucine) are a diverse group of reiterated sequences related to foamy viruses and widely distributed among mammals. As shown in previous investigations, in many primates and rodents this class of elements has remained transpositionally active, as reflected by increased copy number and high sequence diversity within and among taxa. RESULTS: Here we examine whether proviral-like sequences may be suitable molecular probes for investigating the phylogeny of groups known to have high element diversity. As a test we characterized ERV-Ls occurring in a sample of extant members of superorder Uranotheria (Asian and African elephants, manatees, and hyraxes). The ERV-L complement in this group is even more diverse than previously suspected, and there is sequence evidence for active expansion, particularly in elephantids. Many of the elements characterized have protein coding potential suggestive of activity. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the evidence supports the hypothesis that the complement had a single origin within basal Uranotheria

Hildebrandt, T.B., Hermes, R., Janssen, D.L., Oosterhuis, J.E., Murphy, D., Göritz, F. Reproductive evaluation in wild African elephants prior to translocation. 2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE.  75-76. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Translocations of wild African (Loxodonta africana) elephants have increased significantly since 1993 after Clem Coetzee developed a new method to move adult elephants in Zimbabwe. Since then the technique have been optimized mainly by the staff of the Kruger National Park (KNP) and over 750 elephants in family units and almost 100 mature bulls have been translocated by the KNP capture team.1 The translocations were mainly performed for reducing the number of elephants in KNP and for stocking other reserves. Few elephants were also moved for overseas export to international zoological institutions. However, each elephant translocation is always a logistic challenge and is extremely costly. Therefore, it is very important to select the right elephants or elephant groups for the future translocation. If the main goal of a translocation is the establishment of a new breeding group, it is especially important to select infertile individuals and highly pregnant females which could have a miscarriage due to the transport stress. The IZW team developed a field applicable portable ultrasound technique which allows the reproductive ev ry Killmar (ZSSD), and Randy Rieches (ZSSD).

1. Hofmeyr, M. 2003. Translocation as a management tool for control of elephant populations. Managing African Elephant Populations: Act or Let Die. Beekbergen, The Netherlands, 6.-7.Nov., Pp. 38-39.
2. Hildebrandt T. B., F. Göritz, N. C. Pratt, D. L. Schmitt, S. Quandt, J. Raath and R. R. Hofmann. 1998. Reproductive assessment of male elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) by ultrasonography. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29: 114-128.

Hoyer, M.J., Kik, M.J.L., Vestappen, F.A.L.M., Wolters, M., van der Kolk, H.H., Treskes, M. Medical management of a geriatric bull elephant (Elaphas maximus)  with multiple problems, a case report. 2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE.  353-358. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Isaza, R., Hunter, R.P., 2004. Drug delivery to captive Asian elephants - treating Goliath
546. Curr. Drug Deliv. 1,  291-298.
Abstract: Captive Asian elephants have been maintained in captivity by humans for over 4000 years. Despite this association, there is little published literature on the treatment of elephant diseases or methods of drug administration to these animals. Elephants in captivity are generally healthy and require few therapeutic interventions over the course of their lifetime. However, when they become acutely ill, treatment becomes a serious issue. The successful and consistent administration of therapeutics to elephants is formidable in an animal that presents significant limitations in drug delivery options. The single most important factor in administering drugs to an elephant is the animal's cooperation in accepting the medication. Working around elephants can be very dangerous and this is magnified when working around sick or injured animals where the elephant is subject to increased stress, pain, and unusual situations associated with treatment. The large body size of the Asian elephant produces a separate set of issues. In this paper, methods of drug administration and their associated limitations will be reviewed. Considerations of medicating such large animals can serve to highlight the problems and principles of treatment that are inherent in these species

Kruse, H., Kirkemo, A.M., Handeland, K., 2004. Wildlife as source of zoonotic infections. Emerg Infect Dis 10, 2067-2072.
Abstract: Throughout history, wildlife has been an important source of infectious diseases transmissible to humans. Today, zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir constitute a major public health problem, affecting all continents. The importance of such zoonoses is increasingly recognized, and the need for more attention in this area is being addressed.Wildlife is normally defined as free-roaming animals (mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians), whereas a zoonosis is an infectious disease transmittable between animals and humans. The total number of zoonoses is unknown, but according to Taylor et al. (1), who in 2001 catalogued 1,415 known human pathogens, 62% were of zoonotic origin. With time, more and more human pathogens are found to be of animal origin. Moreover, most emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonoses. Wild animals seem to be involved in the epidemiology of most zoonoses and serve as major reservoirs for transmission of zoonotic agents to domestic animals and humans.Zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir are typically caused by various bacteria, viruses, and parasites, whereas fungi are of negligible importance. Regarding prion diseases, chronic wasting disease occurs among deer in North America. This prion disease is thus far not known to be zoonotic. However, hunters and consumers are advised to take precautions.

Liu, C.H., Chang, C.H., Chin, S.C., Chang, P.H., Zhuo, Y.X., Lee, C.C., 2004. Fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)
672. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest 16,  421-423.
Abstract: A case of fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases in a 54-year-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is described. After pododermatitis of 2 years duration in the right forefoot, a mass developed in the lateral toenail. At postmortem, metastasis to the right axillary lymph node and both lungs was noted. Microscopic examination of primary and metastatic sites revealed infiltrating bundles of spindle cells, with fairly distinct cell borders, variable amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm, and elongate or oval nuclei. Tumor cells were often arranged in interwoven bundles and herringbone patterns. Mitotic figures were numerous and frequently bizarre. The diagnosis of fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases was made on the basis of histologic features and positive immunohistochemical staining for vimentin

MacGregor, S.D., O'Connor, T.G., 2004. Response of Acacia tortilis to utilization by elephants in a semi-arid African savanna. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34, 55-56.
Abstract: The impact of elephant feeding on individual growth and population trends of Acacia tortilis and Acacia nilotica was studied in the semi-arid Venetia-Limpopo Nature Reserve between 1996 and 2000, comparing Acacia Woodland and Riparian Woodland. Monitoring of permanent transects revealed that elephants reduced Acacia tortilis density of Acacia Woodland from 173 to 68 stems/ha between 1996 and 2000, but population size structure remained unchanged because height selection varied. Annual mortality of Acacia tortilis ranged from 9-37%, lagging utilization by elephants by 2-3 years, and decreased once tree density had declined. Elephants ceased to use Acacia Woodland once density had declined to that corresponding with the less used A. tortilis in Riparian Woodland. Elephants utilized A. tortilis by removing canopy branches, pollarding, uprooting or debarking stems, which depended on tree size and previous use. Pollarded or uprooted stems resprouted poorly and usually died. Survival following canopy removal depended on the severity of defoliation. Debarking was not observed to kill A. tortilis because debarked stems were subsequently uprooted or pollarded. By contrast, debarking killed A. nilotica trees or substantially reduced their size. Prediction of population trends further requires consideration of rainfall, other herbivores, and fire. The vulnerability of Acacia populations to utilization by elephants is increased because the food staple, Colophospermum mopane, is tolerant of severe utilization by elephants.

McAloon, F.M., 2004. Oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of Anoplocephala manubriata, cestode of the Asian elephant in India
726. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 32, 181-185.
Abstract: Anoplocephala manubriata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is a tapeworm that parasitizes both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants. Its life cycle has not yet been completely elucidated nor have intermediate hosts been previously reported. Soil and substrate was collected in the Kodanadu Forest Range, Ernakulum District and Guruvayur Devaswom Temple grounds, Thrissur District, in Kerala, India. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) were collected from dung piles near captive elephants' bedding and examined for immature stages of the tapeworm. Five species of oribatids were found to contain at least one immature life stage of A. manubriata: Galumna flabellifera orientalis Hammer 1958, Scheloribates latipes (C.L. Koch 1844), S. praeincisus (Berlese 1913), Protoribates seminudus (Hammer 1971), and P. triangularis (Hammer 1971)

Osofsky, S.A., Karesh, W., Kock, M.D., Kock, R., Cook, R.A. Moving conservation ahead (animal health for the environment and development): Progress at the intersection of program and policy. 2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE.  406-407. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Our organizations hosted a highly interactive forum at which invited Southern and East African and other experts shared their vision for conservation and development success at the wildlife / livestock interface with IUCN World Parks Congress attendees and invited representatives from bilateral and multilateral development agencies and other interested parties. African governmental and nongovernmental experts from Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe participated.1 Our goal was to foster a sharing of ideas among African practitioners and development professionals that will lead to concrete and creative initiatives that address conservation and development challenges related to health at the livestock/wildlife/human interface. The focus was, appropriately, on ongoing efforts and future needs in and around the region's flagship protected areas and conservancies and their buffer zones- the places where tensions and challenges at the livestock/wildlife interface are often greatest. Discussions and planning focused on several themes of critical importance to the future of animal agriculture, wildlife, and, of course, people: competition over grazing and water resources, disease mitigation, local and global food security, zoonoses, and other potential sources of conflict related to the overall challenges of land-use planning and the pervasive reality of resource constraints. We have since been working to develop the most promising collaborative concepts that emerged from this forum into a suite of projects, grounded in real landscapes but cognizant of the critical need for policy reform, and based on the solid professional partnerships we believe are emanating from the AHEAD (Animal Health for the Environment And Development) enabling environment.
As we look around the world, impacts from interactions between livestock and wildlife (and habitat) are often profound. The issues at this interface represent an unfortunately all-too-often neglected sector of critical importance to the long-term ecological and sociopolitical security of protected areas and grazing lands worldwide. With its initial focus on Southern and East Africa and its diverse land-use mosaic, we believe the AHEAD initiative can help facilitate collaborative work with and among African partners to continue to bring sound science to bear on natural resource management decisions that directly affect the livelihoods and cultures of Africa's people, including those decisions that impact the future of Africa's protected areas and wildlife resources. As socioeconomic progress demands sustained improvements in health for humans, their domestic animals, and the environment, we recognize the need to utilize a "one health" perspective-an approach that was the foundation of our discussions at the World Parks Congress, and that has guided the follow-on work since. Since the September 2003 program launch, AHEAD has helped catalyze the development of several innovative regional projects that focus on the health / conservation nexus. In addition, the importance of these issues was formally recognized by the IUCN World Parks Congress when it officially included "Disease and Protected Area Management" as a key emerging issue in its "Emerging Issues" documentation: (http://www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa/wpc2003/english/outputs/durban/eissues.htm), which is the first time ecosystem health issues have been addressed like this in the Congress' 40-yr history.The text from the "Disease and Protected Area Management" section is below.
Disease and Protected Area Management
The health of wildlife, domestic animals and people are inextricably linked. Small improvements in the health of domestic and wild animals and thus their productivity can lead to dramatic improvements in human livelihoods and thus the reduction of poverty. Alien invasive pathogens should be addressed with vigor equal to that devoted to addressing more 'visible' alien invasive species. The role of disease in protected areas and the land-use matrix within which they are embedded must be recognized and addressed within the context of protected area and landscape-level planning and management.
Animal and human health-based indicators may reveal perturbations to natural systems not detectable by more commonly employed methodologies, thus improving the quantitative evaluation of trends in a protected area's health and resilience.

1The WCSAHEAD website is at www.wcs-ahead.org and includes the complete agenda from the World Parks Congress (Durban) AHEAD launch, abstracts of presentations, the presentation slidesets themselves, biographical sketches and contact details for most of the invitees, as well as a range of downloadable video and audio clips from
the forum.

Priyadarshini, S., 2004. Hastiayurveda - an ancient treatise on elephant health care. Science India 7, 79-81.

Richardson-Kageler, S.J., 2004. Effects of large herbivore browsing on the functional groups of woody plants in a southern African savanna. Biodiversity and Conservation 13, 2145-2163.
Abstract: This study examined the effect of different large herbivore species and stocking rates in savanna ecosystems of Zimbabwe on the richness and abundances of woody plant functional groups and woody plant functional attributes. Seven fence-lines with different herbivore species and stocking rates on either side of the fence were sampled. Plots were placed on both sides of each fence at each of 18 randomly selected positions. The size and species of each woody plant was recorded for each plot. It was found that the number of species with different functional attributes of spinescence, leaf longevity, fruit type and dispersal mechanism and in the functional groups of palatability were not different on the different sides of the fence. However, there were differences in plant abundances for 26 out of the 35 tests carried out on plant abundances with different functional attributes and functional groups. It was hypothesised that the time needed to change woody plant species richness is hundreds of years in these systems, whereas the time needed to change woody plant abundances is decades.

Skarpe, C., Aarrestad, P.A., Andreassen, H.P., Dhillion, S.S., Dimakatso, T., du Toit, J.T., Duncan, Halley, J., Hytteborn, H., Makhabu, S., Mari, M., Marokane, W., Masunga, G., Ditshoswane, M., Moe, S.R., Mojaphoko, R., Mosugelo, D., Motsumi, S., Neo-Mahupeleng, G., Ramotadima, M., Rutina, L., Sechele, L., Sejoe, T.B., Stokke, S., Swenson, J.E., Taolo, C., Vandewalle, M., Wegge, P., 2004. The return of the giants: ecological effects of an increasing elephant population
679. Ambio. 33, 276-282.
Abstract: Northern Botswana and adjacent areas, have the world's largest population of African elephant (Loxodonta africana). However, a 100 years ago elephants were rare following excessive hunting. Simultaneously, ungulate populations were severely reduced by decease. The ecological effects of the reduction in large herbivores must have been substantial, but are little known. Today, however, ecosystem changes following the increase in elephant numbers cause considerable concern in Botswana. This was the background for the "BONIC" project, investigating the interactions between the increasing elephant population and other ecosystem components and processes. Results confirm that the ecosystem is changing following the increase in elephant and ungulate populations, and, presumably, developing towards a situation resembling that before the reduction of large herbivores. We see no ecological reasons to artificially change elephant numbers. There are, however, economic and social reasons to control elephants, and their range in northern Botswana may have to be artificially restricted

Smith, T. Zoo research guidelines: Monitoring stress in zoo animals.  2004. London, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ref Type: Report

Stringfield, C.E., Oh, P., Granich, R., Scott, J., Sun, B., Joseph, M., Flood, J., Sedgwick, C.J. Epidemiologic investigation of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo. 2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE.  46-48. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: From 1997 to 2000, six cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection were diagnosed in three species of animals at, or recently originating from, the Los Angeles Zoo. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis showed that five of six animal isolates shared an identical IS6110 pattern, with the sixth differing only by one additional band. A multiinstitutional epidemiologic investigation was conducted to identify and interrupt possible transmission among the animal cases, and to screen personnel for active TB infection and TB skin-test conversion.
Animal Cases
In April and October of 1994, Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) #1 and Asian elephant #2 arrived at the Los Angeles Zoo from a private elephant facility where they had lived together. They were housed together at the zoo until November of 1996 when elephant #2 was returned to the facility for several months before transfer to another zoo. In the spring of 1997, Elephant #1 (30 yr old) died of salmonellosis, with M. tuberculosis found in granulomatous lymph node lesions from the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and Elephant #2 (30 yr old) was found to have a positive trunk wash culture for M. tuberculosis. In July of 1998, one of a closed herd of three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) consisting of a sire and two offspring, died of pulmonary M. tuberculosis at 6 yr of age. The goat's asymptomatic herdmates were screened and had negative chest radiographs and tracheal wash cultures, but one of the two goats was positive on tuberculin skin-test. In October of 1998, a clinically normal Black rhinocerus (Diceros bicornis) was diagnosed with Mycobacerium tuberculosis after a positive skin test and nasal wash culture. In the winter of 1998, the two remaining goats were evaluated again with negative chest radiographs and tracheal wash cultures. However, 1 yr later, both were humanely euthanatized at 8 and 12 yr of age due to clinical evidence of tuberculosis on chest radiographs (both animals), and active clinical signs in one (neither were able to be orally treated). In January of 2001, a rhino was humanely euthanatized after a protracted illness that was nonresponsive to aggressive treatment. The rhino was found to have severe multifocal hemosiderosis and atypical mycobacterial infection in her lungs, with no M. tuberculosis  cultured. This animal had been treated with oral Isoniazid and Rifampin for 1 yr, cultured routinely, and was never culture positive again.
 Epidemiologic Investigation
Investigators examined medical and location histories of the affected animals, animal handling practices, health-care procedures, and performed an infection control assessment of the animal compounds and health-care facilities (including measuring air flow in the compounds by smoke testing). We conducted a review of zoo employee medical records for evidence of TB symptoms, tuberculin skin-test results, and chest radiograph information. A list of current and former employees was cross-matched with reported TB cases in the California state registry from 1985 to 2000. As part of the annual occupational health screening in June of 2000, zoo employees underwent questioning regarding TB symptoms, received tuberculin skin tests, and completed a questionnaire on medical history, job type, and history of contact with the infected animals.
Epidemiologic Findings
No common cross-species contact outside the animal compounds and no contact with an infectious human were found. The distance at which the public was kept from the animals and the distance of the compounds from each other (the elephant compound was 27 meters from the rhino compound and the goat compound was 90 m from both) suggests that direct transmission was unlikely. No active TB cases in humans were found, and no matches were found in the database of reporte d cases. The RFLP analysis of this strain of M. tuberculosis matched that of three elephants with which #1 and #2 were housed at a private elephant facility from September of 1993-February of 1994.1 We hypothesize that elephants #1 and #2 were infected at the private facility and were shipped with latent M. tuberculosis infection in 1994, subsequently infecting the black rhino and Mountain goats at the Los Angeles Zoo.
Of interest, animal caretaking and animal contact were not associated with a positive tuberculin skin-test, while groundskeepers were found to have an increased risk of tuberculin skin-test conversion compared with other job categories. Employees attending the elephant necropsy and employees who trained elephants were more likely to have tuberculin skin-test conversion than those who did not.
This is the first documented human and veterinary epidemiologic investigation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis affecting multiple species in a zoo. 2 No evidence of transmission from humans to animals or active infections in humans were found. Genotyping evidence strongly suggests transmission from one species to another, although no evidence of transmission was discovered. Human tuberculin skin-test conversions associated with the elephants were most likely due to lack of respiratory protection for these employees when the risk of TB infection was not known. The finding that groundskeepers and not animal handlers were associated with a higher risk of tuberculin skin-test conversion was surprising, and we hypothesized that this may have to do with groundskeepers as a group being more likely to have
been born outside of the United States.
Control measures to eliminate the spread of disease to people and animals were undertaken immediately and throughout this outbreak, and no further cases of M. tuberculosis have been diagnosed at the zoo in the past 3 yr despite ongoing surveillance. Four elephants and three rhinos that had direct contact with the infected animals remain TB negative by trunk and nasal wash culture methods as outlined by the USDA for elephant TB surveillance. Methods of indirect transmission in mammalian zoo species and causes of variability in infection and morbidity within and among species warrant further investigation. Ongoing vigilance, occupational health programs and infection control measures in potentially exposed animals are recommended to prevent ongoing transmission of M. tuberculosis in zoo settings.
The authors thank the Animal Care and Animal Health staff of the Los Angeles Zoo who cared so well for these animals, and the veterinarians (including consulting pathologists), technicians, and medical records staff who collected, analyzed, and organized the clinical data. We could not have performed this evaluation without Sue Thisdell, Safety Officer at the Los Angeles Zoo; Jothan Staley and Donna Workman-Malcom of the City of Los Angeles Occupational Health Services Division; Lee Borenstein, Elenor Lehnkering, Patrick Ryan, Jeanne Soukup, and Annette Nita of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services; and Diana Whipple for her RFLP expertise.
1. Mikota, S.K., L. Peddie, J. Peddie, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, G. West, W. Lindsay, R.S.Larsen, M. D. Salman, D. Chatterjee, J. Payeur, D. Whipple, C. Thoen, D. Davis, C. Sedgwick, R.J. Montali, M. Ziccardi, J. Maslow. 2001. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 32: 1-16.
2. Oh, P., R. Granich, J. Scott, B. Sun, M. Joseph, C. Stringfield, S. Thisdell, J. Staley, D. Workman-Malcolm, L. Borenstein, E. Lehnkering, P. Ryan, J. Soukup, A.Nitta, J. Flood. 2002. Human exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (11): 1290-1293.orte

Wiese, R.J., Willis, K., 2004. Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants. Zoo Biology 23, 365-373.
Abstract: The concepts of longevity (longest lived) and life expectancy (typical age at death) are common demographic parameters that provide insight into a population. Defined as the longest lived individual, longevity is easily calculated but is not representative, as only one individual will live to this extreme. Longevity records for North American Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) have not yet been set, as the oldest individuals (77 and 53 years, respectively) are still alive. One Asian elephant lived to 86 years in the Taipei Zoo. This is comparable to the maximum (though not typical) longevity estimated in wild populations. Calculation of life expectancy, however, must use statistics that are appropriate for the data available, the distribution of the data, and the species' biology. Using a simple arithmetic mean to describe the nonnormally distributed age at death for elephant populations underestimates life expectancy. Use of life-table analysis to estimate median survivorship or survival analysis to estimate average survivorship are more appropriate for the species' biology and the data available, and provide more accurate estimates. Using a lifetable,
the median life expectancy for female Asian elephants (LxĽ0.50) is 35.9 years in North America and 41.9 years in Europe. Survival analysis estimates of average life expectancy for Asian elephants are 47.6 years in Europe and 44.8 years in North America. Survival analysis estimates for African elephants are less robust due to less data. Currently the African elephant average life expectancy estimate in North America is 33.0 years, but this is likely to increase with more data, as it has over the past 10 years.

Wilson, M.L., Bloomsmith, M.A., Maple, T.L., 2004. Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Animal-Welfare 13, 39-43.
Abstract: The behaviour and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were studied to determine whether their stereotypic swaying was more prevalent before regularly scheduled events in the elephants' routine, and whether the elephants that exhibited more stereotyped swaying had lower mean serum cortisol concentrations. Behavioural data were collected during hour-long observations balanced across three periods, and during 15-min observations prior to the elephants being moved to different portions of their enclosure. Observational data were collected using instantaneous focal sampling of behaviours every 30 s. Serum cortisol measures were obtained through weekly blood withdrawal from the elephants' ears. Of the three elephants, two exhibited stereotyped swaying, which accounted for a mean of 0.4% of the scans during the hour-long observations and a mean of 18% of the scans prior to the elephants being moved between different parts of the enclosure. Swaying was highly variable among the individual elephants during both categories of observations. Additionally, both elephants swayed more prior to moving in the afternoon than prior to moving in the morning. Analyses of serum cortisol concentrations indicated that each elephant had a different mean cortisol level, which did not clearly correspond with the expression of swaying. The findings indicate that a rigidly scheduled management event may elicit stereotyped swaying in the studied elephants. Future research should document the behavioural and physiological effects of an altered management routine to improve captive elephant welfare.

Wiseman, R., Page, B.R., O'Connor, T.G., 2004. Woody vegetation change in response to browsing in Ithala Game Reserve, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34, 25-37.
Abstract: Abstract: The impact of elephant and other browsers may be magnified when they are restricted within small, fenced reserves. These reserves are becoming commonplace in southern Africa. The composition and structure of the woody vegetation of a portion of the 30 000 ha Ithala Game Reserve, South Africa, was monitored annually from 1992 to 2000. Woody species described a continuum from those that declined in abundance and were threatened with extirpation (e.g. Aloe marlothii, Acacia davyi), through those that remained relatively stable (e.g. Rhus lucida, Gymnosporia buxifolia), to those that increased in abundance (e.g. Scolopia zeyheri, Euclea crispa). Species that declined in abundance were generally well utilized by herbivores and showed low recruitment and high mortality rates. Species that increased in abundance were characterized by high recruitment, low mortality and low levels of herbivory. Species composition changed towards species less preferred by herbivores. Browsers other than elephants and environmental stress (e.g. drought) caused threefold the damage of elephants. Ensuring the persistence of all woody species requires management of the entire browser community.

Xie, H. How to use acupuncture for elephants. The North American Veterinary Conference.  1457-1458. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

 2003. Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi.

The care of a geriatric elephant at the Birmingham Zoo. EMA Conference 2003.  2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in elephants.  2003.
Ref Type: Electronic Citation

Agrawal, D.K., Singh, J.L., 2003. Electrocution in an asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) -- a case report. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 23, 58.

Albrecht, K., Breitmeier, D., Fieguth, A., Troger, H.D., 2003. Fatalities after injuries by wild animals. Arch Kriminol 212, 96-103.
Abstract: The article summarises three fatalities after attacks by wild animals. The first case describes a 90-year-old woman who died as a result of pneumonia after a bear fell on her and caused multiple chest fractures. The second case deals with a 76-year-old woman who was hit in the middle face by the hoof of a camel and, thereafter, died of myocardial infarction. The third case describes a 27-year-old biologist who died from severe blunt trauma after an attack of a wild living elephant. The article gives a summary of typical injury patterns of selected wild animals and outlines potential reasons of death as a result of the injuries.

Bechert, U., Christensen, J.M., Finnegan, M. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered ibuprofen in elephants. Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  84-85. 2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders (e.g., trauma, arthritis) occur commonly in captive elephants, affecting 73% of the animals studied in 69 zoos in North America.1  To treat these and other conditions, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., ibuprofen and phenylbutazone) are used strictly on an empirical basis in elephants.  There is some indication that species differences in drug metabolism exist between African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, although this has not been substantiated.2  Determination of safe and therapeutic dosing regimens for ibuprofen and phenylbutazone will improve medical management of captive elephants by providing efficacious dosage regimens, improved control of pain, and prevention of potential toxic side effects resulting from improper drug administration. The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ibuprofen administered per os in elephants, and 2) to establish therapeutic dosage regimens for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus ) male and female elephants.  Twenty healthy elephants (five males and five females of each species) housed in zoos throughout North America were used in this study.  Pilot studies were conducted at the Oregon Zoo with Asian elephants using empirically derived dosing regimens and preceded each set of clinical trials to ensure that proper ranges for dosage and dosing frequency determinations would be utilized.  Therapeutic dosage requirements were determined using 4, 5 and 6 mg/kg dosages in each animal, and blood samples were collected at –5, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes, 1½, 2, 4, 10, 12, 24 and 48 hours post-oral administration from superficial ear veins.  Optimal dosing frequency was then determined by conducting 12 and 24 hour dosing interval trials, with blood samples collected hourly for 4 hours after each of three administrations, then every 6 hours plus 1 hour prior to the next administration.  Washout periods between all trials were 3 weeks in duration and allowed for complete elimination of residual drug metabolites. Following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen and a rapid absorption phase, mean ibuprofen serum concentrations peaked in African and Asian elephant
s at 4 hrs at 16.75 ± 6.79 μg/mL (mean ± SD).  Five mg/kg dosages of ibuprofen resulted in peak serum concentrations of 17.20 ± 7.78 μg/mL, and with 6 mg/kg dosages, serum concentrations increased to 22.42 ± 12.30 μg/mL.  Ibuprofen was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 4 to 4.5 hrs.  The volume of distribution (Vd/F) was estimated to be 200.8 ± 101.17 mL/kg for African and 164.4 ± 34.60 mL/kg for Asian elephants.  The doses used in this study with elephants resulted in serum concentrations at or above therapeutic concentrations for humans (15-30 mg/L) for up to 12 hrs.  Serum ibuprofen concentrations decreased to below 5 μg/mL 24 hr post-administration in all elephants.  There were no statistically significant pharmacokinetic parameter differences between males and females of either species, and differences between African and Asian elephants existed but were not significant (p < 0.12).  The mean AUC and t1/2 life values for Asian elephants were higher as compared to African elephants, and the mean clearance and elimination rate constant were lower in Asian elephants as compared to African elephants.  Ibuprofen administered at 6 mg/kg/12 hrs for Asian elephants and at 7 mg/kg/12 hrs for African elephants resulted in therapeutic serum concentrations of this anti-inflammatory agent.  Acknowledgments:The elephant keeper staff at the Kansas City Zoo, Riddle's Elephant Sanctuary, the Bowmanville Zoo, Pittsburgh Zoo, Have Trunk Will Travel, and Oregon Zoo did a great job collecting the blood samples for this study.  The Morris Animal Foundation funded this research. References: 1.Mikota, S.K., E.L. Sargent, and G.S. Ranglack.  1994.  Medical Management of the Elephant.  Indira Publishing House, West Bloomfield, Michigan, pp. 137-150. 2.Mortenson, J., and S. Sierra.  1998.  Determining dosages for anti-inflammatory agents in elephants.  Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet, pp. 477-479.

Chakraborty, A., 2003. Necropsy of elephant. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 145-151.

Chakraborty, A., 2003. Nenatal mortality in elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 119-122.

Cheeran, J.V., Nair, N.D., 2003. Techniques and Procedures for Post-Mortem of Elephants. Project Elephant and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi India.

Clauss, M., Frey, R., Kiefer, B., Lechner-Doll, M., Loehlein, W., Polster, C., Rossner, G.E., Streich, W.J., 2003. The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraints on foregut, and adaptations of hindgut fermenters. Oecologia 136, 14-27.
Abstract: An oft-cited nutritional advantage of large body size is that larger animals have lower relative energy requirements and that, due to their increased gastrointestinal tract (GIT) capacity, they achieve longer ingesta passage rates, which allows them to use forage of lower quality. However, the fermentation of plant material cannot be optimized endlessly; there is a time when plant fibre is totally fermented, and another when energy losses due to methanogenic bacteria become punitive. Therefore, very large herbivores would need to evolve adaptations for a comparative acceleration of ingesta passage. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been emphasized in the literature to date. We propose that, among the extant herbivores, elephants, with their comparatively fast passage rate and low digestibility coefficients, are indicators of a trend that allowed even larger hindgut fermenting mammals to exist. The limited existing anatomical data on large hindgut fermenters suggests that both a relative shortening of the GIT, an increase in GIT diameter, and a reduced caecum might contribute to relatively faster ingesta passage; however, more anatomical data is needed to verify these hypotheses. The digestive physiology of large foregut fermenters presents a unique problem: ruminant-and nonruminant-forestomachs were designed to delay ingesta passage, and they limit food intake as a side effect. Therefore, with increasing body size and increasing absolute energy requirements, their relative capacity has to increase in order to compensate for this intake limitation. It seems that the foregut fermenting ungulates did not evolve species in which the intake-limiting effect of the foregut could be reduced, e.g. by special bypass structures, and hence this digestive model imposed an intrinsic body size limit. This limit will be lower the more the natural diet enhances the ingesta retention and hence the intake-limiting effect. Therefore, due to the mechanical characteristics of grass, grazing ruminants cannot become as big as the largest browsing ruminant. Ruminants are not absent from the very large body size classes because their digestive physiology offers no particular advantage, but because their digestive physiology itself intrinsically imposes a body size limit. We suggest that the decreasing ability for colonic water absorption in large grazing ruminants and the largest extant foregut fermenter, the hippopotamus, are an indication of this limit, and are the outcome of the competition of organs for the available space within the abdominal cavity. Our hypotheses are supported by the fossil record on extinct ruminant/tylopod species which did not, with the possible exception of the Sivatheriinae, surpass extant species in maximum body size. In contrast to foregut fermentation, the GIT design of hindgut fermenters allows adaptations for relative passage acceleration, which explains why very large extinct mammalian herbivores are thought to have been hindgut fermenters.  Institute of Animal Physiology, Physiological Chemistry and Animal Nutrition, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Veterinaerstrasse 13, 80539, Munich, Germany. clauss@tiph.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de

Coe, J.C., 2003. Steering the ark toward Eden: Design for animal well-being. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223, 977-980.

Cumming, D.H., Cumming, G.S., 2003. Ungulate community structure and ecological processes: body size, hoof area and trampling in African savannas. Oecologia 134, 560-568.
Abstract: A wide range of bioenergetic, production, life history and ecological traits scale with body size in vertebrates. However, the consequences of differences in community body-size structure for ecological processes have not been explored. We studied the scaling relationships between body mass, shoulder height, hoof area, stride length and daily ranging distance in African ungulates ranging in size from the 5 kg dik-dik to the 5,000 kg African elephant, and the implications of these relationships on the area trampled by single and multispecies herbivore communities of differing structure. Hoof area, shoulder height and stride length were strongly correlated with body mass (Pearson's r >0.98, 0.95 and 0.90, respectively). Hoof area scaled linearly to body mass with a slope of unity, implying that the pressures exerted on the ground per unit area by a small antelope and an elephant are identical. Shoulder height and stride length scaled to body mass with similar slopes of 0.32 and 0.26, respectively; larger herbivores have relatively shorter legs and take relatively shorter steps than small herbivores, and so trample a greater area of ground per unit distance travelled. We compared several real and hypothetical single- and multi-species ungulate communities using exponents of between 0.1 and 0.5 for the body mass to daily ranging distance relationship and found that the estimated area trampled was greater in communities dominated by larger animals. The impacts of large herbivores are not limited to trampling. Questions about the ecological implications of community body-size structure for such variables as foraging and food intake, dung quality and deposition rates, methane production, and daily travelling distances remain clear research priorities. Note: Epub 2003 Jan 30; Tropical Resource Ecology Programme, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. dcumming@science.uz.ac.zw

Czekala, N.M., MacDonald, E.A., Steinman, K., Walker, S., Garrigues, N.W., Olson, D., 2003. Estrogen and LH dynamics during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle in the Asian elephant. Zoo Biology 22, 443-454.
Abstract: Pituitary and corpus luteum hormone patterns throughout the elephant estrous cycle have been well characterized. By contrast, analysis of follicular maturation by measurement of circulating estrogens has been uninformative. This study tested the ability of a urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide radioimmunoassay to noninvasively assess follicular development during the nonluteal phase of the elephant estrous cycle, and to determine the relationship between estrogen production and the "double LH surge." Daily urine and serum samples were collected throughout seven estrous cycles from three Asian elephants, and urine was collected from an additional three females, for a total of 13 cycles. Serum was analyzed for luteinizing hormone (LH), and urine was analyzed for estrogens and progestins. Elephants exhibited a typical LH pattern, with an anovulatory LH (anLH) surge occurring approximately 21 days before the ovulatory LH (ovLH) surge. The urinary estrogen pattern indicated the presence of two follicular waves during the nonluteal phase. The first wave (anovulatory) began 5 days before the anLH surge and reached a maximum concentration the day before the peak. Thereafter, urinary estrogens declined to baseline for 2 weeks before increasing again to peak concentrations on the day of the ovLH surge. Urinary progestins were baseline throughout most of the follicular phase, increasing 2-3 days before the ovLH surge and continuing into the luteal phase. These results support previous ultrasound observations that two waves of follicular growth occur during the nonluteal phase of the elephant estrous cycle. Each wave is associated with an increase in estrogen production that stimulates an LH surge. Thus, in contrast to serum analyses, urinary estrogen monitoring appears to be a reliable method for characterizing follicular activity in the elephant.

Das, D., 2003. Microchips (transponders) implantation in domesticated Asian elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 28-31.

Dehnhard, M., Hatt, J.M., Eulenberger, K., Ochs, A., Strauss, G., 2003. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of 5alpha-androst-2-en-17-one and -17beta-ol in the female Asian elephant: application for reproductive monitoring and prediction of parturition. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 84, 383-391.
Abstract: Asian elephants are not self-sustaining in captivity. The main reasons for this phenomenon are a low birth rate, an aging population, and poor calf-rearing. Therefore, it is essential that reproductive rates had to be improved and there is need for rapid quantitative measures to monitor reproductive functions focussing on estrous detection and the prediction of the period of parturition. The objective of this study was to develop a method which combines headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analyses of 5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-ol and -17-one to prognose estrous and to predict the period of parturition. SPME was carried out with a CTC Combi Pal system.The course of the luteal phase-specific substance 5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-ol and -17-one followed a cyclic pattern in which the follicular and luteal phases could be clearly distinguished (mean estrous cycle length, 15+/-1.4 weeks). Based on daily urine samples, estrous prognosis might be possibly based on the initial 5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-o1 increase at the end of the follicular phase. Parturition prognosis was performed in three elephant cows based on the 5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-o1 drop to baseline levels 5-4 days prior parturition. Experiments revealed that 5alpha-androst-3alpha-ol-17-one and probably 5alpha-androst-3alpha-ol-17beta-ol are generated from sulfate conjugates by a thermal process. Institute for Zoo Biology and Wildlife Research, PF 601103, D-10252 Berlin, Germany. dehnhard@izw-berlin.de

Easwaran, K.R., Ravindran, R., Pillai, K.M., 2003. Parasitic infections of some wild animals at Thekkady in Kerala. Zoos' Print Journal 18, 1030.
Abstract: Helminth infection is wide spread in wild animals and may cause mortality and morbidity of varying degrees. Gour et al.(1979) and Fowler(1986) have stated that the wild animals in the free-living state are generally infected with numerous parasites, but cause little harm to them, unless they are streesed. Therefore, understanding the rate of infection in wild animals is important since infections could result in massive die-offs of wild animals during extreme stress conditions. There are several reports of parasitic infection in zoo animals, but information of the same in free- living wild animal scanty. This paper reports the parasitic infection in four wild boars, a calf elephant, a sambar deer and a leopard cat which died at Thekkady forest area in Kerala. The parasites collected during post mortem by the first author were preserved in formalin and brought to College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy. The specimens were washed, dehydrated, cleared in creosote and eexamined for specific identity.
All the parasites found in wild boars except Gastrodiscoides hominis and Gnathostoma hispidum  commonly infect the domestic pig(Soulsby, 1982). Noda(1973) has reported Ascaris suum from Sus scrofa lucomystax while Henry and Conley(1970) recorded  Physosephalus sexalatus from European wild hogs. Occurrence of Amblyoma sp.(ticks) in wild boars is recorded by Rajagopalan et al.(1968). Herbivores and rodents are the common intermediate hosts of Lingutula serrata, which in the adult stage occur in carnivores. Available literature did not reveal the occurrence of larvae of this parasite in Sambar. The elephant calf was heavily infected with strongyle worms and maggots of Cobboldia elephantis and is quite likely that its death may be due this infection. Sundram(1966) has recorded all these parasites from captive elephants. The Leopard Cat was also heavily infected with Echinococcus granulosus causing enteritis which probably could have contributed to its death.

Ganswindt, A., Palme, R., Heistermann, M., Borragan, S., Hodges, J.K., 2003. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in the male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and its relation to musth. Gen Comp Endocrinol 134, 156-166.
Abstract: German Primate Centre, Department of Reproductive Biology, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ganswindt@www.dpz.gdwg.de

Adult male elephants periodically show the phenomenon of musth, a condition associated with increased aggressiveness, restlessness, significant weight reduction and markedly elevated androgen levels. It has been suggested that musth-related behaviours are costly and that therefore musth may represent a form of physiological stress. In order to provide data on this largely unanswered question, the first aim of this study was to evaluate different assays for non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in the male African elephant by (i) characterizing the metabolism and excretion of [3H]cortisol (3H-C) and [14C]testosterone (14C-T) and (ii) using this information to evaluate the specificity of four antibodies for determination of excreted cortisol metabolites, particularly with respect to possible cross-reactions with androgen metabolites, and to assess their biological validity using an ACTH challenge test. Based on the methodology established, the second objective was to provide data on fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations in bulls during the musth and non-musth condition. 3H-C (1 mCi) and 14C-T (100 microCi) were injected simultaneously into a 16 year old male and all urine and feces collected for 30 and 86 h, respectively. The majority (82%) of cortisol metabolites was excreted into the urine, whereas testosterone metabolites were mainly (57%) excreted into the feces. Almost all radioactive metabolites recovered from urine were conjugated (86% 3H-C and 97% 14C-T). In contrast, 86% and >99% of the 3H-C and 14C-T metabolites recovered from feces consisted of unconjugated forms. HPLC separations indicated the presence of various metabolites of cortisol in both urine and feces, with cortisol being abundant in hydrolysed urine, but virtually absent in feces. Although all antibodies measured substantial amounts of immunoreactivity after HPLC separation of peak radioactive samples and detected an increase in glucocorticoid output following the ACTH challenge, only two (in feces against 3alpha,11-oxo-cortisol metabolites, measured by an 11-oxo-etiocholanolone-EIA and in urine against cortisol, measured by a cortisol-EIA) did not show substantial cross-reactivity with excreted 14C-T metabolites and could provide an acceptable degree of specificity for reliable assessment of glucocorticoid output from urine and feces. Based on these findings, concentrations of immunoreactive 3alpha,11-oxo-cortisol metabolites were determined in weekly fecal samples collected from four adult bulls over periods of 11-20 months to examine whether musth is associated with increased adrenal activity. Results showed that in each male levels of these cortisol metabolites were not elevated during periods of musth, suggesting that in the African elephant musth is generally not associated with marked elevations in glucocorticoid output. Given the complex nature of musth and the variety of factors that are likely to influence its manifestation, it is clear, however, that further studies, particularly on free-ranging animals, are needed before a possible relationship between musth and adrenal function can be resolved. This study also clearly illustrates the potential problems associated with cross-reacting metabolites of gonadal steroids in EIAs measuring glucocorticoid metabolites. This has to be taken into account when selecting assays and interpreting results of glucocorticoid metabolite analysis, not only for studies in the elephant but also in other species.

Hermes, R., Arav, A., Saragusty, J., Goeritz, F., Pettit, M., Blottner, S., Flach, E., Eshkar, G., Boardman, W., Hildebrandt, T.B. Cryopreservation of Asian elephant spermatozoa using directional freezing. Proc.Amer Assoc of Zoo Veterinarians.  264. 2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Male infertility and absence of males in a facility are contributing factors to the limited reproduction of Asian elephants in captivity. Subsequent transport for breeding purposes increase social stress, risks of disease transmission and management costs. Recent success in artificial insemination eliminated these obstacles only transporting the semen. However, the transport of fresh semen involves logistical<bold> </bold>difficulties: access to semen donors, consistent semen quality and preservation of the spermatozoa during transport. The use of cryo-preserved sperm for AI can partially overcome these problems and can additionally be used for the establishment of Genome Resource Banks. However, to date, attempts to cryo-preserve Asian elephant spermatozoa have failed due to its sensitivity to freezing. Aims of this study were to identify the temperature range during which spermatozoa is most sensitive to chilling injury, and to use directional freezing (DF) to reduce cell damage during the freezing process. Semen was collected from two Asian elephants by manual stimulation. DF was used for freezing sperm samples. In contrast to conventional freezing methods DF facilitated a fast cooling rate, controlled ice crystal formation and cryopreservation of large volumes. Samples extended with a variety of DMSO extenders showed post thaw motility of 30-40%. DF was able to cryo-preserve Asian Elephant spermatozoa for the first time. As DF seems to reduce cryo injury it may become of interest to optimize existing cryopreservation protocols of other endangered species, or to make cryopreservation even possible in species with cryo-sensitive spermatozoa.

Islam, S., 2003. Parasitic disease of elephant. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 137-140.

Kotoky, P., 2003. Purchase of elephants for government departments and introduction to relevant government schemes. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 174-179.

Mahanta, P.N., 2003. Health monitoring and common diseases in free ranging elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 130-136.

Michel, A.L., Venter, L., Espie, I.W., Coetzee, M.L., 2003. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in eight species at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, 1991-2001. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34, 364-370.
Abstract: Between 1991 and 2001 a total of 12 cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in eight different species were recorded in the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa in Pretoria (Tshwane). The genetic relatedness between seven of the M. tuberculosis isolates was determined by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For the majority of the isolates that were analyzed, a high degree of polymorphism suggested different sources of infection. Evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission between animals is reported in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed together, from which samples were collected for analysis 29 mo apart.

Mikota, S.K., Hammatt, H., Finnegan, M. Occurrence and prevention of capture wounds in Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus). Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  291-293. 2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The capturing of elephants in Indonesia began in 1986 as an attempted solution to human-elephant conflict.  The intent was to train "problem" elephants for use in agriculture, logging and tourism.  The initial captures were conducted under the guidance of Thai mahouts and Thai koonkie elephants (trained elephants used for capture).  A number of the Indonesians that were originally trained in capture techniques still work for the government forestry department (KSDA).  The younger pawangs (elephant handlers) that participate in captures have learned from their peers.  There is no formal training program. The actual mortality rate associated with elephant captures in Sumatra is unknown as official reports are lacking.  The age structure of the existing ~ 400 captive elephants is young (most under 25) which suggests that smaller, younger elephants are preferentially captured and / or that adult elephants do not survive the capture and training processes.  Our personal experiences (Mikota and Hammatt) in Sumatra show that mortality in newly captured elephants is high.In 2001, with endorsement from the World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF), the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Fauna and Flora International (FFI), and the International Elephant Foundation (IEF), we requested a two-year Moratorium on elephant captures during which time capture techniques would be improved and alternative conflict mediation techniques evaluated.
A Moratorium against placing additional elephants into the Elephant Training Centers has been issued by the central government, however capture for translocation is still sanctioned.  Unfortunately, the provincial governments have increasingly acted in their own interests since the government of Indonesia began a de-centralization process a few years ago. Riau Province is thought to have the largest remaining populations of wild Sumatran elephants.Fifty-seven, human-elephant conflicts occurred in Riau between 1997-2000.  Although Riau is a hotbed of conflict, problems are occurring throughout Sumatra and we are aware of conflicts and captures in Bengkulu and North Sumatra. In October 2002, we were invited by KSDA (the provincial forestry department) to accompany their team into the field as they attempted to capture a large bull that had been raiding a palm oil plantation.  This opportunity was invaluable as we were able to observe first hand the techniques being used and where improvements were needed.  As a result of this and other experiences with newly captured elephants we observed:
·Equipment (Palmer) is old, poorly maintained, and used improperly. · Essential supplies are lacking or homemade substitutes are used.
·The dose of xylazine is very high compared to wild elephant capture doses used in India and Malaysia.  The same dose is often used regardless of the size of the elephant. ·The needles are too short to reach muscle; open-ended needles are used which can become plugged with tissue, thus preventing injection. ·Neither the correct charge nor the correct load is selected.  We observed that many darts bounced making it difficult to ascertain the amount of drug injected or its depth of penetration.  Selection of an inappropriate charge results in unnecessary trauma. ·The preparation and use of darts, needles, and syringes lacks basic hygiene. ·Dart wounds are not treated and antibiotics are not administered.  · There is no understanding of stress or capture myopathy. ·The capture team was not aware that sternal recumbency severely compromises respiration in elephants and that they can quickly die in this position. ·It is believed that elephant restraints must inflict pain to prevent wild elephants from escaping once captured.  ·There is no veterinarian on the capture team. The current capture techniques result in leg wounds from unprotected chains, neck wounds from "kahs" (neck yokes made of wood and wire), and abscesses from inappropriately administered darts.  Leg and neck wounds often become maggot infested.  Infections from dart wounds are, however, the primary cause of capture-related mortality.  These abscesses can drain for several months, even with treatment, and often progress to a necrotizing fasciitis, acute sepsis, and death. The Riau Province KSDA Team has been receptive to suggested changes to minimize wounds. Provision of heavier chains has alleviated the fear that elephants will escape.  Covering the chains with fire hose or heavy plastic minimizes injuries to legs and use of the kah has been discontinued.  A basic dart wound treatment protocol has been established. In June 2003, a comprehensive Elephant Immobilization and Translocation Workshop for Sumatra is planned to retrain all of Sumatra's field teams and to upgrade equipment. Sumatra's wild elephant population probably numbers fewer than 3000 and is under continued threat.  With so few elephants left, the preservation of as many viable herds as possible takes on increased urgency.  The Moratorium achieved in 2001 has set the groundwork for KSDA to choose translocation of wild elephants rather than capture and placement into already over-crowded and under-resourced Elephant Training Centers.  We cannot guarantee that Sumatra will capture elephants only for translocation, and it is inevitable that many more elephants will end up in captivity.  Regardless, all of the elephants that must suffer the interruption of their lives at the hand of man deserve, at the very least, humane treatment.  Translocations are neither simple nor a complete panacea.  Identifying suitable translocation areas and insuring that elephants remain there are significant challenges.  WWF-Indonesia is continuing its efforts to secure the lowland forest of Tesso Nilo in Riau Province as a "safe haven" for at least some of Sumatra's wild elephants (see WWF AREAS Program – Riau, Sumatra: http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/attachments/riau_profile.pdf).  The identification of interim release sites, together with improved capture techniques, offers the hope that fewer elephants will be removed from the wild.   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: Our work in Sumatra has been supported by the Guggenheim Foundation, a CEF grant from the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, the International Elephant Foundation, Oregon Zoo, Columbus Zoo, Disney, Peace River Refuge, the Elephant Managers Association, the Riddles Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary, Tulsa Zoo, Toronto Zoo, Niabi Zoo, San Antonio Zoo, Denver Zoo (AAZK Chapter), Milwaukee Zoo (AAZK Chapter), the Audubon Nature Institute (Youth Volunteers), Buttonwood Park Zoo, Melbourne Zoo, and private donors.  Special thanks to Harry Peachey, John Lehnhardt, Holly Reed, Kay Backues, Mike Keele, Steve Osofsky, and Heidi and Scott Riddle.

Morgan, B.J., Lee, P.C., 2003. Forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) stature in the Reserve de Faune du Petit Loango, Gabon. Journal of Zoology 259, 337-344.
Abstract: The stature of forest elephants Loxodonta africana cyclotis was determined at the Petit Loango Reserve over 14 months from January to December 1998 and May to June 1999 using three measures: shoulder height, hind footprint length and boli diameter. The shoulder height of 53 identified elephants was measured using photogrammetric methods. The minimum estimated shoulder height was 69 cm from a young calf, and the tallest animal was 216 cm. Hind footprint length and boli diameter data were collected from unidentified individuals. The minimum footprint size was 12.5 cm and the largest 35.3 cm. Boli diameter ranged from 4.0 to 16.0 cm. A comparison of the size categories with those of savanna elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, suggested a similar distribution of size, age and population structure, despite a marked difference in overall stature. These are the first data for measures of African forest elephant size compared to African savanna elephant size. Such data may add morphological evidence supporting recent genetic work suggesting that African forest elephants be re-classified as a distinct species from the African savanna elephant.

Nalla, R.K., Kinney, J.H., Ritchie, R.O., 2003. Effect of orientation on the in vitro fracture toughness of dentin: the role of toughening mechanisms. Biomaterials 24, 3955-3968.
Abstract: Toughening mechanisms based on the presence of collagen fibrils have long been proposed for mineralized biological tissues like bone and dentin; however, no direct evidence for their precise role has ever been provided. Furthermore, although the anisotropy of mechanical properties of dentin with respect to orientation has been suggested in the literature, accurate measurements to support the effect of orientation on the fracture toughness of dentin are not available. To address these issues, the in vitro fracture toughness of dentin, extracted from elephant tusk, has been characterized using fatigue-precracked compact-tension specimens tested in Hank's balanced salt solution at ambient temperature, with fracture paths perpendicular and parallel to the tubule orientations (and orientations in between) specifically being evaluated. It was found that the fracture toughness was lower where cracking occurred in the plane of the collagen fibers, as compared to crack paths perpendicular to the fibers. The origins of this effect on the toughness of dentin are discussed primarily in terms of the salient toughening mechanisms active in this material; specifically, the role of crack bridging, both from uncracked ligaments and by individual collagen fibrils, is considered. Estimates for the contributions from each of these mechanisms are provided from theoretical models available in the literature.  Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Pavlik, I., Ayele, W.Y., Parmova, I., Melicharek, I., Hanzlikova, M., Svejnochova, M., Kormendy, B., 2003. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in animal and human populations in six Central European countries during 1990-1999. Veterinarni Medicina 48, 83-89.
Abstract:  Results of Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in animals from six Central European countries (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia) spreading over 610402 km2 with a population of 11.8 million heads of cattle were analysed. In the monitoring period between 1990 and 1999, M. tuberculosis from animals was isolated only in two countries (Poland and Slovak Republic) from 16 animals with tuberculous lesions. These comprise 9 cattle (Bos taurus), 4 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and three wild animals, an African elephant (Loxodonta africana), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti) and terrestrial tapir (Tapirus terrestris) from a zoological garden Gdansk in Poland. A steady decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in humans was recorded during the monitoring period in all countries. The human population of the study countries was 68.03 million. In the period monitored, infection caused by M. tuberculosis was identified in a total of 241040 patients with a decreasing incidence of tuberculosis found in all countries. The lowest relative bacteriologically confirmed disease was found in the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. Given the low number of infected domestic and wild animals, the epidemiological and epizootiological situation may be considered auspicious.

Sitati, N.W., Walpole, M.J., Smith, R.J., Leader-Williams, N., 2003. Predicting spatial aspects of human–elephant conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 40, 667-677.
Abstract: Human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa occurs wherever these two species coincide, and poses serious challenges to wildlife managers, local communities and elephants alike. Mitigation requires a detailed understanding of underlying patterns and processes. Although temporal patterns of HEC are relatively predictable, spatial variation has shown few universal trends, making it difficult to predict where conflict will take place. While this may be due to unpredictability in male elephant foraging behaviour (the male behaviour hypothesis) it may also be due to variations in the data resolution of earlier studies. This study tested the male behaviour and data resolution hypotheses using HEC data from a 1000-km2 unprotected elephant range adjacent to the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. HEC incidents were divided into crop raiding and human deaths or injuries. Crop raiding was further subdivided into incidents involving only male elephants or family groups. A relatively fine-resolution, systematic, grid-based method was used to assign the locations of conflict incidents, and spatial relations with underlying variables were explored using correlation analysis and logistic regression. Crop raiding was clustered into distinct conflict zones. Both occurrence and intensity could be predicted on the basis of the area under cultivation and, for male elephant groups, proximity to major settlements. Conversely, incidents of elephant-induced human injury and death were less predictable but were correlated with proximity to roads. A grid-based geographical information system (GIS) with a 25-km2 resolution utilizing cost-effective data sources, combined with simple statistical tools, was capable of identifying spatial predictors of HEC. At finer resolutions spatial autocorrelation compromised the analyses. Synthesis and applications. These results suggest that spatial correlates of HEC can be identified, regardless of the sex of the elephants involved. Moreover, the method described here is fully transferable to other sites for comparative analysis of HEC. Using these results to map vulnerability will enable the development and deployment of appropriate conflict mitigation strategies, such as guarding, early warning systems, barriers and deterrents. The utility of such methods and their strategic deployment should be assessed alongside alternative land-use and livelihood strategies that limit cultivation within the elephant range.

Steenkamp, G., 2003. Oral biology and disorders of tusked mammals. Veterinary Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 6, 689-725.
Abstract: Tusked mammals can be terrestrial or aquatic. Many of these magnificent animals are kept in captivity all over the world. Functions of tusks vary as much as the species in which they occur. Dental anomalies and disorders of tusks and the rest of the dentition in these mammals were discussed, with an emphasis on the elephant. The tusk anatomy, with its large, conically-shaped pulp, makes it an ideal tooth for partial pulpectomy treatment in trauma cases where the pulp is exposed. Surgical techniques for tusks have been developed and were discussed. Oral tumors occur, but are rare.Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0010, South Africa. steenkamp@op.up.ac.za

Sukumar, K., 2003. Asian elephants in zoos – a response to Rees. Oryx 37, 23-24.
Abstract: The real role of zoos in the conservation of threatened animals is increasingly coming under public scrutiny, and this is perhaps natural in the case of intelligent, charismatic animals such as elephants. From Roman times up to the mid nineteenth century the elephant was a curiosity in Europe, and then with the establishment of zoos and the popularity of modern circuses there was a steady influx of animals from colonies in Africa and Asia. Elephants, however, never bred well in captivity, either historically in Asia or in recent decades in western zoos. Kings and other rulers have over the centuries obtained their elephant stocks mainly through capture from the wild, in many instances depleting these populations to the point of local extinction (Sukumar, 1989). Even the stocks of timber camp elephants in British India and Burma during the twentieth century were built up mainly through capture as opposed to breeding (Williams, 1950; Stracey, 1963; Gale, 1974; Krishnamurthy & Wemmer, 1995). The longevity of elephants ensured that sizeable numbers were available at any point in time; there was breeding among the timber camp elephants but in most places this rarely compensated for the mortality rate.

Talukdar, B.N., 2003. Practices on welfare and prevention of cruelty: legal provisions related to elephant. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 180-190.

Weissengruber, G.E., Egerbacher, M., Forstenpointner, G., Wisser, J.ed., Hofer, H.e., Frolich, K. Mechanisms of loss and repair in traumatically injured tusks of African elephants. Erkrankungen-der-Zootiere:-Verhandlungsbericht-des-41.-Internationalen-Symposiums-uber-die-Erkrankungen-der-Zoo-und-Wildtiere.  425. 2003. 5-28-2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

West, J.B., Fu, Z., Gaeth, A.P., Short, R.V., 2003. Fetal lung development in the elephant reflects the adaptations required for snorkeling in adult life. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 138, 325-333.
Abstract: The adult elephant is unique among mammals in that the pleural membranes are thickened and the pleural cavity is obliterated by connective tissue. It has been suggested that this peculiar anatomy developed because the animal can snorkel at depth, and this behavior subjects the microvessels in the parietal pleura to a very large transmural pressure. To investigate the development of the parietal pleura, the thickness of the endothoracic fascia (ET) was measured in four fetal African elephants of approximate gestational age 111-130 days, and the appearances were compared with those in human, rabbit, rat and mouse fetuses of approximately the same stage of lung organogenesis. The mean thicknesses of ET in the elephant, human, rabbit, rat and mouse were 403, 53, 29, 27 and 37 microm, respectively. This very early development of a thick parietal pleura in the elephant fetus is consistent with the hypothesis of a long history of snorkeling in the elephant's putative aquatic ancestors. Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0623, USA. jwest@ucsd.edu

Wingfield, J.C., Sapolsky, R.M., 2003. Reproduction and resistance to stress: When and how. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 15, 711-724.

Yamada, M., Nakamura, K., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, H., 2003. Hepatocellular endoplasmic reticulum storage disease in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). J Comp Pathol 128, 192-194.
Abstract: Large intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in hepatocytes of a 7-year-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The inclusions were oval to polyhedral with either a homogeneous glassy or a granular appearance. They were positive for the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Electron microscopical examination revealed that the inclusions consisted of granular material with moderate electron-density and were membrane-bounded. The findings suggested that the inclusions were derived from endoplasmic reticulum. The light and electron microscopical features were similar to those of endoplasmic reticulum storage disease of the liver in man. Such inclusions have not previously been reported in animals. National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan.

Yappert, M.C., Rujoi, M., Borchman, D., Vorobyov, I., Estrada, R., 2003. Glycero- versus sphingo-phospholipids: correlations with human and non-human mammalian lens growth. Exp Eye Res 76, 725-734.
Abstract: The human lens differs from other mammalian lenses in its very slow growth and unusual phospholipid composition of its cell membranes. Dihydrosphingomyelins (DHSMs) make up about half of all phospholipids in adult human fiber membranes. In all other membranes, sphingomyelins(SMs) with a trans double bond in their backbone, are prevalent. In our quest to understand the biological implications of such elevated DHSM levels, we analyzed membranes from various regions of human, elephant, giraffe, polar bear, pig and cow lenses. The levels of DHSMs were minor in non-human lens membranes. A strong correlation was observed between growth rate and relative contents of phosphatidylcholines(PCs) in epithelia and outer cortical fibers. Sphingomyelins became increasingly predominant in differentiated fibers and this increase was age dependent. Indeed, nuclear fiber membranes of aged non-human mammals were composed, almost exclusively, of (SMs). Although human lens membranes followed comparable compositional trends, the magnitude of the changes was much smaller. We postulate that the high relative contents of DHSMs provide a biochemically inert matrix in which only small amounts of PCs and SMs and their metabolites, known to promote and arrest growth, respectively, are present. This compositional difference is proposed to contribute to the slow multiplication and elongation of human lens cells. Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA. mcyapper@louisville.edu

Ziccardi, M., Wong, H.N., Tell, L.A., Fritcher, D., Blanchard, J., Kilbourn, A., Godfrey, H.P. Further optimization and validation of the antigen 85 immunoassay for diagnosing mycobacteriosis in wildlife. Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  219-220. 2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis,  M. tuberculosis and M. avium has been a well-documented health problem for zoological collections as long ago as the late 19th century.  Prevalence estimation in these captive wildlife populations, however, has been hampered by diagnostic test methods that are oftentimes difficult or impossible to conduct and/or interpret (due to the requirement for multiple immobilizations for measurement of response), the occurrence of non-specific results with methods such as the intradermal skin test, and/or the near-total lack of validation, optimization and standardization of any of the available test methods in the species of interest.  Additionally, because intradermal skin testing is the primary screening method for many of these species, the ability to compare exposure in captive wildlife with exposure in free-ranging populations has been limited due to the difficulty with follow-up in free-ranging populations.  Lastly, unlike testing methods that use serological techniques, skin testing precludes retrospective studies of banked samples to determine onset of reactivity.

Recently, human tuberculosis researchers working with tuberculosis in humans have developed an immunoassay that detects a serum protein complex (the antigen 85, or Ag85, complex) produced by mycobacteria in the early stages of mycobacterial infections1.  Previous work has shown that this method is a promising diagnostic tool in the evaluation of tuberculosis exposure in some primate (including orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), a species known for non-specific tuberculin responses)2  and captive hoofstock species3.  In order to determine the feasibility and applicability of a widespread use of this method for captive and free-ranging wildlife species, we have undertaken a number of pilot studies on different populations of interest, with the goals of optimizing and validating the immunoassay through analysis of serum from known infected and non-infected individuals and through comparisons with other diagnostic methods.  Thus far, we have begun evaluating the applicability of the antigen 85 immunoassay in various avian, primate, rhinoceros and hoofstock species for detecting tuberculosis and/or paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) infections.  Preliminary results, a summary of which will be presented, indicate that this method may be a valuable adjunct to other testing methods (including gamma interferon and multiple-antigen ELISA) to allow a better evaluation of true mycobacterial status in these species.


1.Bentley-Hibbert, S. I., X. Quan, T. G. Newman, K. Huygen and H. P. Godfrey. 1999.  Pathophysiology of Antigen 85 in patients with active tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 67(2):581-8.
2.Kilbourn, A. M., H. P. Godfrey, R. A. Cook, P. P. Calle, E. J. Bosi, S. I. Bentley-Hibbert, K. Huygen, M. Andau, M. Ziccardi and W. B. Karesh.  2001.  Serum Antigen 85 levels in adjunct testing for active mycobacterial infections in orangutans.  J. Wildl. Dis. 37(1): 65-71.
3.Mangold, B. J., R. A. Cook, M. R. Cranfield, K. Huygen, and H. P. Godfrey.  1999.  Detection of elevated levels of circulating antigen 85 by dot immunobinding assay in captive wild animals with tuberculosis.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 30(4): 477-483.

Alexander, K.A., Pleydell, E., Williams, M.C., Lane, E.P., Nyange, J.F.C., Michel, A.L., 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis : An Emerging Disease of Free-Ranging Wildlife. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, 598-601.
Abstract: Expansion of ecotourism-based industries, changes in land-use practices, and escalating competition for resources have increased contact between free-ranging wildlife and humans. Although human presence in wildlife areas may provide an important economic benefit through ecotourism, exposure to human pathogens
may represent a health risk for wildlife. This report is the first to document introduction of a primary human pathogen into free-ranging wildlife. We describe outbreaks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a human pathogen, in free-ranging banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Botswana and suricates (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa. Wildlife managers and scientists must address the potential threat that humans pose to the health of free-ranging wildlife.

Azeez, M.A., 2002. Elephant insurance. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 37.

Bechert, U.S., Southern, S. Monitoring Environmental Stress in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) through Molecular Analysis of Stress-Activated Proteins. Baer, C. K. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  249-253. 2002. Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Many disease outbreaks appear to be facilitated by increased stress due to overcrowding, and changing environmental conditions triggered by climate variability and human activities. Currently, the health of populations is typically assessed with the tools of population dynamics: estimations of trends in abundance, mortality, and reproductive rates. However, for populations that have long generation times, this approach is sometimes too slow to provide an early warning about the impact of environmental stressors such as disease, pollution, and anthropogenic activities. We have developed new techniques for detecting chronic physiologic stress and disease in mammals, based on the molecular analysis of the expression patterns of multiple stress-activated proteins and genes. This approach represents a novel tool for health monitoring, and can provide an early warning of increased environmental stress and compromised health in elephants and other mammals. This paper describes a study in progress, in which the molecular analysis of stress is being used to explore correlations between stress level and information regarding population abundance, distribution, habitat needs, human-elephant interactions, and movements of elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the northern Botswana region. This technique will provide a more objective way to assess carrying capacity for African elephants, thus facilitating development of effective management plans for this species.

Benkirane, A., de Alwis, M.C.L., 2002. Haemorrhagic septicaemia, its significance, prevention and control in Asia. Vet. Med. -Czech 47 , 234-240.
Abstract: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an endemic disease in most countries of Asia and sub Saharan Africa. Within the Asian Region, countries can be classified into three categories, on the basis of incidence and distribution of the disease; these are respectively countries where the disease is endemic or sporadic, clinically suspected but not confirmed, or free. Economic losses due to HS are not only confined to losses to the animal industry, but also rice production on account of its high prevalence among draught animals used in rice fields. Only a few attempts have been made to estimate economic losses, the methodologies used in different countries have varied, and many are not based on active surveillance, and a consideration of all components of direct and indirect losses. Most Asian countries rank HS as the most important contagious disease or the most important bacterial disease in cattle and buffaloes. Resource allocation for prevention and control of HS nationally or internationally will evidently depend on a correct estimate of its economic impact. The key factors in prevention and control would be timely and correct reporting, accurate and rapid diagnosis, strategic use of vaccines with the attainment of a high coverage where necessary with a high quality vaccine. National level activities geared towards attainment of these objectives may be with advantage supported and strengthened by international organisations involved in animal health. ?e present paper attempts to review aspects related to the epidemiology, control and containment of HS in Asia and, proposes some key issues on which a regional programme for HS control in this continent should be centred.

Chandrasekharan, K., 2002. Elephant - an overview. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 8-11.

Cheeran, J.V., 2002. Training and Management of Elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 21-23.

Cheeran, J.V., 2002. Elephant facts. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 12-14.

Delsink, A.K., van Altena, J.J., Kirkpatrick, J., Grobler, D., Fayrer-Hosken, R.A., 2002. Field applications of immunocontraception in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Reprod Suppl 60, 117-124.
Abstract: The primary aim of the Makalali elephant immunocontraception programme is to test the efficacy of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine for practical population control of elephants in small, enclosed reserves, with the goal of stabilizing the current growth rate and reducing it to the 5-10% per annum displayed currently in the Kruger National Park. A secondary aim is to test the hypothesis that PZP treatment does not affect patterns of elephant social behaviour. Eighteen sexually mature cows (age > 12 years) were vaccinated in May 2000 using remote darts. Behavioural observations before, during and after vaccination included noting the activity of individual animals every minute for 15 min. No changes in general behaviour patterns have been noted to date although the animals' spatial use of the reserve was erratic during the period of vaccination, indicating irregular or disturbed patterns associated with vaccination. Normality was resumed on completion of the vaccinations. No aggressive or indifferent behaviour related to nursing, calf proximity or bull-cow interactions have been noted. Ten of the females were in various stages of pregnancy when treated. Subsequently, seven of them gave birth to healthy calves and the other three females are expected to calve shortly. It is too early in the study to draw conclusions about stabilization of growth rates.

Emanuelson, K.A., Agnew, D.W. Wasting syndrome in a bull African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  142-145. 2002.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Essbauer, S., Meyer, H., Kaaden, O.R., Pfeffer, M., 2002. Recent cases in the German poxvirus consulting laboratory. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 153, 635-642.
Abstract: Designated as poxvirus consulting laboratory by the Robert-Koch-Institute (Berlin), we provide scientific advice regarding any aspects of poxviruses affecting different animals e.g. cats, elephants, swines, birds and men. Human smallpox was eradicated in the 1980s, and consequently with diminishing vaccination a generation susceptible for other zoonotic poxviruses grows up. Although the epidemiology of orthopoxvirus infections in Germany remains unclear, in the last few years we observed a drastic increase of zoonotic poxvirus infections with three case reports on human 'cowpox' infections presented here. In the two cases, we could only retrospectively trace the source of the orthopoxvirus to cats based on seroconversion. In one case, a young cat transmitted the virus to three humans; all developed clinical pox lesions. Underlying the zoonotic potential of cowpoxviruses (CPXV), these viruses exhibit a broad host range. In the year 2000, two elephants (Elephas maximus) of a German travelling circus revealed a fatal orthopoxvirus infection. The animals exhibited many poxviral lesions and died. Thus, we provide the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for vaccination of exotic or expensive animals. Classical virological and serological methods as well as molecular-biological techniques including PCR, sequencing and restriction fragment patterns of the newly isolated poxviruses show a very close relationship of the investigated CPXV isolates irrespective of their host species. These findings and our long-term data give evidence of an increase in orthopoxviruses infections in animals and men; thus, highlighting the importance of further investigations on virus transmission and orthopoxvirus reservoirs.

Kim, C.S., Won, C.K., Cho, G.H., Cho, K.W., Park, J.S., Rho, G.J., 2002. A case of fused thoracic vertebrae, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and ilium of African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Korean Journal of Veterinary Research 42, 131-136.

Langman, V.A., Rowe, M., Maloney, M., McQuire, R., Carrington, R. Obligatory heterothermia a story of elephant radiators. Proceedings of the Elephant Managers Association Conference. Journal of Experimental Biology, Lond. 22, 136. 2002.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Mikota, S.K., Maslow, J. Epidemiology and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Elephants: 2002. Baer, C. K. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference.  384-387. 2002. 2002.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Murali, K., 2002. An introduction to Hastyayurveda. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 54,63-63.

Naveen, P.K., 2002. Homeopathy in elephant practice. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 52.

Nayar, K.N.M., Chandrasekharan, K., Radhakrishnan, K., 2002. Management of surgical affections in captive elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 55-59.

Oh, P., Granich, R., Scott, J., Sun, B., Joseph, M., Stringfield, C., Thisdell, S., Staley, J., Workman-Malcolm, D., Borenstein, L., Lehnkering, E., Ryan, P., Soukup, J., Nitta, A., Flood, J., 2002. Human exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a Metropolitan Zoo. Emerg Infect Dis 8, 1290-1293.
Abstract: From 1997 to 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and one black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the Los Angeles Zoo. DNA fingerprint patterns suggested recent transmission. An investigation found no active cases of tuberculosis in humans; however, tuberculin skin-test conversions in humans were associated with training elephants and attending an elephant necropsy.

Payeur, J.B., Jarnagin, J.L., Marquardt, J.G., Whipple, D.L., 2002. Mycobacterial isolations in captive elephants in the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci 969, 256-258.
Abstract: Interest in tuberculosis in elephants has been increasing over the past several years in the United States. Several techniques have been used to diagnose mammalian tuberculosis. Currently, the test considered most reliable for diagnosis of TB in elephants is based on the culture of respiratory secretions obtained by trunk washes.

Rafeek, A.K., 2002. Human Elephant Conflict. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 47-48.

Rees, P.A., 2002. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) dust bathe in response to an increase in environmental temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology 27, 353-358.
Abstract: (1) A captive herd of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) exhibited dusting  behaviour when the maximum daily temperature exceeded approximately 13°C, and dusting frequency increased directly with the environmental   temperature. (2) Individual animals showed variation in dusting frequency but this was not related to body mass, suggesting that the function of   dusting is not primarily thermoregulatory. (3) Synchronisation in the   timing of dusting behaviour within the herd suggests that it may have a function in the maintenance of social cohesion. (4) The function of  dusting behaviour could not be determined from the data presented, but it  may be involved in skin care, protection from insects or other parasites, temperature control, protection from radiation or some combination of  these.

Reilly, J., 2002. Growth in the Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) and age estimation based on dung diameter. J. Zool. , Lond 258, 205-213.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate age-related growth in the Sumatran elephant Elephas maximus sumatranus and to use the derived relationship to determine the age structure of the wild elephant population in Way Kambas National Park (WKNP), Sumatra. Shoulder height, forefoot circumference and diameter of dung bolus were found to be related to age of captive Sumatran elephants using the Von Bertalanffy growth function. All length measurements were highly correlated with age in the Sumatran elephant and provide growth models for determining the age structure of wild populations. Female captive elephants reached their growth plateau earlier than male elephants who continued growing throughout the ages observed. There was no clear evidence of a secondary growth spurt in male elephants. The growth model relating dung diameter to age was used to predict the age structure of the wild elephant population in WKNP from dung measured along random line transects. The wild elephant population in WKNP is
young and dominated by sub-adults (between 5 and 15 years of age). There are marked differences between the age structure of the population as revealed in the current survey and that reported from previous studies, suggesting that changes have occurred within the population in the intervening period. The use of dung diameter to predict age offers a robust field technique for use in situations where direct observations are limited, and the use of other age estimation methods is impractical. It is easily coupled with dung counts for estimating the size, age structure and biomass of elephant populations, and has considerable potential for investigating the effects of poaching on age structure and identifying where priority action should be directed in human-elephant conflict situations.

Saseendran, P.C., Anil, K.S., Nair, A., Radhakrishnan, K., Prasad, A., 2002. Elephants and work. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 41, 48-48.

Singh, V.N., 2002. Symptomatic study of haemorrhagic septicaemia in elephant in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu. Indian Forester 128, 1089-1100.
Abstract: Symptoms of haemorrhagic septicaemia, a dreaded disease in elephant is recorded in this study which reveals systematic spread of Oedema from jowl to throat, neck, brisket, abdomen and perenical regions. It also records the changes in character/colour of dung, urine, eye, tongue, trunk, body temperature, feeding habit and body condition along with treatment given to cure the disease.

Suprayogi, B., Sugardjito, J., Lilley, R.P.H., 2002. Management of Sumatran elephants in Indonesia: problems and challenges. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 183-194.
Abstract: The status of domestic elephants in Indonesia is described. The development of elephant training centres and reasons for their failure to encourage the use of elephants for logging operations are discussed. Problems of stress and other health problems are described. The availability of resources (feed, water and veterinary support) are discussed. Recommendations for improvement are given.

Turenne, C., Chedore, P., Wolfe, J., Jamieson, F., May, K., Kabani, A., 2002. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium elephantis from human specimens. J Clin Microbiol 40, 1230-1236.
Abstract: Eleven strains of a rapidly growing mycobacterium were isolated from patient specimens originating from various regions of the province of Ontario, Canada, over a 2-year period. Unique high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis (PRA) profiles initially suggested a new Mycobacterium species, while sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a sequence match with Mycobacterium sp. strain MCRO 17 (GenBank accession no. X93028), an isolate determined to be unique which is to date uncharacterized, and also a close similarity to M. elephantis (GenBank accession no. AJ010747), with six base pair variations. A complete biochemical profile of these isolates revealed
a species of mycobacteria with phenotypic characteristics similar to those of M. flavescens. HPLC, PRA, and 16S rRNA sequencing of strain M. elephantis DSM 44368(T) and result comparisons with the clinical isolates revealed that these strains were in fact M. elephantis, a newly described species isolated from an elephant. All strains were isolated from human samples, 10 from sputum and 1from an axillary lymph node.

Vidya, T.N., Sukumar, R., 2002. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in southern India. J Biosci 27, 521-528.
Abstract: Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons across seasons and habitats revealed that parasite loads were significantly higher during the dry season than the wet season, but were not different between the dry-deciduous and dry-thorn forests in either season. After accounting for the effect of age on body condition, there was no correlation between body condition, assessed visually using morphological criteria, and parasite load in either season. Individuals of different elephant herds were not characterized by distinct parasite communities in either season. When intra-individual variation was examined, samples collected from the same individual within a day differed significantly in egg densities, while the temporal variation over several weeks or months (within a season) was much less. Egg densities within dung piles were uniform, enabling a simpler collection method henceforth.

Vijayan, N., Nair, N.D., 2002. Autopsy in elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 53-51.

White, S.D., Evans, A.G., 2002. Hypersensitivity disorders. In: Smith, B.P. (Ed.), Large Animal Internal Medicine. Mosby, St.Louis, pp. 1202-1207.

Wielebnowski, N.C., Fletchall, N., 2002. Noninvasive assessment of adrenal activity associated with husbandry and behavioral factors in the North American clouded leopard population. Zoo Biology 21, 77-98.

Woodford, M.H., Keet, D.F., Bengis, R.G., 2002. A guide to post-mortem procedure and a review of pathological processes identified in the elephant. Post-mortem Procedures for Wildlife Veterinarians and Field Biologists. IUCN, pp. 36-47.

Bacciarini, L.N., Pagan, O., Frey, J., Grone, A., 2001. Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana)with ulcerative enteritis. Vet Rec 149, 618-620.
Abstract: A 22-year-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) developed diarrhea of unknown cause which lasted for two days. The animal was euthanized after it remained recumbent and refused to get up. Gross pathological changes were present mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. The intestinal contents were watery and dark brown. Several areas of the mucosa of the small intestine were covered minimally to moderately with fibrin and had a few 0.1 x 10 to 15 cm linear ulcerations. Microscopical lesions consisted of discrete areas of necrosis of the surface and crypt epithelium without overt inflammatory infiltrates. Culture of the small intestinal contents resulted in a moderate growth of Clostridium perfringens. No salmonella were found in the small or large intestine. PCR of the isolate of C. perfringens revealed the presence of the beta2-toxin gene cpb2 and the alpha-toxin gene cpa but no other known toxin genes. The expression of the beta2-toxin gene in vivo was demonstrated by the immunohistochemical localization of the beta2-toxin to the microscopical lesions in the small intestine.

Buckely, C., 2001. Captive Elephant Foot Care: Natural Habitat Husbandry Techniques. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 53-55.
Abstract: Many factors, including environment, diet, and management, determine the psychological and physical health of captive elephants.  When these factors are suboptimal, resulting in stress, the captive elephants' response will manifest in disorders of the mind and/or body.  The link between these disorders and an unhealthy environment, inadequate diet, or inferior management techniques is not always obvious; but often is painfully obvious. For the purpose of this chapter, "natural habitat" is defined as a vast space of diverse terrain and natural substrate, complete with wetlands, seeded and volunteer pastures, wooded areas, natural year-round water sources (including spring-fed ponds, washes, streams, and dry creek beds), and a wide range of live vegetation suitable for the species being maintained.

Clifton-Hadley, R.S., Sauter-Louis, C.M., Lugton, I.W., Jacson, R., Durr, P.A., Wilesmith, J.W., 2001. Mycobacterial diseases. In: Williams, E.S. (Ed.), Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 340-361.

Davis, M., 2001. Mycobacterium tuberculosis risk for elephant handlers and veterinarians. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16, 350-353.

du Toit, J.G., 2001. Veterinary Care of African Elephants. Novartis and south African Veterinary Foundation, Pretoria, Republic of Southhttp://bigfive.jl.co.za./elephant_book.htm Africa.
Abstract: This manual is a project of the South African Veterinary Foundation and Novartis South Africa (Pty) Ltd. It is distributed by Wildlife Decision Support
PO BOX 74610, Lynnwood Ridge, Pretoria, RSA, 0040; Tel: +27 12991-3083; Fax: +27 12991-3851 Online:http://bigfive.jl.co.za./elephant_book.htm

Dudley, J.P., Craig, G.C., Gibson, D.St.C., Haynes, G., Klimowicz, J., 2001. Drought mortality of bush elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 39, 187-194.
Abstract: African bush elephants inhabiting the undeveloped Kalahari Sands region of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe are subject to episodic mortality during droughts. We monitored the drought-related mortality of elephants in Hwange National Park over the course of an extended drought between 1993 and 1995. The drought-related mortality of elephants was higher during 1994 than 1995, despite significantly higher rainfall in 1994 than 1995. We found significant differences in the age-specific mortality of elephants during 1994 and 1995. The cumulative mortality profile from this study differed significantly from previous die-offs at this site, with a higher mortality among adult age classes than that reported from earlier studies in Hwange National Park. The effective duration of the rainy season, not total annual precipitation, appears to be the best predictor for the potential severity of drought mortality among elephants in the Kalahari Sands habitats of Hwange National Park.

Foley, C.A.H., Papageorge, S., Wasser, S.K., 2001. Noninvasive stress and reproductive measures of social and ecological pressures in free-ranging African elephants. Conserv Biol 15, 1134-1142.

Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J.K. Faecal Glucocorticoid and Androgen Metabolite Excretion in Male African Elephants (Loxodonta africana). A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  258. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Garai, M. Social Behaviour of the Elephants at Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage, Sri Lanka. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  32-40. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hinke, A., Wipplinger, J. A Case of Molar Anomalie in an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  264. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Lamps, L.W., Smoller, B.R., Rasmussen, L.E., Slade, B.E., Fritsch, G., Goodwin, T.E., 2001. Characterization of interdigital glands in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Research in Veterinary Science 71, 197-200.
Abstract: In the Asian elephant, wetness akin to perspiration is commonly observed on the cuticles and interdigital areas of the feet; this observation has lead to speculation regarding the existence of an interdigital gland. Our goal was to search for interdigital glands and characterize them morphologically, histochemically, and immunohistochemically. Necropsy samples of interdigital areas from two Asian elephants were obtained. Multiple sections were fixed and processed routinely, then stained with hematoxylin/eosin and differential mucin stains. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for cytokeratins 8 and 10. Interdigital glands resembling human eccrine glands were detected deep within the reticular dermis. Histochemical staining indicated neutral mucopolysaccharides and nonsulphated acid mucopolysaccharides in glandular secretions, and the glandular epithelium also showed immunoreactivity to cytokeratins 8 and 10. Both the histochemical and immunohistochemical staining patterns are analogous to human eccrine structures. This study shows with certainty that Asian elephants possess sweat glands as they are defined histologically.

Langley, R.L., Hunter, J.L., 2001. Occupational fatalities due to animal-related events. Wilderness Environ Med 12, 168-174.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To better understand the extent of animal-related fatalities in the workplace. METHODS: This study utilized Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries files from the US Department of Labor for the years 1992-1997 to describe the events surrounding human workplace fatalities associated with animals. RESULTS: During the 6-year time period, 350 workplace deaths could be associated with an animal-related event. Cattle and horses were the animals primarily involved, and workers in the agricultural industry experienced the majority of events. Many deaths involved transportation events, either direct collision with the animal or highway crashes trying to avoid collision with an animal. Exotic animals, primarily elephants and tigers, were responsible for a few deaths. A small number of workers died of a zoonotic infection. CONCLUSIONS: We found that approximately 1% of workplace fatalities are associated with an animal-related event. Methods to decrease the frequency of an animal injury are suggested.

Mikota, S.K., Peddie, L., Peddie, J., Isaza, R., Dunker, F., West, G., Lindsay, W., Larsen, R.S., Salman, M.D., Chatterjee, D., Payeur, J., Whipple, D., Thoen, C., Davis, D.S., Sedgwick, C., Montali, R., Ziccardi, M., Maslow, J., 2001. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 32, 1-16.
Abstract: The deaths of two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in August 1996 led the United States Department of Agriculture to require the testing and treatment of elephants for tuberculosis. From August 1996 to September 1999. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was confirmed by culture in 12 of 118 elephants in six herds. Eight diagnoses were made antemortem on the basis of isolation of M. tuberculosis by culture of trunk wash samples; the remainder (including the initial two) were diagnosed postmortem. We present the case histories, epidemiologic characteristics, diagnostic test results, and therapeutic plans from these six herds. The intradermal tuberculin test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology, the blood tuberculosis test, and nucleic acid amplification and culture are compared as methods to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in elephants.

Miller, M., Neiffer, D., Weber, M., Fontenot, D., Stetter, M., Bolling, J. Salmonella Culture and PCR Results in a Group of Captive African Elephants (Loxodonta africana). A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  83-86. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Montali, R.J., Mikota, S.K., Cheng, L.I., 2001. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in zoo and wildlife species. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 20, 291-303.
Abstract: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and M. tuberculosis-like organisms has been identified in a wide range of species: non-human primates, exotic ungulates and carnivores, elephants, marine mammals, and psittacine birds.  Disease associated with M. tuberculosis has occurred mostly in captive settings and does not appear to  occur naturally in free-living mammals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is probably a zooanthroponosis of humans but from the zoonotic standpoint, non-human primates, Asian elephants and psittacine birds have the  potential of transmitting this disease to humans. However, its overall prevalence in these target species has been low and documented transmissions of M. tuberculosis between animals and humans are uncommon. M. tuberculosis causes progressive pulmonary disease in mammals and a muco-cutaneous disease in parrots, and  in all cases it can disseminate and be shed into the environment. Diagnosis in living animals has been based on intradermal tuberculin testing in non-human primates, culturing trunk secretions in elephants, and biopsy and culture of external lesions in parrots.   Ancillary testing with DNA probes and nucleic acid  amplification, and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent (ELISA) tests have been adapted to some of these species with promising results. Additionally, new guidelines for controlling tuberculosis in elephants in the U.S.,  and programs for tuberculosis prevention in animal handlers have been established.

Montali, R.J., Richman, L.K., Mikota, S.K., Schmitt, D.L., Larsen, R.S., Hildebrandt, T.B., Isaza, R., Lindsay, W.A. Management Aspects of Herpesvirus Infections and Tuberculosis in Elephants. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  87-95. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infections and tuberculosis have emerged as causes of illness and mortality in captive elephants. Twenty-six confirmed EEHV cases are documented. Since 1995, 7 have occurred in North America, 10 in Europe and 2 in Asia. A PCR test was used to detect the virus in symptomatic animals; a serological test to identify carrier elephants is under development. The African elephant is a potential source of the EEHV that is lethal for Asian elephants. Fatal infections have also occurred in Asian elephants without African elephant contacts. Three of 6 elephants recovered after treatment with antiviral famciclovir; however, more research is needed to improve the usefulness of this drug. Asian elephants that are less than 10-years old and have been moved to another facility and/or have had contact with African elephants are at increased risk for contracting EEHV. Animals traveling between facilities with a history of EEHV cases may be at greater risk. All young elephants should be monitored daily for anorexia, lethargy, body swellings and blue discoloration (bruising) of the tongue, and be trained for blood sampling and potential oral and rectal treatment with famciclovir.
Since 1996, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has affected about 3% of Asian elephants in North America. Most were from 5 U.S. States with some contacts between private herds. Mandatory annual testing for tuberculosis by trunk wash cultures was established in 1998, and 22 culture-positive M. tuberculosis elephants were identified between 1996-2001. Fifteen were treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs and 7 that died or were euthanized were proven to have tuberculosis at necropsy. Antemortem sera was available from 4/7 4 (75%) were strongly ELISA positive. Tuberculosis is uncommon in African elephants but was recently associated with M. bovis in the U.S. and M. tuberculosis in Germany. Conversely, M. bovis tuberculosis, apparently unrecognized in Asian elephants, recently occurred in Germany. Management issues of elephant tuberculosis will be discussed relative to its complex epidemiology and clinical-pathological correlations.

Moss, C.J., 2001. The demography of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) population in Amboseli, Kenya. J. Zool. , Lond. 255, 145-156.
Abstract: This paper presents basic demographic parameters of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) living in and around Amboseli National Park, Kenya. The study was conducted from 1972 to the present and results are based on the histories of 1778 individually known elephants. From 1972 to 1978, the Amboseli elephant population declined and then increased steadily from 1979 to the present. Births occurred throughout the year but over 80% occurred between November and May. Birth rate varied from year to year with a pattern of peaks and troughs at 4- to 5-year intervals. The birth sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. Mean age at first birth was 14.1 years, determined from a sample of 546 known-age females. Mean birth interval (n = 732) was 4.5 years for 255 females. Fecundity and calf survival varied by age of the females. Mortality fluctuated from year to year. Sex-specific mortality rates were consistently higher for males than females at all ages.

Phillips, P.K., Heath, J.E., 2001. Heat loss in Dumbo: a theoretical approach. Heat loss in Dumbo: a theoretical approach 26, 117-120.
Abstract: A flat plate model was used to calculate heat loss from the pinnae of the animated elephant Dumbo. In conditions of high wind velocity and large
gradients, Dumbo could potentially dissipate more heat than he produces. This suggests that he may need the large ears to help lose the excess heat produced while flying.

Ratanakorn, P. Elephant Health Problems and Management in Cambodia, Lao and Thailand. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  111-114. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Ryan, S.J., Thompson, S.D., 2001. Disease risk and inter-institutional transfer of specimens in cooperative breeding programs: Herpes and the elephant species survival plans. Zoo Biology 20, 89-101.
Abstract: Managers of cooperative breeding programs and re-introduction projects are increasingly concerned with the risk of disease transmission when specimens are transferred among facilities or between facilities and the natural environment. We used data maintained in North American studbooks to estimate the potential risks of disease transmission by direct and indirect contact of specimens in the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's Elephant Species Survival Plan. Histological evidence for a novel herpesvirus disease transmitted between and within elephant species housed in North American facilities prompted an examination of the scope of possible transmission routes within the captive population. We found that, compared with other species managed through Species Survival Plans, elephants experience relatively few transfers between zoos. Nevertheless, the number of direct contacts with other elephants born during the study period of 1983-1996 (excluding stillbirths) was much higher than we had anticipated (&mgr; = 25 +/- 27; N = 59) and the number of potential indirect contacts was surprisingly large (&mgr; = 143 +/- 92; N = 59). Although these high rates of potential contacts complicate exact identification of infection pathways for herpesvirus, we were able to propose potential routes of transmission for the histologically identified cases. Furthermore, the extraction of data from studbooks allowed us to readily identify other specimens that did not succumb to the disease despite similar exposure. Moreover, we were able to identify other possible cases to recommend for histological examination. Herein we reveal the possibilities of multiple disease transmission pathways and demonstrate how complex the patterns of transmission can be, confounded by the unknown latency of this novel herpesvirus. This emphasizes the need for zoo veterinarians and cooperative breeding programs to consider the full potential for disease transmission associated with each and every inter-zoo transfer of specimens.

Saddler, W., 2001. The Role of Nutrition and Its Possible Impact on Elephant Foot Care. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA, USA, pp. 13-15.
Abstract: Webster defines a nutrient as "something that nourishes or promotes growth and repairs the natural wastage of organic life."  The key to sound nutrition is to provide the proper levels of many different nutrients.  Rarely does providing one nutrient or family of nutrients solve a problem alone.  The best analogy for proper health is still a chain.  So it is with nutrition, all of the nutrients must serve as strong links to allow good overall health.   This chapter will discuss a number of key nutrients that are frequently related to the care of the feet and nails of elephants, but by no means will nutrients alone solve these problems.

Sanyathitiseree, P., Thongthip, N., Thayananuphat, A., Aumarm, W. Fiberglass Casting in an Asian Elephant. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  136-139. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: A 19-year-old female Asian elephant was submitted to Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of being hit by a car. Physical examination revealed that the elephant had lameness and showed a serious pain in her right leg. Oblique fracture of the distal part of the right tibio-fibular was diagnosed radiographically. The fiberglass casting was used to fix the fracture on the third day after  accident, the fracture healed after 60 days of casting, but the angulation deformity of the bone remained on her foot.

Schmid, J., Heistermann, M., Ganslosser, U., Hodges, J.K., 2001. Introduction of foreign female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) into an existing group: behavioural reactions and changes in cortisol levels. Animal-Welfare 10, 357-372.
Abstract: The present study examined the extent to which the introduction of three female Asian elephants (aged 3, 11 and 27 years) into a group of 5 (1 male, 4 female) elephants at Munster zoo, Germany, affects the behaviour and urinary cortisol levels of the animals involved. At Munster, only the females were monitored , while the bull was mainly kept separate. Behavioural observations were carried out before transfer and during the six-month period following transfer. Urine samples were collected regularly from each elephant during the whole observation period. All the elephants showed behavioural changes to the process of introduction. The transferred animals increased their social behaviour after arrival in the foreign zoo. Two of them showed an increase in stereotypies and one a reduction in stereotypes. The elephants at Munster reacted with decreased frequencies of stereotypies and increased frequencies of social behaviour and manipulation/exploration behaviour. Six months after transfer, three of the four elephants at Munster and one of the three transferred elephants showed nearly the same behavioural activity pattern as before transfer. One female still showed elevated stereotypic behaviour. From the four elephants in which cortisol measurements could be reliably performed (two of the transferred elephants and two elephants at Munster), only one individual at Munster responded to the process of introduction with a short-term elevation in urinary cortisol levels. One elephant showed a negative correlation between locomotion and cortisol levels and one a positive correlation between stereotypies and cortisol levels. Taken together, the results suggest that transfer and introduction caused some stress responses in the elephants, but that stress was neither prolonged nor severe. Serious welfare problems may have been prevented through individual behavioural coping mechanisms and former experience with stressful situations.

Shellabarger, W., Reichard, T.A. A close call: salient points of a serious elephant keeper injury by an adult African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Kirk Baer, C. and Wilmette, M. W. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians and the National Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference  2001.  273-274. 2001.  American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. 9-18-2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Singer, M.A., 2001. Of mice and men and elephants: metabolic rate sets glomerular filtration rate. Am J Kidney Dis 37, 164-178.
Abstract: Allometric scaling deals with the functional consequences of changes in size or scale among geometrically dissimilar animals (ie, animals differing in proportions). For adult mammals ranging in size and proportion from mouse to elephant, the data describe an interdependent set of functions consisting of metabolism (measured as metabolic rate), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow, excretion of nitrogenous waste products, cardiac output, and pulmonary function-related variables. Within this set of functions, evidence indicates that metabolic rate is the primary process. One important design feature is given by the ratio of GFR to metabolic rate. Because this ratio is independent of size, it can be generalized to all mammals in this series. The numeric value of this ratio gives the optimal GFR for each unit of metabolic rate. A simple hypothesis is proposed: metabolic rate, the primary process, sets GFR. This relationship is unidirectional. A decrease in GFR, for example, caused by nephron loss, should not lead to a change in metabolic rate. This hypothesis was tested in four natural experiments: human growth and development, thyroid dysfunction, chronic renal failure, and hibernation. The results are consistent with this hypothesis.

Southern, S. Molecular analysis of stress-activated proteins and genes in dolphins and whales: a new technique for monitoring environmental stress. Proc AAZV and AAAM Joint Conference.  240-242. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: In the past several decades, there has been a worldwide increase in marine diseases resulting in mass mortality among all major taxa and shifts in ecologic community structures in the oceans.1 Marine mammals have experienced a pandemic of morbilliviral infections and outbreaks of diseases caused by influenza viruses, fungi and algal toxins. Many of the disease outbreaks appear to have been facilitated by increased environmental stress burden in the global marine ecosystems due to changing environmental conditions triggered by climate variability and human activities. It is imperative to develop novel health-monitoring tools that could guide the management of marine ecosystems and facilitate the conservation of key species. Our research is focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying molecular stress response in humans and cetaceans exposed to
environmental stress and disease. We have developed new techniques for detecting the molecular signature of stress based on molecular analysis of stress-activated proteins and genes in field tissue specimens.2 The detection of molecular stress signature has been applied to evaluate the impact of tuna fishery on the spotted dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the effects of coastal pollution on the beluga whales in the St. Lawrence River, and the idiopathic population decline of the North Atlantic right whale population.

Suedmeyer, W.K. Serum hydrocortisone levels in a manually restrained African elephant (Loxodonta africana)  pre- and post- semen collection. Kirk Baer, C. and Wilmette, M. W. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians and the National Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference.  388-389. 2001.   American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. 9-18-2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Suresh, K., Choudhuri, P.C., Kumari, K.N., Hafeez, M., Hamza, P.A., 2001. Epidemiological and clinico-therapeutic studies of strongylosis in elephants. Zoos' Print Journal 16, 539-540.
Abstract: Elephants like other herbivores are susceptible to various diseases including internal parasitism. In Nehru Zoological Park (NZP), Hyderabad, India, clinical records of Asian Elephants for a period of 10 years (1987-96) were examined to determine the prevalence of strongylosis in relation to season, age and sex. Faecal samples from elephants of S.V. Dairy Farm (SVD), Tirupathi, were also screened from January to June for helminthosis. Faecal egg counts (EPG) were estimated by Stoll's dilution method. Analysis of old records revealed that in NZP strongylosis was predominant in summer (52.63%) and the prevalence was lower in animals below 15 years of age. Seven animals (63.64 and 87.5%) each tested positive for ova of strongyles in NZP and SVD, respectively. On treatment with albendazole (Kalbend, 5 mg/kg BW, PO), the animals completely recovered on the seventh day. Therapy resulted in decreases in the pretherapeutic mean EPGs of 700±128.89 (SVD) and 671.4±123.20 (NZP) to 78.57±30.53 and 50±21.79, respectively. The animals were monitored up to four weeks after therapy.

Toscano, M.J., Friend, T.H., Nevill, M.S., 2001. Environmental conditions and body temperature of circus elephants transported during relatively high and low temperature conditions. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association 12, 115-149.

Weihs, W. Molar Growth and Chewing Frequencies as Age Indicators in Asian Elephants. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  294-296. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Weihs, W., Weisz, I., Wustenhagen, A., Kurt, F. Body Growth and Food Intake in a Herd of Captive Asian Elephants in the Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage (Sri Lanka). A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  141-145. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 1.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Wemelsfelder, F., Hunter, T.E.A., Mendl, M.T., Lawrence, A.B., 2001. Assessing the 'whole animal': A free choice profiling approach. Animal Behaviour 62, 209-220.
Abstract: The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour summarizes the different aspects of an animal's dynamic style of interaction with the environment, using descriptors such as 'confident', 'nervous', 'calm' or 'excitable'. Scientists frequently use such terms in studies of animal personality and temperament, but, wary of anthropomorphism, are reluctant to do so in studies of animal welfare. We hypothesize that qualitative behaviour assessment, in describing behaviour as an expressive process, may have a stronger observational foundation than is currently recognized, and may be of use as an integrative welfare assessment tool. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the inter- and intraobserver reliability of spontanous qualitative assessments of pig, Sus scrofa, behaviour provided by nine naïve observers. We used an experimental methodology called 'free choice profiling' (FCP), which gives observers complete freedom to choose their own descriptive terms. Data were analysed with generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), a multivariate statistical technique associated with FCP. Observers achieved significant agreement in their assessments of pig behavioural expression in four separate tests, and could accurately repeat attributing expressive scores to individual pigs across these tests. Thus the spontaneous qualitative assessment of pig behaviour showed strong internal validity under our controlled experimental conditions. In conclusion we suggest that qualitative behaviour assessment reflects a 'whole animal' level of organization, which may guide the intepretation of behavioural and physiological measurements in terms of an animal's overall welfare state.

Wilson, M.L., Bloomsmith, M.A., Crane, M., Maple, T.L. Behavior and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive African elephants ( Loxodonta africana): preliminary results. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  147-149. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Wisser, J., Pilaski, J., Strauss, G., Meyer, H., Burck, G., Truyen, U., Rudolph, M., Frolich, K., 2001. Cowpox virus infection causing stillbirth in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Record 149, 244-246.

Agnew, D.W., Munson, L., Gage, L.J., Fowler, M.E., Ramsay, E. Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia in Nulliparous Asian Elephants. 2000 Proceedings AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conference.  442. 2000. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Maintaining self-sustaining populations of elephants through captive breeding is a new goal of the Elephant Species Survival Plan. Most elephants available for breeding in U.S. zoos are nulliparous and aged, and their fertility is unknown. Endometrial hyperplasia has been noted in aged elephants, and this condition may affect their fertility. The purpose of this study was to better characterize the gross and histopathologic features of these lesions and assess the demographic distribution. Clinical histories, necropsy reports, and endometrial samples from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at least 20 yr of age that died from 1985 to 1999 were reviewed. Gross pathologic findings in all cases were similar and consisted of a multifocal to diffuse distribution of 1-2 cm diameter cysts in the endometrium. Pedunculated edematous endometrial polyps up to 10 cm in length also were present, projecting from the endometrial surface or free within the lumen. Some polyps were necrotic. Histologically, the endometrium was characterized by varying sized cystic endometrial glands lined by cuboidal to tall columnar epithelium. Other glands were present in small clusters and lined by hyperplastic endometrium. The endometrial polyps consisted of a core of edematous stroma containing clusters of cystic glands. Tissues expelled from the urogenital tract of another aged, nulliparous cow were also reviewed. These fragments consisted of necrotic tissue with ghost-like remnants of glands similar to endometrial glands. These fragments may represent expelled pedunculated endometrial polyps, which had become necrotic and sloughed. These results indicate that aged nulliparous Asian elephants commonly develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and that the pedunculated polyps may represent a more advanced form of this disease. Sloughing of these pedunculated polyps may be noted clinically and may offer information about the condition of a cow's endometrium. The effect of endometrial hyperplasia on fertility in elephants is unknown, but in other species large numbers of cysts can interfere with implantation. The prevalence of these lesions in aged elephants suggests that younger animals would be better candidates for breeding and that efforts should be made to clinically evaluate potential breeding cows for endometrial health.

Boomershine, C.S., Zwilling, B.S., 2000. Stress and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter 22, 177-182.

Burkholder, W.J., 2000. Use of body condition scores in clinical assessment of the provision of optimal nutrition. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217, 650-654.

Dale, R.H.I., Jordan, N., Kinnett, S., Beach, L., Noble, J. Behavioral Development of Elephant Calves: Review with Examples from the Indianapolis Zoo. Elephants: Cultural, Behavioral, and Ecological Perspectives; Program and Abstracts of the Workshop.  8. 2000. Davis, CA. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Fowler, M.E., Steffey, E.P., Galuppo, L., Pascoe, J.R., 2000. Facilitation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) standing immobilization and anesthesia with a sling. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31, 118-123.
Abstract: An Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) required general anesthesia for orthopedic foot surgery. The elephant was unable to lie down, so it was placed in a custom-made sling, administered i.m. etorphine hydrochloride in the standing position, and lowered to lateral recumbency. General anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane administered through an endotracheal tube. After surgery, the isoflurane anesthesia was terminated, with immobilization maintained with additional i.v. etorphine. The elephant was lifted to the vertical position, and the immobilizing effects of etorphine were reversed with naltrexone. The suspension system and hoist for the sling were designed specifically for the elephant house.

Gage, L.J., Blasko, D. Husbandry and Medical Considerations for Geriatric Elephants. Elephants: Cultural, Behavioral, and Ecological Perspectives; Program and Abstracts of the Workshop.  9-10. 2000. Davis, CA. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hermes, R., Olson, D., Goritz, F., Brown, J.L., Schmitt, D.L., Hagan, D., Peterson, J.S., Fritsch, G., Hildebrandt, T.B., 2000. Ultrasonography of the estrous cycle in female African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology 19, 369-382.
Abstract: The endocrinology of the elephant oestrous cycle has been well characterized, but little emphasis has been placed on evaluating corresponding changes in the reproductive tract. Ultrasound was used to document changes in reproductive tract morphology throughout the oestrous cycle in four cycling female African elephants. During a 7-month period, frequent ultrasound examinations (n=190) during the luteal and non-luteal phase were compared with serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations during a 7-month period. Ultrasonographic images documented vaginal and cervical oedema and changes in mucus consistency during the non-luteal phase. The cross-sectional diameter of the endometrium showed a dramatic increase during the non-luteal phase and followed cyclic changes. A different pattern of follicular development on the ovary was associated with the two LH surges. Follicle growth associated with the first, anovulatory LH surge was characterized by the formation of multiple small follicles, in contrast to the maturation of a single large follicle at the second, ovulatory LH (ovLH) surge. Ovulation and the subsequent formation of a corpus luteum (CL) were observed only after the ovLH surge. Ultrasound data in combination with endocrine assessments suggest that the African elephant is non-ovulatory, although multiple non-ovulatory luteal structures developed during the late non-luteal phase of each cycle. Both ovulatory CL and non-ovulatory luteal structures were present only through one cycle and regressed at the end of the luteal phase in conjunction with the drop in serum progesterone. We conclude that periodic reproductive-tract ultrasound assessments in association with continued endocrine monitoring of the oestrous cycle should be incorporated into the routine reproductive health assessment of elephants. This information is necessary for determining reproductive fitness before making breeding recommendations. It also has proven to be an invaluable tool for use with assisted reproductive techniques and has enormous potential for evaluating the efficiency of hormonal therapies used to treat reproductive dysfunction.

Krasovskii, G.N., 2000. Applied aspects of allometry use in human ecology. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk 7, 39-42.
Abstract: The paper shows it possible to use allometric equations to detect human and animal biological differences, including longevity. An actual man is shown to generally live 5 times longer than his allometric model constructed on the mean life longevity in mammals of different species from shrewmouse to elephant. The longer life of man is accounted for by his biosocial nature and by the influence of many socioeconomic factors. Therefore the mean longevity may serve as a universal integral index of the socioeconomic policy of some countries and regions. Critical considerations should be hold for the attempts to substitute the socioeconomic situation by the pure ecological one when outlining prospects of society development. Environmental protection programmes should not become an end in themselves, but they should be only a constituent of the general concept of development wherein priority is given to the socioeconomic problems of the population's life.

Larsen, R.S., Salman, M.D., Mikota, S.K., Isaza, R., Triantis, J. Validation and use of a multiple-antigen ELISA for detection of tuberculosis infections in elephants. Proc. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conf.  231-233. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Larsen, R.S., Salman, M.D., Mikota, S.K., Isaza, R., Montali, R.J., Triantis, J., 2000. Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in captive elephants. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31, 291-302.
Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become an important agent of disease in the captive elephant population of the United States, although current detection methods appear to be inadequate for effective disease management. This investigation sought to validate a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for screening of M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants and to document the elephant's serologic response over time using a cross-sectional observational study design. Serum samples were collected from 51 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and 26 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from 16 zoos and circuses throughout the United States from February 1996 to March 1999. Infection status of each animal was determined by mycobacterial culture of trunk washes. Reactivity of each serum sample against six antigens was determined, and the linear combination of antigens that accurately predicted the infection status of the greatest number of animals was determined by discriminant analysis. The resulting classification functions were used to calculate the percentage of animals that were correctly classified (i.e., specificity and sensitivity). Of the 77 elephants sampled, 47 fit the criteria for inclusion in discriminant analysis. Of these, seven Asian elephants were considered infected; 25 Asian elephants and 15 African elephants were considered noninfected. The remaining elephants had been exposed to one or more infected animals. The specificity and sensitivity of the multiple-antigen ELISA were both 100% (91.9-100% and 54.4-100%, respectively) with 95% confidence intervals. M. bovis culture filtrate showed the highest individual antigen specificity (95%; 83.0-100%) and sensitivity (100%; 54.4-100%). Serum samples from 34 elephants were analyzed over time by the response to the culture filtrate antigen; four of these elephants were culture positive and had been used to calculate the discriminant function. Limitations such as sample size, compromised ability to ascertain each animal's true infection status, and absence of known-infected African elephants suggest that much additional research needs to be conducted regarding the use of this ELISA. However, the results indicate that this multiple-antigen ELISA would be a valuable screening test for detecting M. tuberculosis infection in elephant herds.

Lewis, M.H., Gluck, J.P., Petitto, J.M., Hensley, L.L., Ozer, H., 2000. Early social deprivation in nonhuman primates: long-term effects on survival and cell-mediated immunity. Biol Psychiatry 47, 119-126.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early differential social experience of non-human primates has resulted in long-term alterations in behavior and neurobiology. Although brief maternal separation has been associated with changes in immune status, the long-term effects on survival and immune function of prolonged early social deprivation are unknown. METHODS: Survival rates were examined in rhesus monkeys, half of which had been socially deprived during their first year of life. Repeated measures of immune status were tested in surviving monkeys (18-24 years old). Peripheral blood T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes, macrophages, and monocytes were measured by flow cytometry. Functional cellular immune activity measures included T-cell proliferative responses to mitogens (concanavalin and phytohemagglutinin), T-cell memory response to tetanus toxoid antigen, T-cell-dependent B-cell proliferative responses to mitogen (PWM) and natural killer cell cytotoxic activity. RESULTS: Despite identical environments following isolation, early social deprivation resulted in a significantly decreased survival rate, males being particularly vulnerable to early death. Early social deprivation was associated with a decrease in the ratio of helper to suppressor T cells, and a significant increase in natural killer cell number and in natural killer cell activity in the surviving monkeys. No differences in T- or B-lymphocyte proliferation following mitogen or tetanus toxoid antigen stimulation were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged early social deprivation of non-human primates profoundly affected mortality and resulted in lifelong effects on cell-mediated immune status.

Lyashchenko, K., Singh, M., Colangeli, R., Gennaro, M.L., 2000. A multi-antigen print immunoassay for the development of serological diagnosis of infectious disease. Journal of Immunological Methods 242, 91-100.

Mikota, S.K., Larsen, R.S., Montali, R.J., 2000. Tuberculosis in Elephants in North America. Zoo Biology 19, 393-403.
Abstract: Within the past 4 years, TB has emerged as a disease of concern in elephants. The population of elephants in North America is declining (Weise,1997), and transmissible diseases such as TB may exacerbate this trend. Guidelines for all elephants for TB, were instituted in 1997 (USDA, 1997, 2000). Between August 1996 and May 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis  was isolated form 18 of 539 elephants in North America, indicating an estimated prevalence of 3.3%. Isolation of the TB organism by culture is the currently recommended test to establish a diagnosis of TB; however, culture requires 8 weeks. Further research is essential to validate other diagnostic tests and treatment protocols.

Olson, D., Weise, R.J., 2000. State of the North American African elephant population and projections for the future. Zoo Biology 19, 311-320.
Abstract: The African elephant has historically received less attention in the captive community than the Asian elephant.  One manifestation of this lack of attention is that only 25 African elephant calves had been born in captivity in North America as of 01 January 1999.  With the recent attention to both elephant species, it is imperative to evaluate the African elephant's potential to maintain a self-sustaining population in North America.  Review of the raw data indicates that African elephants have reproduced poorly and experienced low juvenile survival in North America.  However, using realistic life table models the future of the North American African elephant population can be predicted.  The current population is relatively young compared to the captive Asian elephant population and has a much greater potential to become self-sustaining with increased focus and efforts toward reproduction.  Unlike the Asian elephant population, the African elephant population may be able to become self-sustaining without further importation, if reproduction and juvenile survivorship increase significantly in the next ten years.

Schmitt, D.L., Pace, L.W. Multiple Congenital Cardiac Anomalies in a Newborn Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). Proceedings of the Elephant Managers Association Conference, Oct 6-9,2000 Syracuse, NY.  13-14. 2000. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Cardiac anomalies in humans occur in about 1% of human births. Most are a developmental disorder of the vascular trunk and septum of the heart, which result in reduced blood circulation to periphery. This report of a cardiac anomaly in a neonatal elephant is first to the author's knowledge. A congenital defect known as tetrology of Fallot is described in a male Asian elephant who lived for 9 hours following birth.

Shojaei, H., Magee, J.G., Freeman, R., Yates, M., Horadagoda, N.U., Goodfellow, M., 2000. Mycobacterium elephantis sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-chromogenic Mycobacterium isolated from an elephant. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50, 1817-1820.
Abstract: A strain isolated from a lung abscess in an elephant that died from chronic respiratory disease was found to have properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium. An almost complete sequence of the 16S rDNA of the strain was determined following the cloning and sequencing of the amplified gene. The sequence was aligned with those available on mycobacteria and phylogenetic trees inferred by using three tree-making algorithms. The organism, which formed a distinct phyletic line within the evolutionary radiation occupied by rapidly growing mycobacteria, was readily distinguished from members of validly described species of rapidly growing mycobacteria on the basis of its mycolic acid pattern and by a number of other phenotypic features, notably its ability to grow at higher temperatures. The type strain is Mycobacterium elephantis DSM 44368T. The EMBL accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 484T is AJ010747.

Singer, M.A., Morton, A.R., 2000. Mouse to elephant: biological scaling and Kt/V. Am J Kidney Dis 36, 306-309.
Abstract: The construct Kt/V is used by the nephrology community in prescribing dialysis dose. The concerns that have been raised as to what value of V to use in the calculation of Kt/V touch on the more central question of whether filtration rate should be normalized by a parameter other than V. Within the animal kingdom, a number of physiological variables scale to body size according to an equation of the form Y = YoMb, where Yo is a constant, M is body mass, and b is a scaling exponent. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in mammals weighing from 30 g to 503 kg scales to body weight with an exponent of 0.77. Hence, GFR per unit body weight (or Kt/V) decreases significantly with increasing body size. Metabolic rate also scales to body size in a wide range of mammals according to the same general equation and with a scaling exponent of 0.75. Because GFR and metabolic rate scale to body mass with virtually the same exponent, a ratio of the two yields a constant independent of body size. We propose that the ratio (filtration rate/metabolic rate) replace Kt/V. Such a ratio would underscore the linkage between filtration rate (and dialysis therapy) and the metabolic demands of the body.

Stead, S.K., Meltzer, D.G.A., Palme, R., 2000. The measurement of glucocorticoid concentrations in the serum and faeces of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after ACTH stimulation. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 71, 192-196.
Abstract: Recently established enzyme immunoassays that measure faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in elephants were evaluated, and a preliminary investigation into the biological relevance of this non-invasive method for use in assessing the degree of stress in this species was performed. Four juvenile African elephants were injected i.m. with 2.15 mg of synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Blood and faecal samples were collected over 4 h and 7 days, respectively. Concentrations of serum cortisol and faecal cortisol metabolites were determined using immunoassay. Variability of basal and peak values in blood and faeces was observed among the elephants. After ACTH injection, serum cortisol concentrations increased by 400-700%. An 11-oxoaetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) proved best suited to measure cortisol metabolites (11, 17-dioxoandrostanes) when compared to a cortisol and corticosterone EIA in faecal samples. Concentrations of faecal 11,17-dioxoandrostanes increased by 570-1070%, reaching peak levels after 20.0-25.5 h. Greater levels of glucocorticoid metabolites were measured in faecal samples from elephants kept in small enclosures compared with levels in the faeces of animals ranging over a larger area. The results of this preliminary study suggest that non-invasive faecal monitoring of glucocorticoid metabolites is useful in investigating adrenal activity in African elephants.

Stokke, S., du Toit, J.T., 2000. Sex and size related differences in the dry season feeding patterns of elephants in Chobe national park, Botswana. Ecography 23, 70-80.
Abstract: Differences in feeding patterns of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) were examined by sex and age during the dry season in a dystrophic savanna-woodland ecosystem in northern Botswana. Adult males had the least diverse diet in terms of woody plant species, but they consumed more plant parts than family units. The diameter of stems of food plants broken or bitten off was also greater for adult males than for females and subadult males. Adult males spent more time foraging on each woody plant than did females. The number of' woody plant species and individuals present were higher at feeding sites of family units than at feeding sites of adult males, indicating that family units positioned themselves at feeding sites with higher species diversity than those of males. It is argued that the most likely explanation for these differences is related to the pronounced sexual size dimorphism exhibited by elephants, resulting in sex differences in browsing patterns due to the allometric relationships that govern the tolerance of herbivores for variation in diet quality.

Wallis, M., 2000. Episodic evolution of protein hormones: molecular evolution of pituitary prolactin. J Mol Evol 50, 465-473.
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that pituitary growth hormone displays an episodic pattern of evolution, with a slow underlying evolutionary rate and occasional sustained bursts of rapid change. The present study establishes that pituitary prolactin shows a similar pattern. During much of tetrapod evolution the sequence of prolactin has been strongly conserved, showing a slow basal rate of change (approx 0.27x10(9) substitutions/amino acid site/year). This rate has increased substantially ( approximately 12- to 38-fold) on at least four occasions during eutherian evolution, during the evolution of primates, artiodactyles, rodents, and elephants. That these increases are real and not a consequence of inadvertent comparison of paralogous genes is shown (for at least the first three groups) by the fact that they are confined to mature protein coding sequence and not apparent in sequences coding for signal peptides or when synonymous substitutions are examined. Sequences of teleost prolactins differ markedly from those of tetrapods and lungfish, but during the course of teleost evolution the rate of change of prolactin has been less variable than that of growth hormone. It is concluded that the evolutionary pattern seen for prolactin shows long periods of near-stasis interrupted by occasional bursts of rapid change, resembling the pattern seen for growth hormone in general but not in detail. The most likely basis for these bursts appears to be adaptive evolution though the biological changes involved are relatively small.

Wasser, S.K., Hunt, K.E., Brown, J.L., Cooper, K., Crockett, C.M., Bechert, U., Millspaugh, J.J., Larson, S., Monfort, S.L., 2000. A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species. Gen Comp Endocrinol 120, 260-275.
Abstract: Noninvasive fecal glucocorticoid analysis has tremendous potential as a means of assessing stress associated with environmental disturbance in wildlife. However, interspecific variation in excreted glucocorticoid metabolites requires careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. We compared four antibodies for detecting the major fecal cortisol metabolites in yellow baboons following (3)H cortisol administration, ACTH challenge, and HPLC separation of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. The most effective antibody (ICN corticosterone RIA; Cat. No. 07-120102) demonstrated relatively high cross-reactivities to the major cortisol metabolites present in feces during peak excretion, following both radiolabel infusion and ACTH challenge. This same antibody also detected increased fecal glucocorticoid metabolites after ACTH administration in the African elephant, black rhinoceros, Roosevelt elk, gerenuk, scimitar-horned oryx, Alaskan sea otter, Malayan sun bear, cheetah, clouded leopard, longtailed macaque, and northern spotted owl. Results suggest that (1) fecal glucocorticoid assays reliably detect endogenous changes in
adrenal activity of a diverse array of species and (2) where comparisons were made, the ICN corticosterone antibody generally was superior to other antibodies for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in feces.

Whitehouse, A.M., Hall-Martin, A.J., 2000. Elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa: Reconstruction of the population's history. Oryx 34, 46-55.
Abstract: The history of the Addo elephant population in South Africa, from the creation of the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) in 1931 to the present (every elephant currently living within the park is known), was reconstructed. Photographic records were used as a primary source of historical evidence, in conjunction with all documentation on the population. Elephants can be identified in photographs taken throughout their life by study of the facial wrinkle patterns and blood vessel patterns in their ears. These characteristics are unique for each elephant and do not change during the individual's life. The life histories of individual elephants were traced: dates of birth and death were estimated and, wherever possible, the identity of the individual's mother was ascertained. An annual register of elephants living within the population, from 1931 to the present, was compiled, and maternal family trees constructed. Preliminary demographic analyses for the period 1976-98 are presented. The quantity and quality of photographs taken during these years enabled thorough investigation of the life histories of all elephants. Prior to 1976, insufficient photographs were available to provide reliable data on the exact birth dates and mothers' identities for every calf born. However, data on annual recruitment and mortality are considered sufficiently reliable for use in analyses of the population's growth and recovery.

Wiese, R.J., 2000. Asian elephants are not self-sustaining in North America. Zoo Biology 19, 299-309.
Abstract: Demographic analysis of the captive Asian elephants in North America indicates that the population is not self-sustaining.  First year mortality is nearly 30%, but perhaps more importantly the fecundity is extremely low (Mx = 0.01-0.02) throughout the prime reproductive years.  Without continued importation or a drastic increase in birth rates the Asian elephant population in North America will drop to approximately ten elephants in 50 years and be demographically extinct.  Model mortality and fecundity curves needed to establish a self-sustaining Asian elephant population in North America show that fecundity must increase 4-8 times the historical rates.  Emerging techniques such as artificial insemination may assist in making the goal of a self-sustaining population more realizable by allowing reproduction by the numerous females that do not have access to a male, but other obstacles exist as well.  A self-sustaining population will present challenges such as maintaining the significant number of male offspring that will be produced.  Importation of young females from documented self-sustaining populations overseas is one option that would alleviate the need for a self-sustaining Asian elephant population in North America and the number of imports per year would be minimal.

Ziccardi, M., Mikota, S.K., Barbiers, R.B., Norton, T.M. Tuberculosis in zoo ungulates:Survey results and surveillance plan. Proc. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conf.  438-441. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Barman, N.N., Sarma, D.K., Das, S., Patgiri, G.P., 1999. Foot-and-mouth disease in wild and semi-domesticated animals of the north-eastern states of India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 69, 781-783.
Abstract: The outbreaks (n=23) of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the northeastern states of India for 14 years (1974 to 1997) were reported. The outbreaks were recorded in 7 different species of wild and semi-domesticated animals. The highest number of outbreaks was recorded in mithun, followed by yak and elephant. Contact with migratory cattle possibly played an important role in the spread of the disease. The morbidity rates in mithun and yak were 22.90 and 24.51%, respectively. About 6.5% of the affected mithun died during the outbreaks. Three FMD cases were recorded in the elephant, and baby elephants were affected with severe erosive lesions in the foot pad and trunk. Sources of infection in elephants were contaminated water and feed. In sambar deer, morbidity and mortality were 35.57 and 10.81%, respectively. In spotted and barking deer, the morbidity was 18.75%. Sources of infection were suspected to be the feed and attendants from nearby villages where FMD outbreaks in cattle was observed. In wild buffaloes, 3 out of 67 were affected and the source of infection was similar to deer. Of the 23 clinical samples typed for the presence of FMD virus, 11 were positive for FMD virus type O, 2 for type A, and each for A22 and Asia.

Biberstein, E.L., Hirsch, D.C., 1999. Mycobacterium species: The agents of animal tuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Maiden, MA, pp. 158-172.

Brown, J.L., 1999. Difficulties Associated with Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Dysfunction in Elephants - The Flatliner Problem. Journal of the Elephant Managers Association 10, 55-61.

Burkhardt, S., Hentschke, J., Weiler, H., Ehlers, B., Ochs, A., Walter, J., Wittstatt, U., 1999. Elephant herpes virus - a problem for breeding and housing of elephants. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 112, 174-179.
Abstract: Herpesvirus infections which take a fatal turn on African elephants as well as on Asian elephants seem to occur increasingly not only in the USA but also in European stocks. The endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes a rapidly progressing and severe disease which makes any therapeutical effort unsuccessful and finally results in death of the animal, especially in young Asian elephants. As all attempts to culture the virus failed up to now, molecular biological procedures have to be used more often for diagnostic purpose together with the common methods of pathology, virology, and electronmicroscopical evaluation. This is a report on the case of 'KIBA', an eleven year old male elephant at the Zoological Garden Berlin, infected with the endotheliotropic elephants herpesvirus. 'KIBA' was born at the Zoo in Houston, Texas, and raised within his herd. Upon arriving in Berlin in November 1997 he adapted to the new premises and climate and new social circumstances without any problems. In June 1998 he already serviced three females of his new herd several times. In August 1998 he died after passing a peracute progression of the disease after residenting in Berlin for only 9 months. The dissection of the animal revealed some evidence on an agent damaging the endothelium. Major signs indicating this agent were bleedings in several serous membranes, mucosa and on the right atrium, as well as other parts of the myocardium. Furthermore there have been ulcerations at various localizations of the whole digestive tract. Slightly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies have been found histologically in endothelial cells of different organ samples. An examination of altered organ-material by electronmicroscopy made some herpesvirus-like particles visible. A virological investigation first revealed evidence of giant cell formations with solitary basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in different cell cultures, however, without any distinct cytopathogenic effect. Supported by molecular biological procedures the infection of 'KIBA' could be verified as the elephants herpesvirus. By means of PCR and subsequent sequence analysis a DNA-sequence typical for the elephants herpesvirus could be obtained which showed an identity of 97% with the terminase sequence of the elephant herpesvirus described by American authors. The deduced amino acid-sequences were 100% identical. To the terminase of the human cytomegalovirus, the elephant sequence had an identity of 53% (similarity: 74%). Based on the cooperation of ILAT, Institute of Veterinary-Pathology/Free University Berlin, Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin, and Zoological Garden Berlin, the cause of 'KIBA's' death could be discovered immediately. Possible implications of this case especially on breeding and keeping elephants are discussed briefly.

Chatkupt, T.T., Sollod, A.E., Sarobol, S., 1999. Elephants in Thailand: determinants of health and welfare in working populations
531. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 2, 187-203.
Abstract: The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has played a prominent role in Thai history and society. However, in the face of modernization, elephant handlers have been struggling to justify their continued ownership. As a result, working elephants may still encounter situations in which their health and welfare are jeopardized. This study developed both a survey instrument and a visual assessment to describe and evaluate the health and living conditions of elephants encountered in a variety of work and living situations. These situations were found to be significantly associated with whether or not an elephant received proper husbandry or was in good body condition. These results may prove valuable in predicting the welfare of elephants according to work and living situations

Durrheim, D.N., Durrheim, D.N., 1999. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa. J Travel Med 6, 172-179.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: One of South Africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to South Africa's nature reserves. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fatal and nonfatal attacks on tourists by wild mammals in South Africa and to ascertain avoidable factors, if any. METHODS: Commercial press records covering all South African Newspapers archived at the Independent Newspapers' central library were systematically reviewed for a 10-year period, January 1988 to December 1997 inclusive, to identify all deaths and injuries to domestic and international tourists resulting from encounters with wild mammals in South Africa. All of these incidents were analyzed to ascertain avoidable factors. RESULTS: During the review period seven tourists, including two students from Thailand and a German traveler, were killed by wild mammals in South Africa. Three of the four deaths ascribed to lions resulted from tourists carelessly approaching prides on foot in lion reserves. A judicial inquiry found that the management of a KwaZulu-Natal Reserve was culpable for the remaining death. Tourist ignorance of animal behavior and flagrant disregard of rules contributed to the two fatalities involving hippopotami. The unusual behavior manifested by the bull elephant responsible for the final death, resulted from discomfort caused by a dental problem to this pachyderm. During the same period there were 14 nonfatal attacks on tourists, including five by hippo, three by buffalo, two by rhino, and one each by a lion, leopard, zebra and musth elephant. Only the latter occurred while the visitor was in a motor vehicle. Tourist ethological naivete and failure to determine the experience of trail guides prior to travel, resulted in inadvertent agonistic behavior, unnecessary risk-taking and avoidable injury. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study has shown that attacks on tourists by wild mammals in South Africa are an uncommon cause of injury and death. Sensible precautions to minimize this risk include remaining in a secure motor vehicle or adequately fenced precincts while in the vicinity of large mammals, rigidly observing nature reserve instructions, never approaching animals that appear ill, malnourished, displaying aggressive behavior traits or female wild mammals with young, and demanding adequately trained and experienced game rangers when embarking on walking trails. Any behavior that might be construed as antagonistic and which could provoke an attack by large mammals should be avoided (e.g., driving directly at a lion). Visitors need to be informed of classic signs of aggression, in particular in elephants, which will allow timely avoidance measures to be taken. The risk-enhancing effect of excessive alcohol intake is undesirable in the game reserve setting, as is driving at high speed after dusk in areas where hippos graze. Local advice on personal safety in wildlife reserves and the credentials of trail guides should be obtained from lodge or reserve management, tourism authorities or the travel industry prior to travel to game reserves.

Eltringham, S.K., 1999. Longevity and Mortality. In: Shoshani, J. (Ed.), Elephants:  Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Rodale Press, Emmau, PA.

Godagama, W.K., Wemmer, C., Rathnasooriya, W.D., 1999. Prevalence and distribution of body injuries of domesticated Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus). Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Sciences 27, 47-59.
Abstract: The prevalence and distribution of injuries was studied in 140 domesticated Sri Lankan elephants between April 1993 and April 1994. Five types of injuries were recorded including abscesses, punctures, wounds, spilt toe nails and ulcerated feet. The prevalence (%), number of injuries, range and site with highest frequency were as follows: abscesses, 17%, 0.3±0.05, 0-4, temporal region of head; wounds, 49%, 3.0±0.4, 0-29, lower region of the hind limb; punctures, 54%, 4.6±0.5,0-28, upper region of the fore limb; split toe nails, 54%, 1.0±0.2, 0-8, both fore and hind limbs; and ulcerated feet, 69%, 2.0±0.1, 0-4, feet. Five types of minor injuries were also observed: callouses (36%; 1.0±0.1; 0-6; temporal region of the head and scapula region of the shoulder), skin growths (38%; lower distal region of the hind limbs), small lumps (41%; upper proximal region of the fore limb), broken ear edges (27% both ears) and twisted tails (22%). The number of abscesses and wounds was significantly higher in males than in females. The number of elephants with abscesses, wounds, punctures, callouses, skin growths and broken ear edges was significantly higher in older age group (41-75 years) than in younger elephants.

Kuntze, A., 1999. Oral and nasal diseases of elephants. In: Fowler, M.E., Miller, R.E. (Eds.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA,USA, pp. 544-546.

Mikota, S.K., 1999. Diseases of the Elephant: A Review. Verh. ber. Erkrg. Zootiere 39, 1-15.

Montali, R.J. Important aspects of zoonotic diseases in zoo and wildlife species. Verh. ber. Erkg. Zootiere 39.  149-155. 1999.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Olsen, J.H., 1999. Antibiotic therapy in elephants. In: Fowler, M.E., Miller R.E. (Eds.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. SaundersPhiladelphia, PA,USA, pp. 533-541.
Abstract: Like other species, elephants should be given appropriate antibiotic regimens to achieve success in therapy.  When selecting antibiotics, the clinician must evaluate the severity and location of the infection, the antibiotic sensitivities of the bacteria, the pharmacodynamics of the antibiotics, the potential toxicity of the drug, and the physical status of the animal.  Antibiotic therapy in elephants can present problems because of 1) inability to reasonably estimate body weight for proper dose calculation, 2) lack of appropriate dosage information, 3) difficulties with administration of the medication, 4) volume or cost of medication needed.

Raubenheimer, E.J., 1999. Morphological aspects and composition of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) ivory. Koedoe 42, 57-64.

Richman, L.K., Montali, R.J., Cambre, R.C., Schmitt, D., Hardy, D. Clinical and pathologic aspects of a fatal herpesvirus disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  263-266. 1999. 10-9-1999.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Saidul, I., Abdul, M., Manoranjan, D., Islam, S., Mukit, A., Das, M., 1999. Pathology of concurrent Gastrodiscus secundus and Pseudodiscus collinsi infection in two captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 13, 151-152.
Abstract: Both immature and mature Gastrodiscus secundus and Pseudodiscus collinsi were recovered from the caecum of 2 captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. Oedema, pin head size haemorrhages and ulcerative patches in the caecal mucosa were prominent. Mild lymphocytic infiltration in the mucosa with focal necrosis at the tip of the villi were observed.

van de Vijver, C. Fire and life in Tarangire: effects of burning and herbivory on an East African savanna system.  1-177. 1999. Netherlands, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Wageningen Agricultural University).
Ref Type: Thesis/Dissertation
Abstract: This thesis investigates the effects of fire on quality and quantity of forage for grazers in the savannas of East Africa, the mechanisms that cause the effects, as well as the manner in which the effects are influenced by abiotic conditions. Generally fire enhances the quality of forage with higher concentrations of mineral nutrients, higher digestibility and improved structural vegetation characteristics that determine forage intake. Increased nutrient concentrations in post-fire regrowth can be ascribed to higher leaf:stem ratios, rejuvenation and reduced dilution of nutrients due to lower levels of standing biomass as compared with unburned vegetation. Forage available for grazing is not enhanced through fire. Rather, especially in growth seasons of below average rainfall, the availability of forage is reduced in the post-fire growth season. With water being the prime determinant of plant growth in these systems, reduced vegetation production after burning can be explained by the reduction of soil water content as result of vegetation litter removal, which increases loss of water through evaporation. This negative effect of fire on forage availability can have dire consequences for both domestic and wild herbivore populations when no areas are available with additional resources. With increased human activity in the East African savanna biome, causing a decline in natural/pastoral areas as well as an increase in grazing intensities and fire frequency, results suggest that the practice of burning should be reduced rather than advocated, especially because grazing itself improves forage quality. This thesis also shows that wildlife concentration in protected areas, particularly elephants, and high fire frequencies, also due to increased human activities, affect the tree structure but not the density. Restriction of wildlife habitat to protected areas which lie in the dry season range will however have large consequences for migratory herbivore population numbers due to insufficient quality and quantity of forage.

Walsh, M.T., Thompson, J. Use of thermography as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in selected cetacean conditions. Proceedings of American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  358. 1999.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The measurement of change in core body temperature, and its relation to infection or inflammation, is one of the oldest and most widely recognized diagnostic tools in medicine. The use of a thermometer is considered a basic part of the initial physical exam in most species and is often followed by other more sophisticated techniques to try to isolate the source of illness. With the development of affordable heat sensitive cameras the clinician can now detect general or specific areas of abnormal tissue temperatures. Detectable changes in temperature may be related to superficial tissue involvement or a reflection of heat production at a deeper level. These manifestations may include isolated or general areas involving such conditions as abscess, trauma, cellulitis, dermatitis, tendonitis, myositis, and pyothorax.
A thermographic camera was used in clinical cases in cetaceans to refine previous findings that indicated it's potential applications in diagnosis and prognosis. Individuals which showed clinical signs compatible with trauma, dental disease, and dermal conditions were examined with an EVS DTIS - 500 camera (Emerge Interactive, 10315 102nd Terrace, Sebastian, Fl 32958 USA) and therapy monitored with periodic thermal scans. Dental disease including trauma to oral tissues, periodontal abscess, and mandibular infections could be readily located, temperature measurements taken, and the size of area of involvement noted. Post therapy follow-up illustrated the ability to gauge the effect of therapy as evidenced by temperature decrease and a decrease in the size of the area involved. The clinician can also better determine the length of drug use based on the response. In one individual case it showed the infection from an abscessed tooth spreading down the lingual side of the mandible.External trauma to the skin can be monitored for extent, complications and speed of resolution. Rake marks received from other dolphins have shown an inflammatory response present much longer than expected. A loss of normal temperature can also be used as a clue to the presence of material that may require debridement. Dermatitis is currently being investigated for possible application of this technology. A Tursiops truncatus female with an extensive visual roughening of the skin showed substantial heat in the affected areas of the skin with thermography but no signs of inflammation on bloodwork. The skin inflammation was readily monitored by thermography until total resolution.

Abou-Madi, N., Kollias, G.V., Sturmer, A.T., Hackett, R.P. Umbilical herniorrhaphy in a juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Proceedings AAZV and AAWV Joint Conference.  212-216. 1998.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Godagama, W.K., Wemmer, C., Ratnasooriya, W.D., 1998. The body condition of Sri Lankan domesticated elephants (Elephas maximus maximus). Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Sciences 26, 1-5.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the body condition of domesticated elephants in Sri Lanka using an index based upon visual assessment and numerical scoring of 6 criteria (temporal depression, scapula, thoracic region, flank area, lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bone) resulting in a scale of 0-11. The study was conducted between 1 April 1993 and 1 April 1994 in 13 administrative districts using 140 domesticated elephants. The mean body condition index of the elephants was 6.95±0.26 points. Males had significantly lower body condition index (6.63±0.22 points) than females (7.3±0.21 points) and there was no significant correlation between age and body condition index. The index was not significantly different between elephants which were owned by private individuals or temples and dewales and maintained by mahouts or their owners.

Hattingh, J., deVos, V., Ganhao, M.F., Pitts, N.I., 1998. Physiological responses of the buffalo Syncerus caffer culled with succinyldicholine and hexamethonium. Koedoe 31, 91.
Abstract: Changes in the blood composition of elephants and buffaloes herded by helicopter and killed with succinyldicholine (Scoline) indicate stress. Death is probably due to decreased PO2 levels. The collective percentage change of eight blood constituents used to measure physiological stress was reduced from 30% in buffaloes killed with succinyldicholine alone to 22% in those killed with succinyldicholine plus hexamethonium, as opposed to 17% with herding alone and 10% with succinyldicholine alone without herding.

Kurt, F., Kumarasinghe, J.C., 1998. Remarks on body growth and phenotypes in Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Acta Theriologica, Suppl, 135-153.
Abstract: Body growth, expressed as shoulder height and body weight, is compared between 3 captive populations of Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 from Southeast Asia (Thailand and Myanmar), Sri Lanka and 4 European zoos. Under optimal nutritional conditions Asian elephant bulls invest in shoulder height, females in storing resources, ie higher relative body weights. A comparison of 5 Sri Lankan phenotypes, defined by the occurrence and the growth type of upper incisivi, revealed that the frequencies of certain physical characteristics such as spinal configuration, extent of depigmentation of trunk, temples, ears and shoulders, as well as eye colours are linked to certain types of incisivi. In males 2 different growth types were found: the relatively fast growing tusker or 'etha' reaching maximum body height and weight at a younger age than the tuskless 'aliyas' and 'pussas'. Both types differ significantly as to the extent of optical marks in terms of depigmentated skin patches at the head pole, which seem to represent the role of conspicious hair colours and tufts of polygamous ruminant ungulates in optical communications.

Mahato, G., Rahman, H., Sharma, K.K., Pathak, S.C., 1998. Tuberculin testing in captive Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) of a national park. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases 19, 63.
Abstract: Full text:Tuberculosis, an important zoonotic disease, has been reported in wild African and Asian domestic elephants (Seneviratna and Seneviratna, 1966). Under this communication 25 cative Indian elephants of Kaziranga National Park, Assam, were tested for allergic reaction by injecting 0.1 ml PPD at the base of ear tip. The thickness of skin was measured after 48 and 72 h and an increase of 4 mm or more was taken as positive. Out of 25 elephants tested, 3 adults were found reactors. Base of the ear was found more appropriate site as it remained protected from rubbing against hard object due to irritation caused by the tuberculin and needle. The trunk also could not disturb this inoculation site.

Matsuo, K., Hayashi, S., Kamiya, M., 1998. Parasitic infections of Sumatran elephant in the Way Kambas National Park, Indonesia. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 3, 95-100.
Abstract: In 1995, 3 Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) died suddenly of clostridial infection in the Way Kambas National Park, Lampung province, Indonesia. Postmortem examination revealed that the gastrointestinal tracts of all 3 animals were also infected with Murshidia falcifera (Nematoda), Hawkesius hawkesi and Pfenderius papillatus (Digenea) and Cobboldia elephantis (Diptera). The elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, was a common cause of dermatopathy in elephants kept in the national park.

Mbise, A.N., Mlengeya, T.D.K., Mollel, J.O., 1998. Septicaemic salmonellosis of elephants in Tanzania. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 46, 95-100.
Abstract: The first isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from an African elephant (Loxodanta africana) that died in August 1997 at the Tarangire National Park near a campsite in Northern Tanzania is reported. This and other findings suggest the potential role of wildlife in the epidemiology of Salmonella sp. infections. Also, the isolation of this S. typhimurium serovar as a zoonosis demonstrates the danger that humans and animals in the Tarangire ecosystem are exposed to, as this serovar is ubiquitous among different species of animals.

Michalak, K., Austin, C., Diesel, S., Bacon, M.J., Zimmerman, P., Maslow, J.N., 1998. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a zoonotic disease: transmission between humans and elephants. Emerg Infect Dis 4, 283-287.
Abstract: Between 1994 and 1996, three elephants from an exotic animal farm in Illinois died of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In October 1996, a fourth living elephant was culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. Twenty-two handlers at the farm were screened for tuberculosis (TB); eleven had positive reactions to intradermal injection with purified protein derivative. One had smear-negative, culture-positive active TB. DNA fingerprint comparison by IS6110 and TBN12 typing showed that the isolates from the four elephants and the handler with active TB were the same strain. This investigation indicates transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and elephants.

Montali, R.J., Spelman, L.H., Cambre, R.C., Chattergee, D., Mikota, S.K. Factors influencing interpretation of indirect testing methods for tuberculosis in elephants. Proceedings AAZV and AAWV Joint Conference.  109-112. 1998.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Serologic and other laboratory tests (such as BTB, ELISA, and gamma interferon) are often used in conjunction with the intradermal tuberculin test to detect tuberculosis (TB) in animals.  The skin test is considered the "gold standard" in domestic cattle and humans, and the BTB test has been highly rated for use in cervid species.  However, these indirect methods for TB diagnosis have not been proven valid in most exotic species susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (which includes M. bovis) infection.  In addition, many of the tuberculin skin testing methods used in exotic species are not uniform in terms of tuberculin type(s) and sites used and interpretation of the end points.

Mortenson, J., Sierra S. Determining dosages for antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents in elephants. Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Elephant Foot Care and Pathology.  50-55. 1998.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Clinical application of drug use in elephants for safe, reliable, and effective results necessitates the establishment of a treatment response curve or blood concentration profile for each drug and species (African vs Asian).  Because of the difficulty in obtaining accurate pharmacokinetic information, it is more common to select a drug dosage and frequency interval used in other species, specifically the cow and the horse.  Where treatment monitoring with serum concentrations of the drug are difficult to obtain, extrapolation of treatment regimens between species of extraordinary size difference may be done by metabolic scaling to establish drug dosage rates and frequency intervals.  The principle of metabolic scaling of pharmacokinetic parameters is based on the well established scaling of physiological processes across animals of various sizes.  The goals of this paper are to cover what antibiotics are currently used now with Asian and African elephants by surveying North American zoos, reviewing standard equine doses, discussing metabolic scaling attempts, and reviewing pharmacokinetic studies done. Based on the survey, zoo veterinarians generally are not utilizing metabolic scaling formulas to determine antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug dosages for elephants.  It appears that several drugs are being dosed too frequently (amikacin, amoxicillin), and not frequent enough (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) based on pharmacokinetic study results.  Metabolic scaling dosages and treatment intervals do not correspond well with antibiotic pharmacokinetic studies done in both African and Asian elephants.

Raubenheimer, E.J., Bosman, M.C., Vorster, R., Noffke, C.E., 1998. Histogenesis of the chequered pattern of ivory of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Arch Oral Biol 43, 868-977.
Abstract: This study aimed to propose a hypothesis on the events which lead to the development of the characteristic chequered pattern of elephant ivory. Twenty fragments of ivory and six elephant tusks were obtained through the National Parks Board of South Africa. Polished surfaces were prepared in sagittal and longitudinal planes and the characteristics of the distinctive chequered pattern described. Light- and electron-microscopical techniques and image analyses were employed to determine the morphological basis of the pattern and to describe the spatial distribution, density and morphology of the dentinal tubules. These investigations showed that the distinctive pattern was the result of the sinusoidal, centripetal course followed by dentinal tubules. The apical, slanted part of the sinusoidal curve is the result of the centripetally moving odontoblast, which, during formation of ivory, progresses towards the centre of the tusk on a decreasing circumference. It is suggested that this leads to cell crowding, increased pressure between odontoblasts and subsequent apical movement of their cell bodies, cell degeneration and fusion. Odontoblastic degeneration and fusion probably relieve the pressure between the crowded odontoblasts by reducing their numbers and the remaining odontoblasts now orientate their centripetal course towards the tip of the tusk, thereby forming the anterior-directed part of the sinusoidal path of the tubule. As odontoblasts progress centripetally the diameter of the pulpal cavity decreases further and the processes of apical movement, fusion and degeneration of odontoblasts are repeated. This occurs until the pulpal cavity is obliterated.

Raubenheimer, E.J., Brown, J.M., Rama, D.B., Dreyer, M.J., Smith, P.D., Dauth, J., 1998. Geographic variations in the composition of ivory of the African elephant(Loxodonta africana). Arch Oral Biol 43, 641-647.
Abstract: Tracing the source of origin of illegal ivory will contribute to the identification of poorly managed game parks and facilitate steps taken to prevent the African elephant from becoming extinct. This study was aimed at establishing a database on the composition of ivory obtained from elephant sanctuary areas in Southern Africa. Fragments of elephant ivory from seven geographically distinct areas in South Africa, Namibia and Botswana were analysed for inorganic and organic content. A total of 20 elements was detected in the inorganic fraction of ivory, some in concentrations as low as 0.25 microg/g. The concentrations of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, fluoride, cobalt and zinc showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.007) between ivory obtained from different regions. Analyses of the organic fraction identified 17 amino acids. Ivory from arid regions showed significantly lower proline plus hydroxyproline content and under-hydroxylation of lysine residues. This study indicates that chemical analyses of ivory could be beneficial in tracing the source of illegal ivory.

Schmitt, D.L., Hardy, D.A., 1998. Use of famciclovir for the treatment of herpesvirus in an Asian elephant. Journal of the Elephant Managers' Association 9, 103-104.

Taylor, V.J., Poole, T.B., 1998. Captive breeding and infant mortality in Asian elephants:  a comparison between twenty Western zoos and three Eastern elephant centers. Zoo Biology 17, 311-332.
Abstract: A questionnaire was designed to assess the importance of reproductive behaviour and husbandry factors on breeding success in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). This was circulated to zoos in Europe and North America in 1996. Data from 20 zoos were analysed. Data were also obtained from 3 elephant centres in Asia (Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage in Sri Lanka, Myanma Timber Enterprise in Myanmar and the Tamilnadu Forest Department in India). The aims were to compare Asian elephant breeding success, establish possible causes for any differences, and make recommendations for improving the welfare and breeding success of the animals. Breeding success in most of the zoos was notably lower and the percentages of stillbirths and infant mortality were relatively higher when compared with those of the centres in Asia. Female elephants in zoos appeared to reach sexual maturity and reproduce earlier than those in the Asian establishments. However, zoo elephants produced fewer young per female. The different facilities and husbandry methods used are described. Recommendations are made for both short- and long-term changes that could be used to modify existing practices to improve the welfare and breeding success of captive Asian elephants.

Whyte, I., van Aarde, R., Pimm, S.L., 1998. Managing the elephants of Kruger National Park. Animal Conservation 1, 77-83.
Abstract: The elephant population in Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, is growing rapidly. To prevent damage to the Park's ecosystems, the management has culled about 7% of the population annually. Such culls are very controversial. At first glance, contraceptives seem an attractive alternative means of control. We examine contraception as a management option, review the relevant aspects of elephant reproduction, physiology and demography and conclude that this optimism is probably misplaced. First, contraceptives have a wide range of physiological and behavioural side-effects that may prove to be damaging to the individual female and those around her. Second, the elephants in the Park have near-maximal growth rates with inter-calving intervals of less than four years. To achieve zero population growth, about three-quarters of the adult female elephants would need to be on contraceptives. There are no simple alternatives. The smallest numerical target for controlling population numbers is to kill or sterilize females about to become pregnant for the first time. Such a solution is unlikely to appease those who consider killing elephants to be unethical. It may, however, be the one closest to the natural patterns of elephant mortality.

Brown, R.E., Butler, J.P., Godleski, J.J., Loring, S.H., 1997. The elephant's respiratory system: adaptations to gravitational stress. Respiratory Physiology 110, 67.
Abstract: Elephants have had to adapt to gravitational stresses imposed on their very large respiratory structures. We describe some unusual features of the elephant's respiratory system and speculate on their functional significance. A distensible network of collagen fibers fills the pleural space, loosely connects lung to chest wall but appears not to constrain lung-chest wall movements. Myriad spaces within the network and its rich supply of capillaries suggest effective local sources and sinks for pleural fluid that may replace the gravity-dependent flows of smaller mammals. The lung is partitioned into approximately equal to 1 cm3 parenchymal units by a system of thick, elastic septa that ramify throughout the lung from origins on the lung's elastic external capsule. Parenchymal units suspended upon the elastic septal system protect dependent alveoli from compression, thereby reducing the usual gravitational gradient of lung expansion. Intra-pulmonary airways are devoid of cartilage, instead they appear to derive resistance to collapse from tethering forces of the attached septa.

Goyal, A.K., Rastogi, S.C., Nayak, A.K., Jain, V.K., 1997. Herbal oral contraceptives: retrospects and prospects. Advances in Plant Sciences 10, 141-143.
Abstract: The potential of herbs and animal matter for use as alternative oral contraceptives in India is discussed. Some non-conventional herbal contraceptives are identified, together with Lawsonia inermis, Butea monosperma and elephant fecal matter, which have recently been tested for their potency and require further chemical and biological analysis

Hile, E.M., Hintz, H.F., Hollis, N., 1997. Predicting body weight from body measurements in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28, 424-427.
Abstract: Accurate estimates of body weight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict body weight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated. The highest correlation with a single measurement was that between heart girth and weight (R2 = 0.90). The data were also divided into age groups (1-13, 18-28, 29-39, and 40-57 yr), and all possible linear regressions were calculated for each group (there were no elephants aged 14-17 yr). Adding body length or pad circumference to heart girth resulted in a slight increase in R2. We conclude that body weight in Asian elephants can be predicted from body measurements and that heart girth is the best predictor. A second body measurement might improve predictive accuracy for some age groups.

Islam, S., 1997. Studies on some aspects of fascioliasis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 11, 109.
Abstract: Summary of abstract: The epidemiology of Fasciola jacksoni in wild and captive elephants (Elephas maximus) was studied in Assam, India. Wild elephants had an overall prevalence rate of 33.78%. Captive elephants showed prevalence rates of 42.50, 62.28 and 18.18% according to locality. The egg, miracidium and adult stages of F. jacksoni were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy, and their morphology is described. A diurnal fluctuation in faecal egg count was recorded, with average counts of 4.89, 2.47 and 2.76 during the morning, noon and evening, respectively. Young animals were most affected by the parasite and showed anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, anaemia and icterus, with death occurring in severe cases. Some old adults survived the disease with no apparent clinical manifestations. The adult parasites caused massive liver damage. Treatment with triclabendazole (9 mg/kg, not exceeding 7200 mg/animal) and oxyclozanide (7.5 mg/kg, not exceeding 6.8 g/animal) were 100 and 72.16% effective, respectively.

Keet, D.F., Grobler, D.G., Raath, J.P., Gouws, J., Carstens, J., Nesbit, J.W., 1997. Ulcerative pododermatitis in free-ranging African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 64, 25-32.
Abstract: The occurrence of severe lameness in adult African elephant bulls in a shrub Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) ecosystem was investigated. Large ulcers in the soles of at least one front foot were seen in each of the recorded cases. Microscopically, the lesion can be described as a severe, chronic-active, ulcerative, bacterial pododermatitis (complicated by hypersensitivity/septic vasculitis). A variety of bacteria were isolated from these lesions as well as from regional lymph nodes. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most consistent isolate, while Dichelobacter nodosus, the only organism known to be involved with foot disease in domestic ruminants, was isolated from two cases. Contributory factors such as body mass, portal of entry and origin of potential pathogens may have predisposed to the development of the lesions.

Maslow, J. Tuberculosis and other mycobacteria as zoonoses. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  110-115. 1997.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Mycobacterial infections are common among humans.  Of theses, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is the most common and of greatest concern. Non-tuberculous species of mycobacteria may also cause infections in man, especially among immunosuppressed individuals.  Human TB is typically acquired by inhalation of aerosols carrying tubercle bacilli fowwoing exposure to a person with active pulmonary infection; non-tuberculous species of mycobacteria are acquired from environmental sources.  Since zoonotic transmission of TB does occur, the identification of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in clinical specimens from animals is a cause of concern, unease, and occasionally misconception for animal care handlers and zoo personnel.

Mikota, S.K., Maslow, J. Theoretical and technical aspects of diagnostic techniques for mammalian tuberculosis. Proceedings, American Association Zoo Veterinarians.  162-165. 1997.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Mircean, M., Giurgiu, G., Oros, A., Kadar, L., Ghergariu, S., 1997. Complex osteodystrophy in an orphan Indian elephant. Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara 7, 191-199.
Abstract: An Indian elephant calf, rejected by its mother, was fed at first with cow and buffalo milk, and subsequently with bread, bran, rice, barley and fruit. He was initially affected with rickets, leading to osteofibrosis. Forelegs and the mandible were curved, causing difficulty in mastication. Clinical pathology showed a fall in Ca:P ratio to 1.47, and radiology showed thinning of the bone cortex. Intensive treatment with vitamins (B, C, D3 and E), a testosterone compound and amoxicillin made it possible for the animal to stand and walk, but the deformities remained. The elephant was eventually killed.

Montali, R.J., Hildebrandt, T., Goritz, F., Hermes, R., Ippen, R., Ramsay, E.C., 1997. Ultrasonography and pathology of genital tract leiomyomas in captive Asian elephants: implications for reproductive soundness.  Verh. ber. Erkrg. Zootiere 38, 199-204.

Ryan, C.P., 1997. Tuberculosis in circus elephants. Pulse Southern California Veterinary Medical Assoc. 8.

Sarma, K.K., Dutta, B., 1997. Preputial diverticulum in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) - a case report. Indian Veterinary Journal 74, 59-60.

Sharma S.P., 1997. Surgical treatment of gunshot wounds under xylazine and ketamine anaesthesia in an elephant: clinical case report. Indian Veterinary Journal 74, 973-974.

Sukumar, R., Krishnamurthy, K.V., Wemmer, C., Rodden, M., 1997. Demography of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India. Zoo Biology 16, 263-272.
Abstract: Historically, the Asian elephant has never bred well in captivity.  We have carried out demographic analyses of elephants captured in the wild or born in captivity and kept in forest timber camps in southern India during the past century.  The average fecundity during this period was 0.095/adult female/year.  During 1969-89, however, the fecundity was higher at 0.155/adult female/year, which compares favorably with wild populations. there was a seasonality in births with a peak in January.  The sex reation of 129 male to 109 female calves born is not significantly different from equality, although the excess of male calves born mainly to mothers 20-40 years old may have biological significance. Mortality rates were higher in females than in males up to age 10, but much lower in females than in males above age 10 years.  The population growth rate, based on fecundity during 1969-89, was 1.8% per year.  The analyses thus showed that timber camp elephants in southern India could potentially maintain a stationary or increasing population without resorting to captures from the wild.  Breeding efforts for elephants in zoos can thus profitably learn from the experience of traditional management systems in parts of Asia.

Whipple, D.L., Meyer, R.M., Berry, D.F., Jarnagin, J.L., Payeur, J.B. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer in michigan and elephants. Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997.  543-546. 1997. Richmond, VA,USA, United States Animal Health Association.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Cambre, R.C., Buick, W.W., 1996. Special challenges of maintaining wild animals in captivity in North America. Rev Sci Tech 15, 251-266.
Abstract: The maintenance of wild animals in captivity in North America is regulated by a number of different laws and government agencies in each country. Member institutions of zoo and aquarium associations in Canada, the United States of America and Mexico experience an extra tier of regulation in the form of industry standards, which are sometimes stricter than those imposed by government. Climate, natural disasters and harmful pest species all contribute to the challenge of keeping animals in certain locales. Vigilance against zoonotic disease transmission is maintained through industry and government-mandated sanitation standards, which are fortified by reporting regulations of local, regional and Federal health agencies. Current controversies in the keeping of particular taxa in North America include the threat to non-human primate breeding programmes precipitated by strict new import regulations, the fear of herpesvirus B infection, and commercial airline transport bans. Successive human fatalities among elephant handlers have prompted the industry and governments to re-examine the manner in which these potentially dangerous creatures are maintained in captivity.

Hama, N., Murata, K., Yasuda, S., Shimada, A., Sakai, H., Yanai, T., 1996. An autopsy case of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) which died without clinical signs. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1, 49-53.

Kirchhoff, H., Schmidt, R., Lehmann, H., Clark, H., Hill, A.C., 1996. Mycoplasma elephantis sp. nov., a new species from elephants.  Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 46, 437-441.
Abstract: Organisms with the typical characteristics of mycoplasmas were isolated from the genital tracts of female elephants.  The results of growth inhibition tests, metabolic inhibition tests, indirect immunoflourescence tests, and immunobinding assays showed that the isolated mycoplasmas were identical and distinct from previously described Mycoplasma, Entoplasma, Mesoplasma, and Acholeplasma species.  These organisms represent a new species, for which the name Mycoplasma elephantis is proposed.  M. elephantis ferments glucose, fructose, maltose, mannos, and sucrose, produces films and spots, does not hydrolyze arginine, esculin, and urea, does not reduce methylene blue, tetrazolium chloride, and potassium tellurite, does not possess phosphatase activity, and reduces resazurin.  It lyses avian, ovine, and guinea pig erythrocytes.  It does not absorb erythrocytes.  Cholesterol or serum is required for growth.  The optimum growth temperature is 37 degrees C.  The G+C content of the DNA is 24.0 mol%.  The type strain of M. elephantis is E42 (= ATCC 51980.

Kubinski, T., Maciak, T., Sawicka-Wrzosek, K., 1996. Microbial flora isolated postmortem from internal organs in zoo animals in Warsaw. Magazyn Weterynaryjny 5, 236-240.

Kurt, F., Schmid, J. A comparison of feeding behaviour and body weight in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). First International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals.  1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Kurt, F., Mar, D.K., 1996. Neonate mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). International Journal of Mammalian Biology 61, 155-164.
Abstract: One third of Asian elephants born in European zoos and circuses are stillborn (16.0%) or killed or refused by their mothers (15.7%). Stillbirths and infanticides are rare in extensively kept and wild-living elephants. Infanticide could be related to life history of the mothers: Females which had grown up in the company of an older, motherly female adopted their offsprings without complications. Those having lacked such affection, tended to kill or at least not to adopt their neonates. Stillborn calves show higher neonate weights (124.6 +/- 20.8 kg) than surviving calves (92.0 +/-27.6 kg). Positive correlations were found between gestation period and neonate weight as well as between neonate weight and relative weight (body weight/shoulder height) of the mother. As female elephants in modern zoos and circuses are relatively heavier than those living in Asian camps, they produce calves after longer gestation periods (644.4 +/- 19.5 days) with larger neonate weights (105.6 +/- 26.6 kg) than extensively kept females in Asia (598.1 +/- 51.6 days; 74.0 +/- 21.6 kg). Chances to survive parturition are negatively correlated with length of gestation and neonate weight.

Moda, G., Daborn, C.J., Grange, J.M., Cosivi, O., 1996. The zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis. Tubercle and Lung Disease 77, 103-108.
Abstract: The zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis has been the subject of renewed interest in the wake of the increasing incidence of tuberculosis in the human population. This paper considers some of the conditions under which transmission of M. bovis from animals to humans occurs and reviews current information on the global distribution of the disease. The paper highlights the particular threat posed by this zoonotic disease in developing countries and lists the veterinary and human public health measures that need to be adopted if the disease is to contained. The association of tuberculosis with malnutrition and poverty has long been recognized and the need to address these basic issues as as crucial as specific measures against the disease itself.

Mosley, J. Hand-Rearing a Captive-Born Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus): (I) A Study of Physical Development as a Response to the Rearing Regime, and (ii) Social Interactions. Spooner, N. G. and Sharp, K. The Ninth UK Elephant Workshop.  36-65. 1996. England, The North of England Zoological Society. 1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Parrott, J.J. Analysis of African elephant mature milk in early lactation and formulation of an elephant calf milk replacer. Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  102-111. 1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Mature milk samples (n=5) were collected from one African elephant (Loxodonta africana) during early lactation for analysis of nutrient composition. Total solids averaged 11.32% and were significantly lower than previously reported for African elephants. Lactose averaged 2.79% (24.6% dry matter basis), which was also significantly lower than previously reported and indicates African elephants are a low-to-moderate lactose species. Bovine milk contains 1.5-2 times this level, and human milk replacers contain 2.5 times this level of lactose on a dry matter basis. This could represent a significant cause of diarrhea when human milk replacers are used in African elephant calves. Milk fat averaged 4.38% (39% dry matter basis) and ranged from 3.51-5.32%. Protein levels averaged 2.3% (20% dry matter basis). Ash levels averaged 0.53% (4.7% dry matter basis). Vitamin A levels ranged from 28-171 IU/100 g (249-1361 IU/100 g dry matter basis) and vitamin D ranged from 22-69.8 IU/100 g (196-693 IU/100 g dry matter basis). Vitamin E ranged from 0.33-0.88 µg/ml, with the cow supplemented on a diet of 8,000 IU per day. Calcium levels averaged 37.8 mg/100 g (334 mg/100 g) and ranged from 28-43 mg/100 g (257-431 mg/100 g dry matter basis); phosphorus averaged 18.8 mg/100 g (166 mg/100 g dry matter basis) and ranged from 15.9-20.8 mg/100 g (143- 204 mg/100 g dry matter basis). The calcium:phosphorus ratio averaged approximately 2:1. An African elephant calf milk replacer was formulated based on the mature milk analysis of early lactation. The general makeup included: total solids (11.5%), fat (5%), lactose (2.5%), protein (3.3%), ash (0.52%), calcium (65 mg/100 g), phosphorus (42 mg/100 g), vitamin A (75 IU/100 g) and vitamin D (46 IU/100 g). Vitamin E is supplemented separately as 2 IU/kg body weight micellized natural tocopherol (Stuart Products) to insure bioavailability. The milk replacer is produced starting with bovine skim milk powder and bovine whey protein concentrate, mixed to provide the milk proteins necessary in the milk replacer. Fat is then added using a fat premix and coconut oil (coconut oil is approximately 25% of the total fat supplied). A mixture of mineral and vitamin premix completes the formula. The final formulation maintained lactose on the low end of the milk analysis range (20-26% dry matter basis), to minimize the risk of a lactose-induced diarrhea. Protein and fat were maintained at the high end or slightly above the range in the milk analysis to accommodate the lower lactose and still maintain a total solids of approximately 11.5%.

Richman, L.K., Montali, R.J., Cambre, R.C., Lehnhardt, J., Kennedy, M., Kania, S., Potgieter, L. Endothelial inclusion body disease:  a newly recognized fatal herpes-like infection in Asian elephants. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  483-486. 1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Singh, V.K., Ali, Z.A., Zaidi, S.T.H., Siddiqui, M.K., 1996. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants from Gonda district forests of Uttar Pradesh, India. Fitoterapia 67, 129-139.
Abstract: An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out among the medicine men (Bharra) and local healers of Gonda district forests of Uttar Pradesh in 1994. Fifty-two taxa of plants, belonging to 32 families, were identified as being used in traditional medicine to treat human and animal (elephants) ailments. Plants are listed in alphabetical order of family name, with Latin and local names, medicinal uses, mode of application and dose.

Soltysiak, Z., 1996. Age-related changes in the brain of an Indian elephant. Zycie-Weterynaryjne 71, 309-311.

Barnard, B.J.H., Bengis, R.G., Keet, D.F., Dekker, E.H., 1995. Epidemiology of African horsesickness: antibodies in free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) and their response to experimental infection. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 62, 271-275.
Abstract: Serum samples were obtained from blood collected from elephants during a culling operation in Kruger National Park, South Africa, in 1993. Sera from 63/80 (79%) elephants reacted positively in an ELISA for African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The titres of almost 65% of the positive samples were less than 10 000. In comparison, 34/34 zebra samples reacted positively and their ELISA titres were significantly higher, with more than 84% having a titre of 10 000 or higher. 26% of 14 sera from elephants tested for the 9 types of AHSV, reacted positively with virus-neutralizing titres of 20 or higher. Experimental infection of 6 elephant calves resulted in conflicting results. No detectable viremia nor virus could be demonstrated in the organs of the calves and none of them mounted significant levels of neutralizing antibodies against the virus. On the other hand, all calves showed a slight rise in ELISA titres. This rise, however, was modest when compared with the rise in experimentally infected zebra. The presence of low levels of group- and type-specific antibodies in the serum of some free-living elephants was judged to be the result of natural hyper-immunization due to frequent exposure to infected biting insects. It is concluded that, despite the presence of low levels of antibodies, elephants should be regarded as poorly susceptible and unlikely to be a source of AHSV.

Barua, P., 1995. Managing a Problem Population of Elephants. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 150-161.

Boomker, J., Bain, O., Chabaud, A., Kriek, N.P.J., 1995. Stephanofilaria thelazioides n. sp. (Nematoda: Filariidae) from a hippopotamus and its affinities with the species parasitic in the African black rhinoceros. Systematic Parasitology 32, 205-210.
Abstract: Stephanofilaria thelazioides sp. nov. is described and figured from an ulcerated skin lesion on a hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. This nematode is closely related to S. dinniki, a parasite of the black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis in Africa, but differs from it in the number of cuticular spines surrounding the mouth, the arrangement of the cloacal papillae and the measurements of the spicules, gubernaculum and microfilariae. Species of the genus Stephanofilaria possess spines on the head which have been derived by modification of the sensory papillae. S. thelazioides is the most primitive species of the genus and has the least modified arrangement of these papillae, with 6 bifid internal labial spines, 4 bifid external labial spines and 4 cephalic papillae. The genus appears to have diversified in various mammals which have in common a thick skin, such as rhinoceroses, elephants, buffaloes and now the hippopotamus. It appears to have become adapted secondarily to domestic bovines, initially in Asia and subsequently in North America.

Brown, J.L., Wemmer, C.M., Lehnhardt, J., 1995. Urinary Cortisol Analysis for Monitoring Adrenal Activity in Elephants. Zoo Biology 14 , 533-542.
Abstract: Cortisol was measured in dichloromethane-extracted elephant urine using an 125I solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). The cortisol RIA was validated by demonstrating 1) parallelism between dilutions of pooled urinary extracts and the standard curve, 2) significant recovery of exogenous cortisol added to elephant urine, and 3) a relationship between changes in the peripheral and urinary cortisol after an adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) challenge. One African (Loxodonta africana) and one Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant were given three injections of ACTH (1.25 mg) at 2 h intervals. Serum cortisol increased four- to eightfold within 30 min after the first injection and peaked (nine- to twelvefold increase) after the second injection. Serum concentrations began to decline 2-3 h after the last injection but were still approximately fourfold higher than baseline at the end of the collection period (hour 8). In the urine, cortisol concentrations were increased in the first sample postinjection (1.5 - 4 h) and peaked twenty- to fortyfold by ~6 h. Urinary cortisol remained elevated at 8 h, but returned to baseline by the following morning. Analysis of high performance liquid chromatography fractions of extracted urine revealed that immunoactivity was associated with free cortisol (~90% of total immunoactivity) and a more polar, unidentified metabolite. A method for preserving urine was developed to allow storing unfrozen samples. One pool of urine from each of one African and two Asian elephants was divided into aliquots, placed in tubes containing absolute ethanol (10%), sodium azide (0.1%) or distilled water (control), and frozen after 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 weeks of storage at ~25ºC. In unpreserved samples, cortisol concentrations were reduced 46% by 2 weeks and 95% by 24 weeks. In contrast, ethanol- and sodium azide-preserved samples retained 100 and 95% of cortisol immunoactivity through 8 weeks and 93 and 85% of activity through 12 weeks, respectively. We infer from these data that changes in urinary cortisol excretion in the elephant reflect fluctuations in adrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress. Additionally, urine samples can be collected and stored unfrozen for at least 2 months before any appreciable loss in cortisol immunoactivity occurs, a finding potentially useful to field application of this technique.

Datye, H.S., Bhagwat, A.M., 1995. Estimation of Crop Damage and the Economic Loss Caused by Elephants and its Implications in the Management of Elephants. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 375-388.

Datye, H.S., Bhagwat, A.M., 1995. Man-Elephant Conflict: A Case Study of Human Deaths Caused by Elephants in Parts of Central India. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 340-349.

Fowler, M.E., 1995. Restraint and handling of wild and domestic animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Garstang, M., Larom, D., Raspet, R., Lindeque, M., 1995. Atmospheric controls on elephant communication. J Exp Biol 198 (Pt4), 939-951.
Abstract: Atmospheric conditions conducive to long-range transmission of low-frequency sound as used by elephants are found to exist in the Etosha National Park in Namibia during the late dry season. Meteorological measurements show that strong temperature inversions form at the surface before sunset and decay with sunrise, often accompanied by calm wind conditions during the early evening. These observations are used in an acoustic model to determine the sensitivity of infrasound to the effects of (a) the strength, thickness and elevation of temperature inversions, and (b) the growth and decay of an inversion typical of dry, elevated African savannas. The results suggest that the range over which elephants communicate more than doubles at night. Optimum conditions occur 1-2 h after sunset on clear, relatively cold, calm nights. At these times, ranges of over 10 km are likely, with the greatest amplification occurring at the lowest frequency tested. This strong diurnal cycle in communication range may be reflected in longer-lasting changes in weather and may exert a significant influence on elephant behaviour on time scales from days to many years.

Grobler, D.G., Raath, J.P., Braack, L.E.O., Keet, D.F., Gerdes, G.H., Barnard, B.J.H., Krick, N.P.J., Jardine, J., Swanepoet, R., 1995. An outbreak of encephalomyocarditis-virus infection in free ranging African elephants in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 62, 97-108.
Abstract: An increase in unexplained elephant mortality was seen in the Kruger National Park (KNP) from December 1993 to November 1994, concurrent with a wide-spread increase in the KNP rodent population.  The majority of animals were found dead.  Examination of carcasses ruled out common causes of death, including poaching, anthrax, intraspecific fighting, and intoxication.  Sixty-four animals died from unexplained causes during the perceived outbreak, 83% of which were adult bulls.  Eight carcasses were in sufficiently good condition for tissues to be collected for diagnostic testing.  Cardiac failure appeared to be the most likely cause of death in seven of the animals, with gross findings of pulmonary edema, hepatic congestion, ascities, and hydrothorax.  Myocarditis and necrosis of myocytes were the most striking findings on histopathological examination.  Heart tissue from three animals was submitted for virus isolation; all three yielded encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus.  Serologic testing for EMC virus antibody was performed on the KNP between 1984 and 1994.  Results demonstrated that the virus has  been present in the KNP from 1987 on.  EMC virus antibody was not detected in preserved rodent tissues until 1993, prior to the rodent population explosion and the outbreak of disease in elephants.  It is unclear whether rodents play a role in transmitting the virus to other animals or if they reflect a general circulation of the virus in multiple species in a given environment.  One lion cub which was found dead with bacterial pneumonia had a serum neutralizing antibody titer to EMC virus of 128.  It is hypothesized that this animal may have been predisposed to pneumonia through the formation of lung edema as a result of EMC virus infection.  Three lions that were seen feeding on the carcass of an elephant with lesions compatible with EMC virus infection were monitored for seroconversion, which did not occur.  EMC virus disappears rapidly from most tissues after death and probably was not present in the tissues consumed by the lions.  The predilection for male elephants could not be explained, although increased mortality among males has also been demonstrated with EMC virus in mice.

Krishnamurthy, V., 1995. Reproductive Pattern in Captive Elephants in the Tamil Nadu Forest Department: India. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 450-455.
Abstract: The Forest Department of the State of Tamil Nadu (formerly the Madras Presidency) in India has been capturing and maintaining elephants for more than 130 years. These elephants which are mainly utilised for timber extraction work are stationed in forest camps. The elephants are maintained as mixed herds, and able to socialize both when they are in camp or when they are let out for foraging in the forests. Records were maintained on the various aspects of elephant management which included the breeding records in captivity of all elephants, varying over periods of time. From these records the birth of 210 elephant calves over a period of 104 years could be collected and the data analysed. The average fertility of the captive population particularly during the last two decades compares favourably with wild population both in Asia and Africa. A peak in births was observed during the early dry season i.e. in the months of January and February. The sex ratio at birth is not statistically significantly different from 1:1. The active reproductive phase in cow elephant extended over 40 years. During earlier periods the mortality rate among captive born calves was high, but by better management practices the mortality rate has been considerably reduced, particularly during the last two decades.

Njumbi, S.T., 1995. Effects of Poaching on the Population Structure of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana): A Case Study of the Elephants of the Meru National Park. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 509-522.

Nummela, S., 1995. Scaling of the mammalian middle ear. Hear Res 85, 18-30.
Abstract: This study considers the general question how animal size limits the size and information receiving capacity of sense organs. To clarify this in the case of the mammalian middle ear, I studied 63 mammalian species, ranging from a small bat to the Indian elephant. I determined the skull mass and the masses of the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes (M, I and S), and measured the tympanic membrane area, A1. The ossicular mass (in mg) is generally negatively allometric to skull mass (in g), the regression equation for the whole material (excluding true seals) being y = 1.373 x(0.513). However, for very small mammals the allometry approaches isometry. Within a group of large mammals no distinct allometry can be discerned. The true seals (Phocidae) are exceptional by having massive ossicles. The size relations within the middle ear are generally rather constant. However, the I/M relation is slightly positively allometric, y = 0.554 x(1.162). Two particularly isometric relations were found; the S/(M + I) relation for the ossicles characterized by the regression equation y = 0.054 x(0.993), and the relation between a two-dimensional measure of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane ares, (M + I)2/3 /A1. As in isometric ears the sound energy collected by the tympanic membrane is linearly related to its area, the latter isometry suggests that, regardless of animal size, a given ossicular cross-sectional area is exposed to a similar sound-induced stress. Possible morphological middle ear adaptations to particular acoustic environments are discussed.

Prothero, J., 1995. Bone and fat as a function of body weight in adult mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 111, 633-639.
Abstract: Three independent data sets, for both bone and fat weight, in adult mammals, expressed as a function of body weight, were submitted to linear regression analysis of the log-log transformed data. For land mammals generally, weighing up to 6.6 metric tons, the slope of the best-fit regression line for skeletal weight is 1.073 +/- 0.021. This regression line underestimates skeletal weight in the elephant by about 40%. For cetaceans, varying in body weight from about 0.1 to over 100 metric tons, the slope of the best-fit regression line for skeletal weight is 1.133 +/- 0.044. Since the slopes for these two groups of mammals are not statistically different, and since cetaceans are normally shielded from gravity, due to buoyancy, it is suggested that the slope (1.073) in land mammals may not be an adaptation to gravity. After pooling the data from the three data sets for fat, the resultant regression has a slope of 1.146 +/- 0.026. It is argued, on theoretical grounds, that slopes greater than 1.2-1.3 will not be found for the log-log regression of any major tissue on body weight, taken over the whole mammalian weight range.

Sasaki, H., Kang'-ethe, E.K., Kaburia, H.F.A., 1995. Blood meal sources of Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Nguruman, southwest Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 32, 390-393.
Abstract: In total, 1952 adults of G. pallidipes and 1098 of G. longipennis were collected in forest and savanna habitat in Nguruman, southwestern Kenya, by NG2G traps during the dry season of 1992. Of these, 339 individuals (11.1%) had blood meals, of which 155 (45.7%) were identified by direct ELISA. The most frequent blood meal source was bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), followed by ostrich (Struthio camelus), elephant (Loxodonta africana), buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). Few meals were taken from cattle. The finding of frequent blood meals from ostriches is new for G. pallidipes and may indicate that ostriches are an important host. More detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis is required.

Schumacher, J., Heard, D.J., Caligiuri, R., Norton, T., Jacobson, E.R., 1995. Comparative effects of etorphine and carfentanil on cardiopulmonary parameters in juvenile African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26, 503-507.
Abstract: Fourteen African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were immobilized with either etorphine hydrochloride (3.2 ± 0.5 µg/kg i.m.) or carfentanil citrate (2.4 µg/kg i.m.). Induction time with etorphine was significantly longer (30 ± 21 min) than with carfentanil (8 ± 2 min).  Immediately following immobilization all elephants were placed in lateral recumbency and respiratory rate, heart rate, and rectal body temperature were monitored every 5 min throughout the immobilization period.  Arterial blood samples, collected from an auricular artery, were taken 10 min after immobilization and every 15 min thereafter for up to 1 hr.  At the first sampling, mean values for arterial blood gas variables for etorphine immobilized elephants were pHa, 7.29 ± 0.03; PaCO2, 53.4 ± 5.2 mmHg; PaO2, 71.8 ± 13.8 mmHg; standard base excess (SBE), -1.6 ± 2.9 mEq/L; and HCO3, 25.7 ± 2.7 mEq/L. After 1 hr of immobilization, mean arterial blood gas values were pHa, 7.32 ± 0.06; PaCO2 , 57.2 ± 9.6 mm Hg; and PaO2 , 53.8 ± 10.5 mm Hg; SBE, 2.7 ± 1.4 mEq/L; and HCO3-, 30.6 ± 1.6 mEq/L. For carfentanil immobilized elephants, blood gas values at the first time of collection were pHa, 7.28 ± 0.04; PaCO2, 52.1 ± 2.8 mmHg; PaO2, 78.3 ± 14.7 mmHg; SBE, -2.3 ± 24 mEq/L; and HCO3-, 24.3 ± 2.1 mEq/L.  Sixty minutes after the first sampling, blood gas values of one elephant were pHa, 7.38; PaCO2, 48.7 mmHg; PaO2, 52 mmHg; SBE, 3.4 mEq/L, and HCO3-, 28.8 mEq/L.  Over time there was a progressive decline in arterial PO2 in all elephants.  It is concluded that elephants immobilized with either etorphine HCl or carfentanil developed hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mmHg) after 30 min of immobilization.  It is recommended that the administration of one of these opioid drugs be accompanied by supplemental oxygen, or followed by an inhalant anesthetic in 100% oxygen for prolonged procedures.  Diprenorphine or nalmefene reversal was rapid and uneventful in both the etorphine and carfentanil group.  No cases of renarcotization were noted. Additional excerpt: All elephants in the etorphine group (n=8) received diprenorphine at a mean dosage of 8.3 ± 1.1 µg/kg IV. Two elephants in the carfentanil group (n=6) were administered diprenorphine at a dosage of 8.9 µg/kg IV and IM.  Three elephants in this group received nalmefene hydrochloride.  One of the three elephants was given nalmefene 166.7 µg/kg both IV and SC. Two of the three elephants were given nalmefene IV and IM. The dosage was 88.9 µg/kg IV and IM in one elephant and 53.3 µg/kg IV and IM in the other. One elephant in the carfentanil group was administered nalmefene (88.9 µg/kg IV) followed by diprenorphine (8.9 µg/kg IM).

Thouless, C.R., Sakwa, J., 1995. Elephant Fences in Northern Kenya. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 523-528.

Watve, M.G., 1995. Helminth Parasites of Elephants: Ecological Aspects. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 289-295.
Abstract: The helminth parasites of free ranging as well as captive elephants of the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary were studied quantitatively by analysing over 200 dung samples and 7 autopsy examinations. The prevalence and intensities of infection were high in both captive as well as wild elephants. The helminth communities of both were, however, species poor as compared to other mammalian host species. The high prevalence and intensities are thought to be related to the absence of predation and the low species diversity may be a result of absence of other closely related host species. The age and sex of individuals sampled did not affect their parasite loads significantly. The faecal propagule densities were significantly greater during the dry season as compared to the wet season. Stronglid nematodes of the genus Quilonia dominated the helminth communities. Tapeworm infection was significantly greater in captive elephants than the wild ones. The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

Brain, C., Fox, V.E.B., 1994. Suspected cardiac glycoside poisoning in elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 65, 173-174.
Abstract: Two young (< 2 years old) elephants (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly and simultaneously at Ongava Game Reserve bordering on the Etosha National Park, Namibia. Both elephants showed lung congestion, epi- and endocardial haemorrhages and hyperaemic areas in the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine. Histopathology of the myocardium showed multifocal degeneration and necrosis of muscle fibres accompanied by haemorrhages. Parts of the leaves of the alien plant Cryptostegia grandiflora (Asclepiadaceae) were found in the intestinal tracts of the elephants. These findings suggested that the elephants died from heart failure after ingesting this plant which contains cardiac glycosides.

Davis, T.A., Davis, T.A., Garcia-Bravo, R., Fiorotto, M.L., Jackson, E.M., Lewis, D.S., Lee, D.R., Reeds, P.J., 1994. Amino acid composition of human milk is not unique. J Nutr 124, 1126-1132.
Abstract: To determine whether the amino acid pattern of human milk is unique, we compared the amino acid pattern of human milk with the amino acid patterns of the milks of great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), lower primates (baboon and rhesus monkey) and nonprimates (cow, goat, sheep, llama, pig, horse, elephant, cat and rat). Amino acid pattern was defined as the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) (in mg) to the total amino acids (in g). Total amino acid concentration was lower in primate milk than in nonprimate milk. There were commonalities in the overall amino acid pattern of the milks of all species sampled; the most abundant amino acids were glutamate (plus glutamine, 20%), proline (10%) and leucine (10%). Essential amino acids were 40%, branched-chain amino acids 20%, and sulfur amino acids 4% of the total amino acids. The amino acid pattern of human milk was more similar to those of great apes than to those of lower primates. For example, cystine was higher and methionine was lower in primate milks than in nonprimate milks, and in great ape and human milks than in lower primate milks. Because the milk amino acid patterns of the human and elephant, both slow-growing species, were dissimilar, the amino acid pattern of human milk seems unrelated to growth rate.

Dunlop, C.I., Hodgson, D.S., Cambre, R.C., Kenny, D.E., Martin, H.D., 1994. Cardiopulmonary effects of three prolonged periods of isoflurane anesthesia in an adult elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205, 1439-1444.
Abstract: Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523.
An adult 3500-kg female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was anaesthetized 3 times for treatment of subcutaneous fistulas over the lateral aspect of each cubitus (anaesthesia 1 and 2) and for repair of a fractured tusk (anaesthesia 3). Lateral recumbency and anaesthesia were achieved with etorphine (anaesthesia 1 and 2) or etorphine and azaperone (anaesthesia 3). The trachea was intubated and anaesthesia was maintained by isoflurane and oxygen delivered through 2 standard large animal anaesthesia machines joined in parallel. The range of total recumbency time was 2.4 to 3.3 h. Breathing and heart rates, systemic arterial pressure, rectal temperature, PaO2, pH and end-tidal gases were monitored. After administration of etorphine, measurements were made while the elephant was recumbent and breathing air, then every 5 min (cardiovascular) or 15 min (blood gases) after the start of administration of isoflurane and oxygen. Tachycardia and hypertension were detected after administration of etorphine, but heart rate and systemic arterial pressure decreased to within normal ranges after administration of isoflurane and oxygen. The elephant remained well oxygenated while anaesthetized and breathing a high oxygen mixture. The elephant had an uneventful recovery from each anaesthesia.

Formenty, P., Domenech, J., Lauginie, F., Ouattara, M., Diawara, S., Raath, J.P., Grobler, D., Leforban, Y., Angba, A., 1994. Epidemiological study of bluetongue in sheep, cattle and various wild animal species in the Cote d'Ivoire. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 13, 737-751.
Abstract: Between 1992 and 1993, serum samples from 623 sheep, 215 cattle and 211 other ruminants from Cote d'Ivoire were tested for bluetongue virus antibodies using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. Seroprevalence was 52±4% in sheep, 95±3% in cattle and 56±7% in wild herbivores. Bluetongue antibodies were detected in kob (Kobus kob), common waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and elephant (Loxodonta africana). A significant geographical variation was observed in presence of bluetongue in sheep. Antibody prevalence increased significantly with age in sheep and wild herbivores, and seroprevalence was higher in dams with a history of abortion. It is concluded that bluetongue is enzootic in Cote d'Ivoire.

Lindeque, P.M., Turnbull, P.C., 1994. Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61, 71-83.
Abstract: Analysis of mortality records has revealed distinct patterns in the incidence of anthrax in elephant and plains ungulates.  The seasonal peak among the former is in November and the end of the dry season, while among the latter it occurs in March towards the end of the rainy season.  Among elephants, there has been a notable spread of the disease to the west of the Park.  Age and sex analysis indicate that, except for zebra, proportionally greater numbers of adult males die of anthrax among the species predominantly affected; however, zebra carcasses are difficult to sex. In a study to identify possible environmental sources of infection, B. anthracis was detected in 3.3% of 92 water and 3.0% of 230 soil samples collected at different times of the year from 23 sites not associated with known cases of anthrax.  Slight seasonal differences were noted with 5.7% positives occurring in the cold-dry period (May to August), 3.5% in the hot-dry season (September to December) and 1.4% in the hot-wet season (January to April).  Higher rates (2.6% of 73 samples) were found in water from waterholes in the western part of the Park at the time of an outbreak in elephants.  The possible importance of scavenger faeces was confirmed with >50% of vulture, jackal, and hyaena faeces collected from the vicinity of confirmed anthrax carcasses yielding B. anthracis, sometimes in substantial numbers, while no spores were found in faeces not associated with known anthrax carcasses. Despite terminal B. anthracis levels of usually >107 cfu/ml in the blood of animals dying of anthrax, spore levels in soil contaminated by such blood at sites of anthrax carcasses ranged from undetectable to a few tens of thousands.  The rapid loss of viability in soil and water of anthrax bacilli, was monitored experimentally and the importance of soil type demonstrated.  Survival and extent of sporulation of the bacilli in water were shown to be dependent on the rate at which the blood was diluted out. Other relevant parameters examined were background flora, pH and sunlight.

Meiswinkel, R., Braack, L.E.O., 1994. African horsesickness epidemiology:  five species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected live behind the ears and at the dung of the African elephant in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Oderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61, 155-170.
Abstract: During the culling of elephants (Loxodonta africana) at 5 sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, 682 Culicoides of 5 species of the subgenus Avaritia were found either living behind the ears of elephants or attracted to the freshly disemboweled intestinal dung of elephants. The species were Culicoides tororoensis, C. kanagai, C. loxodontis, and 2 undescribed species, Culicoides sp. £50 and Culicoides sp. £54 pale form (p.f.). Of 511 female midges found behind ears, 39.9% were nulliparous, 57.3% empty parous, 2.5% freshly bloodfed and 0.2% gravid. The age composition of this subpopulation indicates that the Culicoides were behind the ears to suck blood and, furthermore, would do so in broad daylight. The age composition of 171 Culicoides of 3 species attracted to dung was entirely different: 1.8% nulliparous, 14.6% empty parous, and 83.0% gravid, indicating that the great majority of midges captured at dung were about to oviposit or had just oviposited. Immediately after culling, light traps were operated at 2 of the sites. Of 4023 Culicoides of 21 species captured, 93% were of the same 5 species found on the ears and at the dung of elephants. Using these and other unpublished data pertaining to the rearing of these 5 Avaritia species from elephant dung over the past 7 years, the life cycle of these Culicoides is broadly sketched, the first for any Afrotropical species of the genus. The implications that the close association between elephant and midge has for the dispersal and geographic distribution of the latter, and how it may influence the involvement of midges in the transmission of diseases such as African horse sickness, are also discussed. Owing to difficulties in identifying species of the subgenus Avaritia in the Afrotropical Region, the taxonomy of each of the 5 above-mentioned species is briefly appraised. Of the remaining 16 species (7%) captured in light traps, 15 (6%) belong to that sector of the genus Culicoides whose immature stages develop in groundwater habitats and include C. imicola, which comprised only 2% of the light-trap collections. The large disparity in the adult abundance patterns of the "dung" and "groundwater" species in the middle of dry bushveld is probably the result of differences in host and larval habitat preferences, and is briefly discussed. Finally, the few reports extant on the wild-host preferences of Afrotropical Culicoides are reviewed.

Mikota, S.K., Sargent, E.L., Ranglack, G.S., 1994. Medical Management of the Elephant. Indira Publishing House, West Bloomfield MI.

Piyadasa, H.D., 1994. Traditional systems for preventing and treating animal diseases in Sri Lanka. Rev Sci Tech 13, 471-486.
Abstract: Systems for preventing and treating animal diseases have been employed in Sri Lanka since ancient times, long before the advent of modern veterinary science. Many such methods have been used, mainly in ruminants but also in trained elephants. Records of animal treatments can be found in historical documents. The first recorded treatment is that of the elephant 'Kadol Etha' belonging to King Dutugemunu (161-137 BC). Later, the physician King Buddhadasa (AD 340-368) is reported to have operated on a snake. The methods and experience gained by practitioners have usually been passed on in secrecy from father to son. However, records on ola leaf manuscripts are available for consultation in the National Museum and the Ayurvedic Research Institute, while others are in the possession of native veterinary practitioners. Approximately 2,000 practitioners are scattered throughout the island; the majority treat animals on a part-time basis. The marking of animals using brands in symbolic shapes, inhalation of medicinal fumes and oral medication are the common treatment methods.

Singh, K.P., Srivastava, V.K., Prasad, A., Pandey, A.P., 1994. Pathology due to Fasciola jacksoni in Indian elephants (Elephas indicus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 64, 802-804.
Abstract: F. jacksoni recovered from infected liver and lungs were almost round, pear-shaped measuring 10-16 mm in length and 8.5-14 mm in width with ill-defined cephalic end between indistinct shoulders. The intestine was extensively branched. The yellowish tinged ova were oval with an operculum at one end and measured 0.112-0.160 (mean 0.13) mm in length and 0.054-0.096 (mean 0.07) mm in width. Infected liver showed haemorrhagic tracts, thickening of bile ductules, cirrhotic changes and pseudolobulations. In the lungs, the bronchial lumen contained desquamated cells admixed with fibrinohaemorrhagic exudate.

Wallace, C., Byron, T.H., Foerner, J.J., Weston, H., Kilpatrick, J., Jastremski, M.S. Clinical case report: the medical management and treatment of a 36 year old premiparturient Asian elephant cow with a dystocia and following a Caesarian section.  1994.
Ref Type: Unpublished Work
Abstract: The medical history and management of a 36 year old premiparturient Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) with a dystocia requiring a caesarian section are discussed.  The examination and complete medical evaluation to determine the health of the cow and viability and position of the calf are described.  The medical management of the post-operative complications and the changes in complete blood counts, differential, serum biochemistry values and urinalysis prior to the elephant's death are described.  Complications included peritonitis with systemic sepsis, renal failure, and hepatic failure.  Pertinent necropsy findings on the cow included severe diffuse subacute peritonitis, uterine transmural necrosis, diffuse renal tubular nephrosis, and hepatic centrolobular degeneration.

Anderson, W.I., Cummings, J.F., Steinberg, H., De-Lahunta, A., King, J.M., 1993. Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians. Journal of Comparative Pathology 109, 89-91.
Abstract: Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, Arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, Persian onager, Przewalski's wild horse, Malayan sun bear, Asian elephant, East African river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. It was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin sheaths. Occasionally, ballooned myelin sheaths contained thin strands of myelin and macrophages surrounding distorted axons. Additionally, a mild incidental lymphocytic polyneuritis was present in intradural nerve rootlets of the Malayan sun bear, and moderate lymphocytic spinal ganglionitis in the East African river hippopotamus.

Berry, H.H., 1993. Surveillance and control of anthrax and rabies in wild herbivores and carnivores in Namibia. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 12, 137-146.
Abstract: Anthrax has been studied intensively in Etosha National Park, Namibia since 1966; in addition, since 1975, mortality due to rabies and all other causes has been recorded, totaling 6190 deaths. Standard diagnostic procedures demonstrated that at least 811 deaths (13%) were due to anthrax and 115 deaths (2%) were caused by rabies. Of the total number of deaths due to anthrax, 97% occurred in zebra (Equus burchelli), elephant (Loxodonta africana), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) while 96% of rabies deaths occurred in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), jackal (Canis mesomelas), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and lion (Panthera leo). Anthrax deaths were highest in the rainy season for zebra, wildebeest and springbok, while elephant mortality peaked during dry seasons. No statistical relationship existed between seasonal rainfall and overall incidence of either anthrax or rabies. Control of anthrax is limited to prophylactic inoculation when rare or endangered species are threatened. Incineration of anthrax carcasses and chemical disinfection of drinking water are not feasible at Etosha. Rabies control consists of the destruction of rabid animals and incineration of their carcasses when possible.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B., 1993. Spontaneous aortic lesions in captive wild herbivores. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology 17 , 36-40.

Fischer, M.T., Houston, E.W., O'Sullivan, T., Read, B.W., Jackson, P., 1993. Selected weights for ungulates and the Asian elephant Elephas maximus at St. Louis Zoo. Int. Zoo Yb. 32, 169-173.

Johnsingh, A.J.T., Joshua, J., Ravi, C., Ashraf, N.V.K., Krishnamurthy, V., Khati, D.V.S., Chellam, R., 1993. Etorphine and acepromazine combination for immobilising wild Indian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 90, 45-49.

Kelly, P.J., Tagwira, M., Matthewman, L., Mason, P.R., Wright, E.P., 1993. Reactions of sera from laboratory, domestic and wild animals in Africa with protein A and A recombinant chimeric protein AG. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 16, 299-305.
Abstract: An ELISA was developed to determine the reactivity of peroxidase labelled Protein A and a recombinant Protein A + Protein G construct, to sera from a variety of laboratory, domestic and wild animals from Africa. There was variability in the binding capacity of sera from individuals of the same species, but 4 groups could be recognized. Sera from birds and crocodiles were at most weakly reactive with either Protein A or the chimeric construct. Sera from some domestic animals such as horse, goat and cat, and sera from some wild ungulates including buffalo, wildebeest, waterbuck and impala were reactive with Protein A, but reacted to a much greater degree with the chimeric construct. Sera from larger wild animals such as elephant, rhinoceros and giraffe were strongly reactive with the chimeric protein and moderately reactive with Protein A. Sera from primates and dog, pig, guinea pig and rabbit reacted strongly with both proteins. It was concluded that as chimeric proteins that combine the IgG binding capacities of Protein A and Protein G can be used to detect immunoglobulin from a wide variety of African wild animal species, they may be of great value in seroepidemiological investigations of these animal populations.

Kock, M.D., Martin, R.B., Kock, N., 1993. Chemical immobilization of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe, using etorphine (M99) mixed with hyaluronidase, and evaluation of biological data collected soon after immobilization. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 24, 1-10.
Abstract: Sixteen adult female free-ranging elephants were immobilized in July 1990, using a mean (±SE) dose per animal of 11.6 ± 0.3 mg of etorphine (M99) mixed with a standard dose of hyaluronidase (4500 IU), at the Sengwa Wildlife Research Area, Zimbabwe, to attach telemetry and infrasound detection collars. The 16 elephants were reimmobilized in December 1990, using higher doses of etorphine (standardized at 15 mg total dose) with hyaluronidase (4500 IU), to remove the collars. The higher doses of etorphine produced more rapid inductions. Biological data were collected on both occasions. Significant differences in selected measures indicative of stress, including lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase, were seen between immobilizations. Comparisons were made of selected health measures between samples collected in the early winter and late winter/early spring season. Significant differences were seen with total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, chloride, and alanine transaminase.

Petrini, K., Keyler, D.E., Ling, L., Borys, D. Immobilizing agents - developing an urgent response protocol for humans. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  133-140. 1993.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Rietkerk, F.E., Hiddingh, H., Van Dijk, S., 1993. Hand-rearing an Asian elephant Elephas maximus at the Noorder Zoo, Emmen. Iowa State University Veterinarian 32, 244-252.

Rubin, L.A., Hawker, G.A., 1993. Stress and the immune system: preliminary observations in rheumatoid arthritis using an in vivo marker of immune activity. Arthritis and Rheumatism 3, 204-207.

Sukumar, R., Santiapillai, C., 1993. Asian elephant in Sumatra Population and Habitat Viability Analysis. Gajah 11, 59-63.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B., 1992. Pathology of Fasciola jacksoni infestation in elephants. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology 16, 98-101.
Abstract: Fasciola jacksoni infection was discovered in 2 out of 3 elephants autopsied at Assam State Zoo, India, during 1985 to 1989. The parasites were attached to biliary epithelium. Microscopy demonstrated that the biliary epithelium was distorted by necrotic tissue which contained erythrocytes and ova of F. jacksoni. The epithelium was analyzed by X-ray microanalysis, which showed that the infected epithelium contained aluminum, silicon, calcium and iron, while non-infected, normal biliary epithelium contained only phosphorus and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the parasite possessed spines.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B., Rahman, H., Hussain, A., Baruah, M.C., 1992. Intussusception and gangrene in elephants. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 164-165.

Dathe, H.H., Kuckelkorn, B., Minnemann, D., 1992. Salivary cortisol assessment for stress detection in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): A pilot study. Zoo Biology 11, 285-289.
Abstract: Effects of introducing an unfamiliar female into an Asian elephant herd at Tierpark Berlin were monitored by means of salivary cortisol assessment.  Saliva samples were obtained from a second female for comparative purposes.  The period of familiarization was characterized by an enhanced cortisol level in both animals, with a maximum on the second day after joining.  Cortisol returned to normal on the following day. Manipulations of the keepers caused a transitory increase on two other days.   Possibilities for the use of this noninvasive method of stress monitoring in various management situations are indicated.

Hattingh, J., Petty, D., 1992. Comparative physiological responses to stressors in animals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Comparative-Physiology 101, 113-116.
Abstract: The species-specific experimental response to stressors (SSERTS) analysis was applied to a number of species under varied short and long term conditions. The measure provides quantitative data relating to the physiological responses of animals when exposed to stressors and results are presented comparing these for different methods of immobilization, euthanasia, etc. at intra- and inter-species level. It is suggested that the SSERTS measure is of greater value for measuring the responses of animals to stressors than is the measurement of the concentration of single blood variables.

Jacoby, F. Contribution to the epidemiology of cowpox virus in the Federal Republic of Germany. Untersuchungen zur Epidemiologie des Kuhpockenvirus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  1-140. 1992. Giessen, Germany, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universitat.
Ref Type: Thesis/Dissertation
Abstract: The indirect immunofluorescence test for antibodies to cowpox orthopoxvirus was positive in 218 of 303 wild rodents (Microtus agrestis, M. arvalis, Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Rattus norvegicus). Attempts to isolate the virus failed. 202 of 277 cats from 58 of 67 locations in Germany, also 61 of 106 cattle and 13 of 38 zoo or circus elephants were also positive.

Kharchenko, V.A., Marunchin, A.A., 1992. Helminths of mammals in the Kiev zoological park. Vestnik Zoologii 3, 61-63.
Abstract: Necropsy of 6 animals that died in the Kiev Zoo, Ukraine, revealed the presence of Trichuris trichiura and Subulura distans in Macaca nemestrina, Prosthenorchis elegans in Saimiri sciureus, Murschidia murchida and Hawkesius hawkesi in Elephas maximus and T. globulosa in Giraffa camelopardalis. No helminths were found in Equus hemionus and Felis lynx. The deaths of M. nemestrina and S. sciureus were attributed to the helminth infections. The results of the examination of faeces of other zoo animals for helminth ova are also presented.

Kock, M.D., 1992. Use of hyaluronidase and increased etorphine (M99) doses to improve induction times and reduce capture-related stress in the chemical immobilization of the free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 23, 181-188.

Mihok, S., Munyoki, E., Brett, R.A., Jonyo, J.F., Rottcher, D., Majiwa, P.A.O., Kang'-ethe, E.K., Kaburia, H.F.A., Zweygarth, E., 1992. Trypanosomiasis and the conservation of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 30, 103-115.
Abstract: Tsetse populations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary, Kenya, to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment (96.3% of the 3204 tsetse caught during the main drug season survey of 1990); G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipse averaged 3.6%, with 3 times as many Trypanosoma vivax (2.21%) as T. congolense (0.88%) infections (also found were T. brucei, in 0.03% and immature infections, in 0.46%). A similar infection rate was found in G. longipennis (1.58% T. vivax, 0.53% T. congolense, 1.05% immature). T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. None of the 7 G. brevipalpis dissected was infected. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the Savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovids and elephants. Rhino accounted for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), it was estimated that the wild host population was acquiring 7 infections per km/day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.

Phillips, P.K., Heath, J.E., 1992. Heat exchange by the pinnae of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology [A] 101, 693-699.
Abstract: 1. Surface temperatures of the pinnae of four female African elephants were measured at ambient temperatures between 14 and 32 degrees C using infrared thermography. Instantaneous heat losses calculated using those values ranged from 10.67 to 76.2 W under the observed conditions. 2. Using a value of 17 kcal/kg/day, those heat losses account for 0.65-4.64% of the animals' standard metabolic rates, considering one side of one ear only. 3. A model of heat flow across a flat vertical plate was constructed and compared to the actual values. Up to 100% of an African elephant's heat loss needs can be met by movement of its pinnae and by vasodilation. 4. Thermography indicates that the temperature distribution pattern across the pinna changes with ambient temperature and that areas of specialized motor control exist

Sreekumar, K.P., Nirmalan, G., 1992. Relationship between total body surface area and body weight. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 63-64.

Vijayan, N., Gangadharan, B., Rajan, A., 1992. An autopsy study on certain diseases of captive elephants. Indian Journal of Wildlife Health Management 1, 16-22.

Wemmer, C., Krishnamurthy, V., 1992. Methods for taking standard measurements of live domestic elephants. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 34-37.

Wood, D.T., 1992. Oesophageal choke in an African elephant. Veterinary Record 131, 536-537.
Abstract: A young African elephant suffered a fatal obstruction of the caudal oesophagus caused by an ingested apple. This report describes the attempts made to relieve the obstruction and the subsequent post mortem findings.

Yathiraj, S., Choudhuri, P.C., Rao, D.S.T., Reddy, P.K., 1992. Clinico-haematological observations on Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). Indian Veterinary Journal 69, 995-997.
Abstract: In 3 apparently healthy elephants (a male aged 40, and 2 females aged 20 and 60) the mean values for heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature, respectively, were 34.66±1.08/min, 7.88±0.09/min and 35.25±0.07°C in the mornings, and 36.22±1.07/min, 8.33±0.15/min and 35.75±0.06°C in the afternoons. Haemoglobin values averaged 11.65±0.49 g%, and PCV 33.25±0.46%. Various erythrocyte and leukocyte counts and indices are presented.

Basson, M., Beddington, J.R., May, R.M., 1991. An assessment of the maximum sustainable yield of ivory from African elephant populations. Math Biosci 104, 73-95.
Abstract: A general, logistic population model is used to explore the dynamics of harvested elephant populations. The model includes two features peculiar to elephant populations and the harvesting of ivory. First, because of the shape of the growth curve of tusks with age, the conversion factor that relates the number of elephants killed to the ivory yield in weight is not constant, but a function of the population size. Second, tusks from animals that die from natural causes can be retrieved and included in the total yield of ivory. The implications of the relationship between tusk size and age of an animal on the maximum sustainable yield in terms of ivory tonnage and in terms of the number of tusks are explored. The nonequilibrium implications of the tusk growth curve on the population dynamics under different harvesting strategies are also investigated. Results indicate that the maximum sustainable yield is achieved at very low harvest rates with population levels close to the pristine equilibrium. When tusks from animals that die of natural causes are included in the harvest, the maximum yield may, depending on the mortality and recruitment parameters,
occur when there is no direct harvest.

Brown, J.L., Citino, S.B., Bush, M., Lehnhardt, J., Phillips, L.G., 1991. Cyclic patterns of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin and progesterone secretion in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22, 49-57.
Abstract: Serum samples were collected one to three times weekly from four unanesthetized Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) for 6-18 consecutive months.  Based on circulating progesterone profiles, 14 complete ovarian cycles were observed.  The estrous cycle averaged 13.2 + 0.7 wk in length, with an active luteal phase of 9.8 + 0.7 wk.  Increases in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) were observed immediately before or during the progesterone rise in 11 of 14 cycles.  In eight cycles, a second LH surge was detected 11-19 days later. Radioimmunoassays for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin were validated for elephant serum.  Fluctuations in FSH and inhibin secretion were observed at 12-14 wk intervals, although their temporal profiles differed from each other and from that of progesterone.  Follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were lowest during the late follicular and early luteal phases and then increased to peak levels during the later part of the luteal phase.  In contrast, serum inhibin concentrations were inversely related to FSH levels throughout the estrous cycle (r = -0.78, P < 0.01).  In summary, progesterone analyses confirm that the luteal phase in the Asian elephant is approximately 10 weeks long.  Furthermore, the 12-14-wk oscillations in serum FSH and inhibin secretion provide additional evidence that the ovarian cycle of this species is several months in duration.  The inverse relationship between serum FSH and inhibin suggests that inhibit may regulate FSH secretion, as is described for other species.  Elevated FSH secretion throughout the mid-and late luteal phase may stimulate waves of follicular growth that are responsible for the short "follicular cycles" described in earlier reports.

Hoque, M.M., Das, A.K., Wahab, M.a., Rahman, M.L., 1991. Note on the management of traumatic injuries in an elephant. Bangladesh Veterinarian 8, 82-83.

Jarjour, W.N., Jeffries, B.D., Davis, J.S., Welch, W.J., Mimura, T., Winfield, J.B., 1991. Autoantibodies to human stress proteins. Arthritis and Rheumatism 34, 1133-1138.
Abstract: Unselected sera from patients with various rheumatic, inflammatory bowel, and autoimmune skin diseases (n=268) were examined against human cell lysate by immunoblotting procedures, to determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to stress proteins (heat-shock proteins) hsp60 (homolog of Escherichia coli groEL and Mycobacterial 65K antigens), hsp73, and hsp90.  Using standard, sensitive and specific assay conditions, IgG and IgM autoantibodies to these stress proteins were not demonstrable, or were detected infrequently, in sera from control subjects (n=36) and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, systemic lupis erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis.  Autoantibodies to hsp60 were relatively more common (>= 20% of sera) in patients with mixed connective tissue disease, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, epidermolysis bullosa acquista, and bullous pemphigoid.  Anti-hsp73 autoantibodies were detected in 20% or more of the sera from patients were Lyme disease and ulcerative colitis.  Taken together, these data extend the spectrum of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in which humoral anti-stress protein reactivity develops.  However, the paucity of humoral autoreactivity to stress proteins in patients with systemic lupis erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis argues against a direct role of anti-stress protein autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of these disorders.

John, M.C., Nedunchelliyan, S., Raghvan, N., 1991. Tuberculin testing in Indian elephants. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 11, 48-49.

Khadri, S.M., Nanjappa, K.A. Experiences of the forest veterinarians in capture and translocation of wild elephants. International Seminar on Veterinary Medicine in Wild & Captive Animals, Bangalore, India, November 8 to 10, 1991.  1991.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The rich coffee growing belt of Kodagu District faced serious menace due to intrusion of wild elephants to the plantations causing crop and property damage along with loss of human life die to trampling. To effectively solve the problem faced by the plantation management, efficient technique of chemical capture was adopted to capture and translocate the wild elephants. In all, 28 wild elephants were captured and translocated to a safer larger forest habitat. The chemical capture operations thus conducted proved to be safe, swift and efficient technique to rehabilitate wild elephants.

Kuruwita, V.Y. Successful capture and translocation of ten adult crop-raiding elephants from a sugar cane plantation in Sri Lanka. International Seminar on Veterinary Medicine in Wild & Captive Animals, Bangalore, India, November 8 to 10, 1991.  14. 1991.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Full:  Pelawatte Sugar Industries is located in the dry zone. The annual rainfall varies between 1000mm and 1350mm, with a mean annual temperature about 30`C. Until 1982 this area was a defuse secondary forest interspersed with grass land and thorny scrub. Elephants were present in this area previously but at a very low density until 1984 when sugar cane became the main cash crop of farmers living in this area. The problem aggregated this year with the elephant population increasing due to migratory herds. There were 3 to 4 human deaths per month while damages to houses were at much higher rate. It was decided to identify, capture and translocate 10 animals from the area as the first phase of this operation. This paper describes the methods used in capturing, securing and translocation of these animals to a sanctuary 70Km away.

Morton, D.J., Kock, M.D., 1991. Stability of hyaluronidase in solution with etorphine and xylazine. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22, 345-347.
Abstract: During capture of free-living wildlife, stress is potentially the greatest problem encountered. For this reason, reduction in induction time during immobilization is of paramount importance. Hyaluronidase reduces induction times, although no reports have assessed stability of the enzyme in drug mixtures used for chemical capture. This report presents information on the stability of hyaluronidase in combination with etorphine and xylazine,one of the most common drug mixtures used in chemical immobilization of wildlife. Hyaluronidase activity remains high for at least 48 hr, provided storage temperatures can be maintained at less than or equal to 30º C. Storage at greater than or equal to 40ºC is associated with rapid loss of enzyme activity in the mixture.

Nanjappa, K.A., 1991. Anaesthesia and treatment of a wounded wild Makana elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Veterinary Journal 68, 360.

 1990. The story of Babe, the Asian elephant. Veterinary Viewpoints 2.

Cole, G., Neal, J.W., 1990. The brain in aged elephants. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 49, 190-192.

Kiley-Worthington, M. Are elephants in zoos and circuses distressed? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26[3], 299. 1990.
Ref Type: Abstract

Kishchenko, G.P., 1990. A possible molecular mechanism for mammalian aging. Biofizika 35, 821-826.
Abstract: The following model of aging is proposed: 1) defective proteins with anomalous primary structures are synthesized sometimes; 2) these defective proteins are precipitated in cells and intercellular spaces; 3) the precipitated proteins block them up under the influence of radicals; 4) a decrease of cell functional ability below some level results in the destruction of the organism regulation function. A formula is concluded connecting the life span (Tlife) with DNA-repair velocity (Vrep) and time of protein exchange (Tex): Tlife = (1/3).K.(Vper/Vdum).(Tfix + Tex), where K-admitted share of fixated proteins (fixated/native), Vdam-damage velocity, Tfix-fixation time of defective proteins. This analytical dependence was probed on literature data for man, elephant, cow, rabbit, guinea pig, golden hamster, rat, mouse and shrew. Tfix is shown to equal 5 divided by 10 days. A good agreement between the theoretical dependence Tlife(Tex) and literature data was obtained with the exception of the data for man.

Metzler, A.E., Ossent, P., Guscetti, F., Rubel, A., Lang, E.M., 1990. Serological evidence of herpesvirus infection in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26, 41-49.
Abstract: In mid 1988 a 3-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) from a circus in Switzerland died following generalized manifestation of a herpesvirus infection. In an effort to determine prevalence of infection with the herpesvirus, and due to lack of a corresponding virus isolate, it was decided to evaluate contact animals and elephants from a second herd for antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine herpesvirus 2 (BHV2). Of 15 sera tested four displayed low neutralizing antibody titers to BHV2. None of the sera neutralized BHV1. However, as evidenced by protein A-mediated immunoprecipitation of metabolically radio- labeled virus-infected and mock-infected cell antigens, followed by separation of precipitation products in SDS-polyacrylamide gels, the 15 sera precipitated multiple antigens from both viruses. Similar results were obtained when using BHV4 antigens. The extent of reaction was most distinct with respect to BHV2 antigens, less prominent with BHV1 antigens, and least with BHV4 antigens. The respective protein patterns, although less marked, matched well with those obtained with bovine reference sera. Additional evaluation of sera from six elephants from two zoos in the Federal Republic of Germany gave essentially identical results. It was concluded that at least one herpesvirus, immunologically related to BHV2, may be widely distributed among captive Asian elephants, and that this virus apparently does not cause overt disease in the majority of animals

Oosterhuis, J.E., 1990. The performance of a caesarian section on an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 157-158.

Ossent, P., Guscetti, F., Metzler, A.E., Lang, E.M., Rubel, A., Hauser, B., 1990. Acute and fatal herpesvirus infection in a young Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Vet. Pathol. 27, 131-133.
Abstract: Infections with herpesvirus may cause papillomatous lesions in the Asian and African elephant.  In both species, the virus has been reported to localize only in the skin.  Disseminated nodules of epithelial cells were found in the lungs of a high percentage of wild African elephants.  In these cases, the proliferated cells contained intranuclear inclusion bodies in which herpesvirus particles were observed by electron microscopy.  The virus in those cases caused no illness.  This report documents the necropsy findings of a juvenile Asian elephant dying peracutely from massive generalized hemorrhage due to lesisons in the endothelial cells of the capillaries.  The cell nuclei frequently contained inclusion bodies in which herpesvirus particles were demonstrated.  This has not been described in elephants before.

Pade, K., Ruedi, D., Pilaski, J., Heldstab, A., Muller, M. Lethal outbreak of pox among five Asian elephants of a German travelling circus. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 32. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere vom 23. Mai bis 27. Mai 1990 in Eskilstuna. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 32. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere vom 23. Mai bis 27. Mai 1990 in Eskilstuna , 147-155. 1990. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Sabin, J.E., 1990. Joseph Hersey Pratt's cost-effective class method and its contemporary application. Psychiatry 53, 169-184.

Sreekumar, K.P., Nirmalan, G., 1990. Estimation of the total surface area in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus). Vet. Res. Commun. 14, 5-17.
Abstract: Twenty-four adult Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) of both sexes and different ages and weights, belonging to the Temple Devaswoms, the Forest Department of the Government of Kerala and the Gemini Circus formed the experimental subjects from which formulae were derived to predict the total surface area from either body measurements or areas of individual regions. Several models, using the parameters studied either singly or in combination, were tried independently for males and females and also for adults irrespective of sex. The best prediction of total surface area (S) in m2 was obtained for adults irrespective of sex by using the two parameters, the height at the shoulders (H) in m and forefoot pad circumference (FFC) in m in the formula S = -8.245 + 6.807H + 7.073FFC. No significant improvement in the accuracy of prediction resulted from the use of the independent best fit formulae for males and females. The conventional method of using the exponential of body weight (kg) for predicting surface area was not found to yield an equivalent accuracy in these animals

Williams, T.M., 1990. Heat transfer in elephants: thermal partitioning based on skin temperature profiles. Journal of Zoology (Lond) 222, 235-245.
Abstract: The elephant with its low surface-to-volume ratio presents an interesting problem concerning heat dissipation.  To understand how such large mammals remain in thermal balance, we determined the major avenues of heat loss for an adult African elephant and an immature Indian elephant.  Because conventional physiological measurements are difficult for these animals, the present study used a non-invasive technique, infrared thermography, to measure skin temperatures of each elephant. Detailed surface temperature profiles and surface area measurements of each elephant were used in standard equations for convective, conductive and radiant heat transfer.  Results demonstrated that heat transfer by free convection and radiation accounted for 86% of the total heat loss for the elephants at Ta = 12.6 degrees C.  Heat transfer across the ears, an important thermal window at high ambient temperatures, represented less than 8% of the total heat loss.  Surface area of the animals, and metabolic heat production calculated from total heat loss  of the African elephant, scaled predictably with body mass.  In contrast, the thermal conductance of the elephants (71.6 W/degree C, African; 84.5 W/degree C, Indian) was three to five times higher than predicted from an allometric relationship for smaller mammals.  The high thermal conductance of elephants is attributed to the absence of fur and appears to counteract reduced heat transfer associated with a low surface-to-volume ratio.

Caffee, H.H., 1989. Reconstruction of the distal trunk of an African elephant. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 83, 1049-1051.
Abstract: A 5-year-old African elephant was treated for an amputation injury of the distal trunk.  It was determined that replantation was impractical and, therefore, an operation was designed and performed with the intention of recreating the prehensile tip.

Carter, S. Occupational stress and elephant management. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 10.  33-37. 1989.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Chabaud, A.G., Cuisance, D., Colas, F., 1989. Leiperenia moreli n. sp. (Nematoda: Atractidae), a parasite of the African elephant. Systematic Parasitology 14, 135-140.
Abstract: Leiperenia moreli sp. nov. from 12 Loxodonta africana from Gona-Re-Zhou National Park, Zimbabwe, differs from Leiperenia leiperi in its measurements (smaller body length and longer male genitalia). These 2 species differ from L. galebi parasitizing elephants in India, by a much larger female tail. The genus exhibits many original characteristics: labial and cephalic papillae at the end of a peduncle, an oesophagus with a subspherical anterior region and a club-shaped posterior region, a dorsal tooth in the pharyngeal part of the oesophagus, a longitudinal slit-like excretory pore, a monodelphic female laying larvae by the "matricide endotokie" process, and a male with several hypertrophied pyriform cloacal papillae. The most closely related genus appears to be Grassenema, a parasite of Procavia, but the differences between the 2 genera are very distinct. Genera belonging to the family Atractidae may have had ancestors with a normal parasitic life (without an endogenic cycle) which may have belonged to the Cosmocercidae at one time, and the Kathlaniidae at another. The family is thought to be paraphyletic.

Fong, T. Alling elephant is put to sleep at Denver Zoo. The Rocky Mountain News Feb. 12. 1989.
Ref Type: Newspaper
Abstract: Full text: Vicky the elephant is dead.  The Denver Zoo's only African elephant was given a lethal injection yesterday, 24 hours after she suddenly sat down, let out a cry, rolled onto her left side and never got up again.  "She made several feeble attempts to move," said Richard Cambre, the zoo's veterinarian.  "We made her peaceful and comfortable but she did not get up." Vicky collapsed once before, on Jan. 17, but with the help of Mimi, a 32-year-old Asian elephant, she got on her feet again. At the time, veterinarians thought Vicky had suffered a bad reaction to a tranquilizer and was suffering a liver ailment. However, Cambre said that subsequent blood test showed that she had a severe vitamin E deficiency that contributed to muscle degeneration in her hind legs and she was given a new alcohol form of the vitamin as a supplement with her grain.  After she collapsed yesterday, more blood tests showed that Vicky had no vitamin E, despite the supplement.  Although zoo officials decided to let her have the night to try to get up again, they reluctantly decided to put her to sleep.  In the meantime, Vicky's death may do some good.  Her skeleton has been donated to the Denver Museum of Natural History.  The skeleton won't be put on display but will be used for muscle and bone research and classes on comparative anatomy of animals.  The zoo also would have it for classes.  Vicky's organs will be sent to research labs and zoos around the country that have need of them.  Tissue samples from her body will also remain with the Denver Zoo for analysis and research on the strange vitamin E deficiency that has already killed three other elephants in Canada and the U.S. in the past year.

Hammond, R. Elephant attack -- My case study. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 10.  38-40. 1989.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hegel, G.V., Hanichen, T., Mahnel, H., Wiesner, H., 1989. Warts (papilloma/sarcoid) in elephant. Erkrankungen der Zootiere 31, 201-205.
Abstract: Warts ( Papilloma, Sarcoid) in  Elephants  ( Hegel,G.)1989; translated from German by Gerda Martin. Papilloma virus - from the group Papova virus - is considered  an etiological agents of wart- like skin changes in cattle, sheep, mountain goat, and rabbit. (ROSENBERGER,1970; ROLLE and MAYR, 1984). Equine sarcoid (PALMER. 1985) found in horses is most likely caused by bovine papilloma virus. The alternate name is based on clinical and morphological differences in the actual papilloma. In the initial stage, the sarcoid is similar to that of the papilloma; however in later stages, tumorous decay on the surface of the epidermis, and proliferation of the mesenchymal part of the tumor in the subcutis dominate (DIET and WIESNER, 1982). Wart- like changes in the skin of elephants as described by PILASKI et al (1987, 1988), proved to be caused by Herpes virus.  Such skin changes in elephants are not rare and require treatment since size and volume of the excrescences  may cause functional disturbances in the patient. Even if the animal's  general   well being  is not impaired, the importance of esthetics and hygiene should not be disregarded in a place where there are spectators and visitors (zoo, circus). The following paper reports findings of wart- like skin changes in elephants. Observations and Therapy In the elephants  kept in the Hellabrunn  Zoo, no case of papilloma or similar skin tumors had occurred since 1972. First case: In 5-28 - 1987, a ca. 18 month old female L.a. named " Sabi" arrived In Hellabrunn. This animal had a wart- like thickening of 1 cm at the dorsal end of the trunk. After 8 weeks, more of those such skin changes appeared on trunk and lower lip without  impairment in general well being. Treatment consisted of  one daily, subcutaneous injection of 1 amp. Chelidonium D7 (DHU Chelidonium majus L.), and application of fresh ??Schoellkraut  juice dabbed onto the warts but was unsuccessful.  After a change of treatment was made: 10 drops of Thuja D4 (DHU Thuja occidentalis L) and 20 drops Acidum nitricum D12 (DHU Acidum nitricum), orally, once a day, at separate times of the day, there remained, after 2 weeks, a wart on the lower lip the size of a cherry pit, and the before mentioned  wart on the dorsal end of  the trunk had now grown to the size of a cherry. Even the strength of Thuja LM 6 (DHU Thuja occidentalis L.)  20 drops, oral, the growth of the wart on the dorsal end of the trunk, now with a diameter of 5 cm, could not be stopped: Exstirpation had to be performed. Frequent  sucking had promoted strong ulceration.  A secondary infection  had set in,  the surface showed granular  tissue exuding blood and pus.

On 10 -  6 -  1987 the growth was exstirpated and tissue was sent for virolog. and histolog. examination. In addition, tissue was removed from a fresh small wart for vaccine. During the operation the animal was immobilized (anesthetic: 0.3 ml Immobilon* (large animal Immobilon Rc* - Vet. Ltd.),  10mg Xylacin, 150 IE Hyaluronidase i. m.). There were no complications during recovery. Two  weeks post op., the first vaccination was given, followed by a second vacc. four weeks there after, of 5.0 ml, subcut.., of an auto vaccine developed by the Institute for Medical Microbiology, Dept. of Infectious and Epidemic Medicine. In February 1988, there occurred another bout with wart- like growth on the ventral part of the trunk, lower jaw, shoulders and feet, some with a diameter of 15 mm.  From the sedated young animal tissue was taken from several newly grown warts for the manufacture of auto vaccine (sedation: "Hellabrunner Mischung" / 150 IE Hyaluronidase). After 10 days, the first vaccination was given, and by the time of the second vacc." Sabi" was free of externally visible skin changes.

On 6. 6. 1988, "Sabi" fell ill again. Over night she was covered with 48 warts,  with  diameters from 2mm - 15 mm on trunk and head, and 10 more on the chest.The attempt to "ice"  the warts with liquid nitrogen was not successful. Instead, coagulation of ca. 20 of the larger warts was used. The monopolar coagulation electrode of the Erbotom F 2 (Erbe Elektromedizin) coagulates reaching deeply  into the healthy zone of the surrounding tissue. As before, tissue for the manufacture of the auto vaccine was taken, as well as  0.5 ml of blood from the ear vein for the manufacture of a "own- blood"  nosode. (Large animal, premedication: 20 mg Xylazin i.m., 20 minutes later : 0.5 ml Immobilon R (large animal Immobilon R c - Vet Ltd.) and 150 IE Hyaluronidase i.m. The following day, "Sabi" was given the "own- blood" nosode at a strength of C5 (20 drops daily).In addition, she was vacc. once again. Since "Sabi" was free of warts at the time of the second vaccination -   given 4 weeks after the first - the "own- blood" treatment was discontinued. Shortly there after, however, several new warts cropped up (diameter ca. 1 cm), so that the "own- blood"  treatments were continued. Since that time "Sabi" has had no recurrences.Second case : The Indian elephant cow (E. maximus) , named "Dirndl" , age ca. 22 years, had been kept in the box next to "Sabi" since "Sabi's" arrival. They kept trunk contact. On 5-2-1988, "Dirndl" showed on the distal trunk a substantially increased raised area ca. 2 x 2 cm oozing blood. It seemed to be an injury from a metal rope used in off limiting. The wound was disinfected and treated twice a day with chloromycetin spray with Gentian violetR (Parke Davis).  After  one week  the growth had increased substantially  and on the surface,  it had a cauliflower-like ulcerated  appearance.Upon light touch or movement of the dorsal  trunk, blood appeard spontaneously.   Four days later, the growth was exstirpated, while the animal was standing. (Sedation: 2.2 ml Hellabrunn mixture / 150 Hyaluronidase i. m.) . The attempt to close the skin of the trunk over the wound failed because the tension in that area was too great.  The surface of the wound was cauterized and treated with ChloromycetinSpray with Gentian violet R (Parke Davis). Tissue for pathological and histological examination was sent out.  One week after the operation,  the area of the wound was  highly swollem and the wound was infected. Treatment: Several times a day, an  ablution with a 0.1 % Rivanol solutionnR (Asid - 2 Aethoxy-6.9-diamin  acridinlactat)  and application of Sulfonamid-Codliver oil salve (WDT = Sulfadimidin- Sodium- cod liver oil).  In addition, analogous to "Sabi" , once daily 20 drops of "own-blood" nosode,  potency C 5  given orally. Three weeks post. op., there could be clearly distinguished a limited relapse, an area of  6 x 9 cm rising  ca. 2 cm  above the healthy skin of the trunk. The surface looked like the first growth.  It was extirpated under general anesthetic  (Premed.:80 mg Xylazin i. m., 20 min. later: 1.8 ml ImmobilionR and 150 IE Hyaluronidase). In addition, the whole wound was coagulated  by monopolar coagulation electrode as above. Daily for 4 weeks, the wound  was brushed with a 1:5 wood tar -alcohol - solution.There were no complications during recovery. After 5 weeks , all that could be seen was a ca. 1.5 cm long small scar on the skin of the trunk.

Histomorphological Findings:  Fixation with formalin, embedding in paraffin; stain: Hemalaun-Eosin, connective tissue stain  in the manner of Masson. The histomorphological  findings based on the tissue samples of "Sabi" and "Dirndl"  are the  same, and agree  with the findings of 3 other skin tumor tissue taken from elephants of different origin (tab. 1). The tumors  consist mainly of fibroplastic cells  with more or less  abundant collagen fibers and blood vessels. The boundaries from the adjacent corium and lower skin is largely indistinct.  In all larger neoplasties , the covering epidermis has been preserved  at margins only due to superficial ulceration.  Here the P. acuta aseptica diffusa borders  are irregular and strongly profiled, the epithelium is acanthoid and hyperkeratotic. The nuclei of tumor cells  are considerably anisomorphic, some have gigantic nuclei. Mitosis is frequent. Due to the ulcerated epidermis , there is deep infiltration with infectious cells. Virological findings: From the extirpated tissue taken from the African Elephant "Sabi" ca. 3 g was homogenated, in addition, the cells were "opened" by defrosting and ultrasound, and the "cleared" tissue suspension was analyzed  for free virus particles after concentration and negative-contrasting with  electron microscopy .  At the same time, small tissue samples of 2 mm  from deeper epidermis layers  were fixed as usual for the ultrahistological exam , embedded in epoxy  resin, and ultra thin slices were scanned by the electron microscope. No papilloma virus was found  in the concentrated, cell free tissue extract or  the ultrathin slices of tissue samples .No virus particle of  any kind was found.

To  show papilloma by culturing cannot be done since  no species of this genus can  be propagated  in cell cultures  with the exception of its original host. The failed  attempt to prove their presence with the electronmicroscope does not exclude a papilloma virus etiology in tumors. When virus particles are viewed in higher concentrations, the electron microscopic  proof is successful. Using ultrahistologyical methods the particles in cell nuclei can only be found when the few cells  of specific skin cells  are in the virus propagation stage. In the case of virally induced papilloma however, a true virus propagation is not necessary. In the last few years, it was found that equine sarcoid  can be caused  by bovine papilloma virus. But it was only the genome of the virus which could be isolated by means of gene technology (ALTMANN, 1980; HAUSEN, 1980); the virus itself could not.  The oncogenetic potency of the virus in heterologic hosts , without true virus production, has been established.  A broader spectrum of hosts  for , at least , the papilloma virus in cattle seems to be the case.  And a bovine papilloma induced skin fibromatose in  (a) horse has been reported (LANCASTER, 1979). This virus can also appear in wild 'cud chewers, perhaps even carnivores. It is in part also related to the human papilloma virus. The possibility of transfer to humans (LANCASTER 1982) as well as other mammals such as elephants  has not been proved but is probable. In comparing the histological findings of the 5 skin growths with those of the viral fibropapilloma in cattle and horse (called equine sarcoid here), the relative immaturity of the tumorous tissue is evident. It compares to the so- called sarcoid in horses. The sarcoid-like structure and the indistinct  separation from healthy tissue  speaks for a virus etiology and  morphologically a relapse can be expected. This occurred in both of the clinically described cases.

A differential diagnosis excludes a Herpes virus infection, as described by PILASKI et al. (1987, 1988) in elephants on the basis of different histological findings. Inclusions could not be found in any of the cases. The warts on the elephants were clinically similar to the well known sarcoids in horses (DIETZ and WIESNER, 1982). The two sick animals were in "trunk contact" occupying adjacent boxes. Almost one year after the arrival of  "Sabi" who had warts, "Dirndl" fell sick. That points to the infectious nature of warts. The relapse after the first operation on "Dirndl" suggests that the extirpation of the growths was not complete. This may be related to the fact that the animal was standing  and only sedated. In contrast , the extirpation of the "relapse" was carried out on a fully immobilized animal and with the use of the Erbotom F 2  for coagulation including the adjacent tissue.  We know of various 'wart therapies' in human medicine with differing success. The various treatments employed in the one and one half years of "Sabi's" illness can be labled neither successful, nor unsuccessful. The use of auto vaccine which is analogous  to a "stable specific " vaccine in the treatment of papilloma in cattle, could  perhaps have triggered the recurrence of warts at the  conclusion of the vaccination treatments. That would favor the etiology of a virus 'picture.' The influence of the 'burn' or extirpation of a single or more growths which returned, in the surrounding growths cannot be determined. It remains inconclusive if the use of the "own- blood" nosode C 5 aided the successful therapy , since the necessity  to fight a recurrence had not yet occurred.

Kuntze, A., 1989. Dermatopathies in elephants and their treatment. Kleintierpraxis 34, 405-415.

Langman, V.A., Maloiy, G.M.O., 1989. Passive obligatory heterothermy of the giraffe. J. Physiol. Lond. 415, 89.

Muller, M., Rytz, U. Dermatomycosis in two African elephants. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.  207-209. 1989. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Cases of dermatomycosis are reported in 2 adult African elephants in the Zoological Garden in Basle. Trichothecium, Scopulariopsis and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from skin biopsies.

Nair, P.V., 1989. Development of nonsocial behaviour in the Asiatic elephant. Ethology 82, 46-60.
Abstract: The elephant calf, a defended follower is completely dependent on adults till the age of 3 months.  It begins to explore and attempts to feed at 3 to 6  months, and then becomes partially independent with some feeding on its own.  The characteristics of behavior in adults are examined and the development of this pattern in the calf is traced by analysis of duration, transition and clustering of the behavioral elements. Essential activities like suckling, locomotion, and lying down for rest appear soon after birth whereas elements of feeding, grooming, and play appear only at a later stage.  The calf takes the initiative in suckling and its termination, drinking directly by mouth til the age of 6 months.  The first element of feeding appears at about one week in attempts to pick up and hold objects in the trunk.  Co-ordination of limb, trunk, and mouth movement is achieved by about 1 month.  The calf is strong enough to pull out plants by 6 months when independent feeding begins.  In about a year feeding, drinking and dusting patterns are well developed.

Ramsay, E.C., Leach, M.W. Postmortem reproductive findings in a female Asian elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet.  55. 1989.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Sreekumar, K.P., Nirmalan, G., 1989. Estimation of body weight in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus). Vet. Res. Commun. 13, 3-9.
Abstract: Thirty-nine adult Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) of both sexes and various ages and weights, belonging to the Forest Department of the Government of Kerala (India), Temple Devaswoms, Gemini Circus and other private agencies, were used to derive formulae to predict body weight and height from body measurements. Several models were fitted separately for males and females and also for adults irrespective of sex. The best prediction of body weight (W) in kg was obtained for adults irrespective of sex by using two parameters, the body length (L) in cm from the base of the forehead to the base of the tail, and the chest girth (G) in the formula W = -1010 + 0.036 (L x G). No single parameter gave as accurate a prediction of the body weight, and the inclusion of height as a third parameter did not improve the prediction. No significant improvement in the accuracy of prediction resulted from the use of different formulae for males and females. An equation to predict the height at the shoulders (H) in cm from the right forefoot circumference (C) in cm in adult elephants irrespective of sex was also derived. This was H = -1.60 + 1.99 C

Sukumar, R., 1989. Manslaughter by elephants. The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 135-140.

Sukumar, R., 1989. The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sukumar, R., 1989. Population dynamics. The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 174-201.

Sukumar, R., 1989. Elephant slaughter by people. The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 165-173.

Turnbull, P.C.B., Carman, J.A., Lindeque, P.M., Joubert, F., Hubschle, O.J.B., Snoeyenbos, G.H., 1989. Further progress in understanding anthrax in the Etosha National Park. [Namibia] Madoqua. 16, 93-104.
Abstract: Of 81 samples of water from pools, mud and soil collected from sites not connected with anthrax only one water sample contained Bacillus anthracis. The organism was isolated from 5 of 11 soil samples collected from sites where carcasses of animals known to have or suspected of having anthrax had lain. B. anthracis was also isolated from faeces of vultures and jackals, but not from 6 randomly collected bone samples. Six of 7 wildebeest, zebras and springbok found dying in the park were positive for anthrax. All of 7 lions tested had positive titres for anthrax, but 3 elephants, 2 zebra and 2 of 3 rhinos were negative (the other was thought to have been previously vaccinated). In laboratory tests vegetative forms of B. anthracis inoculated into water samples declined rapidly in number and the spores showed no sign of germination. It is suggested that water holes are not sites of germination and multiplication of B. anthracis.

Wells, S.K., Gutter, A.E., Soike, K.F., Baskin, G.B., 1989. Encephalomyocarditis virus: Epizootic in a zoological collection. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20, 291-296.
Abstract: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) was isolated from eight nonhuman primates, one Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsoni), and one dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) that died peracutely between January 1985 and October 1987 at Audubon Park Zoo, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Gross pathology consisted of excessive pericardial fluid, epicardial hemorrhages, and pale foci within the myocardium.  Microscopic changes included myofiber necrosis, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration within the myocardium.      Anti-EMCV antibody was found in a variety of species including a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), which subsequently died of a necrotizing myocarditis but from which virus was not isolated.  Although one hospital staff member had a high anti-EMCV antibody titer, all primate keepers were seronegative.      Encephalomyocarditis virus was recovered from 38 wild rodents, one opposum (Didelphis virginiana), and one rabbit (Sylvilagus sp.) collected on the zoo grounds.  Fifty-five percent of the positive samples were found in areas where confirmed deaths had occurred or antibody-positive animals were housed.  A killed vaccine was developed and administered to six domestic cats, 12 primates, and one camel.  Antibody response to vaccination was variable.

Armstrong, R.A., Neill, P., Mossop, R.T., 1988. Asthma induced by ivory dust: a new occupational cause. Thorax 43, 737-738.
Abstract: A case of asthma is reported that was due to ivory from the tusk of the elephant, a cause of occupational asthma unique to Africa.

Chooi, K.F., Zahari, Z.Z., 1988. Salmonellosis in a captive Asian elephant. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 19, 48-50.
Abstract: Salmonella blockley was isolated from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with intestinal lesions in Malaysia.  A second elephant that died with similar lesions also was suspected to have Salmonella sp.  This is the first case of salmonellosis in an Asian elephant from Malaysia.

Gaskin, J.M. Encephalomyocarditis: A potentially fatal virus infection of elephants. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 9.  133-136. 1988.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Landres, L. Death among captive elephants: Behavioral observations and management considerations. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 9.  81-89. 1988.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Roth, V.L., Shoshani, J., 1988. Dental identification and age determination in Elephas maximus. Journal of Zoology (Lond) 214, 567-588.
Abstract: The dentition of an elephant (fossil or extant) can yield clues to the animal's age and identity, provided the teeth are correctly identified.  Identifying the serial category of elephant teeth is difficult, because the size, shape and position of each tooth changes throughout life, as the teeth form, erupt, wear and move through the jaw.  In the present study, teeth from over 100 museum specimens of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) were the basis for establishing size ranges for cheek teeth in six serial categories (designated by Roman numerals I to VI).  Although the teeth vary greatly and overlap in their dimensions, reliable identifications (as well as estimates of an individual's age in years) can be obtained using three or more measurements.  An appreciation for the dental variability in Elephas maximus will demand a re-evaluation of frequently-cited examples of microevolutionary patterns within the Elephantidae.

Snow, W.F., Tarimo, S.A., Staak, C., Butler, L., 1988. The feeding habits of the tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen on the south Kenya coast, in the context of its host range and trypanosome infection rates in other parts of East Africa. Acta Tropica 45, 339-349.
Abstract: The results of blood-meal identifications for 651 Glossina pallidipes from 5 subpopulations near the Kenya coast south of Mombasa, and one, 70 km inland, are presented. Bushpigs [Potamochoerus porcus] and/or warthogs [Phacochoerus aethiopicus] were important hosts for G. pallidipes at all sites. Other major hosts included elephant [Loxodonta africana], buffalo [Syncerus caffer] and bushbuck [Tragelaphus scriptus] where present, and on a dairy ranch nearly 30% of feeds were taken from cattle. There was a relation between the numbers and diversity of wild herbivores and the abundance of G. pallidipes. These results are discussed in relation to published data on feeding patterns and trypanosome infection rates for G. pallidipes from other parts of East Africa. Overall, there are significant correlations between the proportions of bovid feeds and Trypanosoma vivax infections. Bovid-feeding G. pallidipes populations with high T. vivax infection rates in south-east Uganda and western Kenya contrast with the coastal, suid-feeding populations with low T. vivax rates. These characteristics are presented as clines extending across East Africa.

Sukumar, R., Joshi, N.V., Krishnamurthy, V., 1988. Growth in the Asian elephant. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Sciences 97, 561-571.
Abstract: Approx. 934 records of captive Asian elephants were used to derive parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function for height, body weight and tusk circumference with age. Some evidence was obtained for a spurt in postpubertal secondary growth in males and females. Domesticated elephants that were born in captivity or captured at a young age had a slower growth rate for height in both sexes, and for body weight in males, than wild elephants. Height was twice the circumference of the front foot throughout the life span

Thoen, C.O., 1988. Tuberculosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 193, 1045-1048.

Gaskin, J.M., Andresen, T.L., Olsen, J.H., Schobert, E.E., Buesse, D., Lynch, J.D., Walsh, M., Citino, S., Murphy, D., 1987. Encephalomyocarditis in zoo animals: Recent experiences with the disease and vaccination. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine 491.
Abstract: Encephalomyocarditis (EMC), a specific viral infection caused by a group of antigenically related viruses in the family Picornaviridae, a genus of Cardiovirus, continues to be a source of sporadic mortality loss in zoo animals in Florida.  Deaths in a young Nyala antelope, 2 chimpanzees, 3 llamas, a two-toed sloth, 3 ringtail lemurs, a ruffed lemur, and an orangutan have recently been confirmed by virus recovery.  Experimental vaccine trials were initiated in pygmy goats, Barbados sheep, and white mice using B-propiolactone inactivated virus preparations.  Various adjuvants, including aluminum hydroxide, mineral oil, and dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) were used to enhance the immune responses to inactivated virus.  The vaccine preparations produced varying levels of hemagglutinations-inhibition (HI) antibodies in the immunized animals.  Experimental challenge of unvaccinated weaned pigs, pygmy goats, and Barbados sheep demonstrated that, although they seroconverted, they did not become ill when exposed to the virulent EMC virus strains used in this study. Laboratory mice, however, proved to be very susceptible when exposed to these same strains, and either died acutely or developed posterior paresis and paralysis subsequent to challenge.  All experimental vaccine preparations protected mice against challenge.  In vaccinated goats and sheep, the oil-emulsion-adjuvanted and DDAB-adjuvanted vaccines produced the highest and most persistent HI antibody titers.  Sera obtained from African elephants were screened for HI antibodies to EMC virus.  Ninety-three African elephant sera from the Kruger National Park in the Republic of South Africa had titers of less than 10 hemagglutination-inhibition units (HIU) while 4 of 76 imported juvenile African elephants had titers from 10-40 HIU and the rest had no titer.  EMC virus infections are apparently acquired in Florida from reservoir hosts and HI titers of 40 HIU or higher indicate subclinical infection with the virus.  Experimental vaccines may help prevent EMC in susceptible species; HI responses to vaccination in various exotic species are being evaluated.

Jachmann, H., 1987. Estimating age in African elephants (II): Revising Laws' molar evaluation technique. African Journal of Ecology 25.

Li, C.H., Bewley, T.A., Chung, D., Oosthuizen, M.M.J., 1987. Elephant growth hormone: Isolation and characterization. International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research 29, 62-67.
Abstract: Growth hormone has been purified to homogeneity from elephant pituitary glands.  It has 191 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and a single tryptophan residue.  The somatotropin activity is only 15% when compared with bovine hormone in the radioreceptor binding assay.  From circular dichroism spectra alpha-helical content of elephant growth hormone is estimated to be 50%.  Difference absorption spectra of the hormone suggest the presence of a hydrogen bond between the single Trp and a carboxylate ion.

Lillywhite, H.B., Stein, B.R., 1987. Surface sculpturing and water retention of elephant skin. Journal of Zoology (Lond) 211, 727-734.

Morris, P.J., Held, J.P., Jensen, J.M. Clinical pathologic features of chronic renal failure in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Proc.1st.Intl.Conf.Zool.Avian Med.  468-472. 1987.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Rubel, A. Physiological and pathological conditions associated with reproduction of female Asian elephants at the Zurich zoo. Proc.1st.Intl.Conf.Zool.Avian Med.  379. 1987.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Seaman, J.T., Finnie, E.P., 1987. Acute myocarditis in a captive African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 23, 170-171.

 1986. New species of bacteria in the genus Kurthia--Kurthia sibirica sp. nov. Mikrobiologiia 55, 831-835.
Abstract: Six aerobic gram-positive nonspore-forming bacterial strains belonging to the Kurthia genus were isolated from the Magadan (Susuman) mammoth found in the permafrost of the East Siberia. The strains are a phenotypically homogeneous group different from the two known species (K. zopfii and K. gibsonii) in requiring more vitamins, the absence of growth in a medium with 7% NaCl, and a low level of DNA-DNA hybridization (not more than 45%). Moreover, the strains differ from K. zopfii in the synthesis of a yellow pigment, the activity of phosphatase, and the absence of coccoid forms; the bacteria differ from K. gibsonii in the absence of growth at a temperature above 40 degrees C. The organisms are referred to as Kurthia sibirica sp. nov. The type strain 13-2 has been deposited in the All-Union Collection of Microorganisms as strain VKB B-1549.

 1986. Briefly...Death of a desert elephant. Oryx 20, 49.
Abstract: Complete text:  An elephant calf died in Western Damaraland when its herd was being driven towards a US television crew by a helicopter.  It was shot after it fell and broke its leg in rough terrain.  Damaraland conservationist Garth Owen-Smith said that the permit issued to Mr. Jan Oelofse, a game-capture expert, for the exercise should have stipulated that a nature conservator be present.  He also said it was particularly tragic that one of Damaraland's elephants should die in this way because the population had begun to increase for the first time in 15 years after a successful anti-poaching campaign. Windhoek Advertiser, 12/13 August 1985.

Hattingh, J., 1986. Physiological measurement of stress. South African Journal of Science 82, 612-614.

Jensen, J. Paralumbar kidney biopsy in a juvenile African elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet.  17. 1986.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Same case as Ref # 305.

Johnson, B., Burton, M., Qualls, C.W., Jr., 1986. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in an African elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189, 1188-1190.

Mordenti, J., 1986. Man versus beast: pharmacokinetic scaling in mammals. J Pharm Sci 75, 1028-1040.
Abstract: Land mammals range in size from the 3-g shrew to the 3000-kg elephant. Despite this 10(6) range in weight, most land mammals have similar anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and cellular structure. This similarity has allowed interspecies scaling of physiologic properties such as heart rate, blood flow, blood volume, organ size, and longevity. The equation that is the basis for scaling physiologic properties among mammals is the power equation Y = aWb, where Y is the physiologic variable of interest, W is body weight, and log a is the y-intercept and b is the slope obtained from the plot of log Y versus log W. Animals commonly used in preclinical drug studies (i.e., mice, rats, rabbits, monkeys, and dogs) do not eliminate drugs at the same rate that humans eliminate drugs; small mammals usually eliminate drugs faster than large mammals. Since drug elimination is intimately associated with physiologic properties that are well described among species, it seems reasonable to surmise that drug elimination can be scaled among mammals. Analysis of drug pharmacokinetics in numerous species demonstrates that drug elimination among species is predictable and, in general, obeys the power equation Y = aWb. Early papers on interspecies pharmacokinetic scaling normalized the x- and y-axes to illustrate the superimpossibility of pharmacokinetic curves from different species. More recently, the x- and y-axes have been left in the common units of concentration and time, and individual pharmacokinetic variables have been adjusted to predict pharmacokinetic profiles in an untested species, usually humans.

Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., Brown, T.M., 1985. Medium-dependent Properties of Mycoplasmas. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 3, 283-294.
Abstract: Without a cell wall, the morphology, growth rate, and composition of mycoplasmas are culture media-dependent with variable properties best described as environmentally related. The adaptation of mycoplasmas to either a tissue cell or cell-free culture media, with dependency upon specific animal or plant products for survival, has led to investigations of their human host-related properties. The influence of culture media on the antibiotic sensitivities of mycoplasmas was measured by use of three different broths in two different assay systems. The variable results indicate that the inhibition of mycoplasma protein synthesis or growth may also by host-tissue dependent. The addition of noninhibitory penicillins to different culture media was found to affect the composition and antigenicity of some mycoplasmas. Using the complement fixation test, we found some human sera that were more reactive than rabbit antisera to mycoplasmas cultured in human synovial broth or in myelin-enriched broth. Mycoplasmas cultured in human lung broth and pig lung broth had media-dependent antigenicity. The antigenicity and the growth of mycoplasmas were found to depend on the proteolytic enzymes used to provide the essential peptides in tissue broths. The media-affected mycoplasmas indicate the presence of species-, strain-, and tissue-specific antigen sites that may determine immunopathogenicity in the genetically susceptible host.

Jachmann, H., 1985. Estimating age in African elephants. African Journal of Ecology 23, 199-202.

Layser, T.R., Buss, I.O., 1985. Observations on morphological characteristics of elephant tusks. Mammalia 49, 407-414.
Abstract: Morphological and statistical studies were conducted on tusks from wild African elephants collected in Western Uganda between July 1958 and May 1959.  The mean value and standard deviation were calculated fro all parameters of tusk growth studied.  Males had longer tusks than females of the same age. Pulp cavity size of males always is larger than from females of the same age.  Males seemed to increase their tusk weights more rapidly than females.

Raphael, B.L., Clubb, F.J., 1985. Atypical salmonellosis in an African elephant. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 57.

Craig, G.C., 1984. Foetal mass and date of conception in African elephants: a revised formula. South African Journal of Science 80, 512-516.
Abstract: Existing information on South-Central African elephants is used to show that there is an error in the published formula for calculating date of conception from foetal mass.  A revised formula, t= 106w1/3 + 138, is proposed, where t is the age of the foetus and w is foetal mass, which implies a faster foetal growth-rate following a longer early phase of slow growth than previously assumed.  The revised formula results in a clearer illustration of the seasonality of elephant breeding, though caution is recommended in the timing of sampling and the application of the formula to small foetuses.

Gopal, T., Rao, B.U., 1984. Rabies in an Indian wild elephant calf. Indian Veterinary Journal 61, 82-83.

Lark, R.M., 1984. A comparison between techniques for estimating the ages of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). African Journal of Ecology 22, 69-71.

Scott, W.A., 1984. Salmonellosis in an African elephant. Veterinary Record 115, 391.

Siegel, R.K., Brodie, M., 1984. Alcohol self-administration by elephants. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22, 49-52.
Abstract: The anecdotal and historical literature describing intoxication in elephants from femented fruit of alcoholic beverages is reviewed.  Seven African elephants readily self-administered 7% unflavored alcohol solutions, and the results included separation from herd groupings and changes in the frequency and/or duration of several behaviors as scored according to a quantitative observational system.  Alcohol decreased feeding, drinking, bathing and exploration for most animals.  Inappropriate behaviors such as lethargy and ataxia increased for all elephants.  Results are discussed in terms of stress-induced drinking and intoxication.

Snider, D.E., Jr., Jones, W.D., Good, R.C., 1984. The usefulness of phage typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 130, 1095-1099.
Abstract: Mycobacteriophage typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was used as an epidemiologic aid in investigating the transmission of tuberculosis in community, industrial, and institutional outbreaks. The technique was also useful in other situations, e.g., documenting congenital transmission of infection and distinguishing exogenous reinfection from endogenous reactivation. Additional studies are indicated to further explore the value of phage typing for tracking the transmission of tuberculosis in the community

Vitovec, J., Kotrla, B., Haji, H., Hayles, L.B., 1984. Fatal infection of an elephant calf caused by the trematode Protofasciola robusta (Lorenz, 1881) in Somaliland. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. [B]. 31, 597-602.

Wright, P.G., Luck, C.P., 1984. Do elephants need to sweat? South African Journal of Zoology 19, 270-274.

Wright, P.G., 1984. Why do elephants flap their ears? South African Journal of Zoology 19, 266-269.

 1983. Accidental electrocution. Med. Leg. Bull. 32, 1-6.

Dmytriw, R. Further discussion of an ankle deformity in a young African elephant at the Indianapolis Zoo. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings , 455-458. 1983.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Greenberg, J., 1983. Natural highs in natural habitats. Science News 124, 300-301.

Griner, L.A., 1983. Mammals.  Order proboscidea. Pathology of Zoo Animals. Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Kaufman, R.L. First response to an elephant attack. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 4.  35-38. 1983.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Martins, R., 1983. A management-maintenance program for older elephants in Milwaukee. Animal Keepers' Forum 10, 28-30.

McGavin, M.D., Walker, R.D., Schroeder, E.C., Patton, C.S., McCracken, M.D., 1983. Death of an African elephant from probable toxemia attributed to chronic pulpitis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 183, 1269-1273.
Abstract:  A 31-year-old captive male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) of 5,000-kg body weight died suddenly in ventral recumbency.  Lesions seen at necropsy were bilateral purulent pulpitis and periodontitis of both tusks, serous atrophy of coronary groove fat, Grammocephalus cholangitis, myocardial and skeletal lipofuscinosis, and scattered segmental necrosis in the pectoral muscles.  Nonhemolytic streptococci, Corynebacterium sp, Pertostreptococcus anaerobius, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bacteroides sp were recovered from the exudate around one or both tusks.  We postulated that the elephant died of hypoxia from prolonged ventral recumbency because of weakness and inability to rise secondary to toxemia from bilateral pulpitis and periodontitis.

Saunders, G., 1983. Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a circus elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 183, 1311-1312.

Schmidt, M.J., 1983. Antagonism of xylazine sedation by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in an adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 14, 94-97.
Abstract: Heavy xylazine sedation was successfully antagonized by intravenous injection of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in an adult female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) prior to euthanasia.  A total xylazine dose of 1,200 mg intramuscularly plus 600 mg intravenously (approximately 0.33 mg/kg body weight) was given resulting in heavy sedation.  After 50 minutes of deep recumbent sedation, 425 mg yohimbine and 1,000 mg of 4-AP were administered intravenously.  Xylazine sedation was antagonized and the elephant was up and walking around within 5 minutes of antagonist administration.  The elephant remained standing for other 3 hours; at which point euthanasia was performed. Comment: Report concerns animal with arthritis and chronic foot problems.

Wallach, J.D., Boever, W.J., 1983. Tuberculosis. Diseases of Exotic Animals. pp. 791-792.

Western, D., Moss, C., Georgiadis, N., 1983. Age estimation and population age structure of elephants from footprint dimensions [Loxodonta africana]. J. Wildlife Management 47, 1192-1197.

Five elephants plunge over cliff. The Ann Arbor News May 15. 1982.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Circus elephant electrocuted. The Oakland Press June 9, A2. 1982.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Ananthasubramaniam, C.R., Chandrasekharan, K., Surendran, P.U., 1982. 1.Studies on the nutritional requirements of the elephant Elephas maximus.  2. Prediction of body weight from body measurements. Indian Veterinary Journal 59, 227-232.

Boxenbaum, H., 1982. Interspecies scaling, allometry, physiological time, and the ground plan of pharmacokinetics. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 10, 201-227.
Abstract: Interspecies variation in pharmacokinetics us considered and treated as a property and consequence of body size (allometry). Consequently, it is possible to reference (scale) pharmacokinetic parameters to the organism's individual anatomy, biochemistry, and/or physiology in such a manner that differences between species are nullified. Thus, in the mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human, methotrexate plasma clearance always equals 133% of creatinine clearance and as such becomes invariant. Pharmacokinetic time ( a variable in terms of chronological time) is shown to be a form of physiological time in which a pharmacokinetic event becomes the independent variable, e.g., disposition half-life. A relationship between pharmacokinetic time and body size is demonstrated. It is suggested that man's lesser quantitative ability to metabolize many drugs may be correlated with his enhanced longevity.

Boyce, L., Sayer, P., Inima, A.A., 1982. Fatal enteritis in a repatriated African elephant. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 75-76.

Harvey, P.H., 1982. On rethinking allometry. Journal of Theoretical Biology 95, 37-41.
Abstract: Analysis of sets of intra-specific and inter-specific allometric relationships reveals than the inter-specific data generally fit an exponential model better than a linear model. The intra-specific data seem equally suited to either model. Skewness of the data and the effect of logarithmic transformations on correlation coefficients are examined in the light of these findings.  Inter-species data are approximately lognormally distributed and logarithmic transformations are necessary to produce linear relationships.  As a consequence, correlation coefficients usually increase after logarithmic transformation of inter-species data.

Jones, W.D., Jr., Good, R.C., 1982. Hazel elephant redux (letter). Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125, 270.
Abstract: Full text.  A recent letter from Greenberg, Jung and Gutter reported the untimely death of Hazel Elephant with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.  The authors concluded that the animal trainer, who was found to have cavitary tuberculosis, was probably the source of infection.  The conclusion was based on data available at the time.  The isolates from Hazel Elephant and the animal trainer were submitted to us for further study the state health departments of Louisiana and Florida.  Using the methodology and classification scheme previously described, we found that the cultures were of different phage types.  The isolate from the elephant was type A0 (7), and the isolate from the trainer was type A1 (7,13,14).  The isolates differed by lysis with one major phage (MTPH 5) and two auxiliary phages (MTPH 13 and 14). We have previously used phage typing of M. tuberculosis in several well-defined outbreaks as an adjunct to other epidemiologic procedures.  The isolates were typed without the laboratory's knowing epidemiologic relationships between cases.  The results indicated that M. tuberculosis transmitted from one individual to another retained the same phage-type characteristics.  In the present study, our phage-type results suggest that the animal trainer and the elephant were infected from two different sources and that occurrence of disease in the animal and the trainer was coincidental.  We are still evaluating page typing as a procedure for use in tuberculosis epidemiology and can accept selected cultures for phage typing in special situations if we are contacted before the cultures are submitted.

Paynter, D., 1982. Death of Shingwidzi. African Wild Life 36, 70.

Shoshani, J., Alder, R., Andrews, K., Baccala, M.J., Barbish, A., Barry, S., Battiata, R., Bedore, M.P., Berbenchuk, S.A., Bielaczyc, R., Booth, G., Bozarth, N., Bulgarelli, M.A., Church, I., Cosgriff, J.W.Jr., Crowe, H., DeFauw, S.L., Denes, L., Efthyvoulidis, E., Ekstrom, M., Engelhard, J.G., English, P., Fairchild, D.Jr., Fisher, C., Frahm, K., Frederick, D., Fried, J., Gaskins, T., Gatt, J., Gentles, W., Goshgarian, H.G., Grabowski, S., Haase, D., Hajj, K., Hall, G., Hawkins, D., Heberer, C., Helinski, A., Henry, S.R., Heyka, C., Hurt, M., Kemppainen, M., Kendra, C., Koenig, J., Konarske, P., Konwinski, S., Kopacz, S., Lakits, V.T., Jr., Lash, S.S., Laughlin, D.C., Meyers, S., Mizeres, N.J., Morehead, K.M., Muraski, A., Murphy, S., Niebala, J., Overbeck, G., Powitz, R., Rafols, J.A., Raymer, S.L., Rezzonica, L., Rossmoore, H.W., Sabo, D., Schwikert, P.J., Shy, E., Skoney, J., Smith, D., Spodarek, K.L., Sujdak, P.J., Tarrant, T., Thielman, R., Tisch, F., Wolowicz, L., Williams, J., Yehiel, D., 1982. On the dissection of a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus Linnaeus, 1758) and data from other elephants. Elephant 2, 3-93.
Abstract: A 46-year-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus Linnaeus, 1758), named "Iki", died on July 8, 1980, at the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, Circus World, Haines City, Florida, USA.  She was transported to Detroit and was dissected by the Elephant Interest Group (EIG) and friends, Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University.  The purpose of this continuing study has been to collect data supplemental to that of previous workers, and to enrich knowledge of elephant anatomy, particularly in areas not thoroughly investigated in the past.  Some of these findings were compared to those observed in other elephants:  "Shirley", "Tulsa", and "Toose" and to the organs of "Ole Diamond" and "Hazel"  (see Appendix II).

Woodford, M.H., 1982. Tuberculosis in wildlife in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda (Part II). Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 14, 155-160.
Abstract: The results of post-mortem examinations of 90 warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) conducted in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda during a survey of tuberculous infection in wildlife are described. Nine per cent of warthog were found to show gross lesions on autopsy and of these organisms which could by typed, Mycobacterium bovis was isolated in 2 of 6 cases and 5 atypical mycobacterial strains were isolated from the remaining 4. The distribution and character of the lesions is described and it is concluded that the route of infection in the warthog is alimentary. A mycobacterial survey of 8 other species of mammals, 7 species of birds, 5 species of fish and 1 species of amphibian is described. None of the mammals (except possibly 1 elephant), birds, fish or amphibia was harbour atypical, probably saprophytic, mycobacterial types. The origin of tuberculosis in buffalo and warthog in the Ruwenzori National Park is discussed and is concluded to have been previous contact with domestic cattle.

Altmann, D., Krebs, W., 1981. Combined Vetalar-Combelen anesthesia of elephant for surgical removal of foreign body from eye. Erkrankungen der Zootiere 261-265.

Economos, A.C., 1981. Beyond rate of living. Gerontology 27, 258-265.
Abstract: The validity of the rate of living theory of aging in mammals has been seriously questioned over the last two decades because it does not account for the life span of many mammalian species. However, though this concept is an oversimplification and inapplicable in general, this does not mean that aging is unrelated to cellular metabolic processes. In general agreement with previous discussions, it can be stated that the rate of aging is proportional to the difference between the rate of cellular entropy production (which is by necessity roughly proportional to the rate of cellular biochemical processes and thus specific metabolic rate) and the cellular "counterentropic' mechanisms (such as cellular repair, antioxidant protection, etc.). These counterentropic mechanisms may have evolved to a different degree in some mammals. This could be effected indirectly by natural selection of certain traits, particularly those expressed in differences in the rates of embryonic and postnatal development. These rates, relatively to basal metabolic rate, determine a species' rate of becoming, which is proposed to be a predictor of mammalian life span. Data from 22 species, from shrew to elephant, with representatives from the main mammalian orders (including many exceptions to the rate of living concept), agree with this hypothesis. A mechanism underlying such natural selection, proposed elsewhere, is based on differential selection pressures among orders for which the different life-styles (particularly with respect to the birth of young) are responsible.

Greenberg, H.B., Jung, R.C., Gutter, A.E., 1981. Hazel Elephant is dead (of tuberculosis) (letter). Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 124, 341.
Abstract: Full text.  Hazel Elephant was only 35 years old (by our estimate) when she died.  She was cooperative and trusting to the last.  Had we known about her illness sooner, we could have saved her.  The  Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var hominis  that killed Hazel was sensitive to our drugs at the following levels: INH to 0.2mcg/ml; PAS to 2 mcg/ml; R to 1 mcg/ml; and MAB to 5 mcg/ml.  Hazel worked and performed for a travelling circus. Ordinarily good-humored and loving, she had been off her feed for weeks.  She became listless and apathetic, her eyes lost their sparkle, and she lacked her customary elan.  Nonetheless, Hazel continued to perform for the children and do her other chores until she came to New Orleans.  When Hazel got to New Orleans, she could barely move.  The circus's bosses called for help.  The brought her to the hospital at the Audubon Park and Zoological Garden.  As soon as we saw Hazel, we admitted her to the isolation ward.  We have her fluids, electrolytes, and antibiotics.  We got cultures and other clinical laboratory tests.  We comforted Hazel and tried to put her at ease.  It was too late.  She fell to the ground, her rheumy eyes gazed at us pitifully, her respirations failed, and she died.  Hazel's postmortem examination took six hours.  She was an emaciated Asian elephant whose lungs were filled with caseating granulomata.  Since microscopy showed myriads of acid-fast bacilli, we examined everyone who had, or who thought they had, contact with Hazel.  We found three persons with positive tuberculin skin test results.  None had tuberculous disease. Fortunately, Hazel had been kept away from other animals. Hazel's circus did not wait for the results of our autopsy.  It left Louisiana.  The U.S. Public Health Service tracked it down and found the man, an animal trainer with cavitary tuberculosis, who probably gave Hazel her fatal disease.  Now another health department will have to deal with the circus and its animals.

Gutter, A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an Asian elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet.  105-106. 1981.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Lindstedt, S.L., Calder, W.A., 1981. Body size, physiological time, and longevity of homeothermic animals. The Quarterly Review of Biology 56, 1-16.

Mann, P.C., Bush, M., Jones, D.M., Griner, L.A., Kuehn, G.R., Montali, R.J. Leiomyomas of the genital tract in large zoo mammals. Laboratory Investigation 44[1], 40A. 1981.
Ref Type: Abstract
Abstract: From the 70th Annual Meeting of the International Academy of Pathology, U.S.A. -- Canadian Division, Chicago, Ill,USA, March 2-6, 1981. Abstract. "Leiomyomas of the female genital tract occurred in four Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicoris) and three Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) exhibited at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., Regent's Park Zoo, London, England, San Diego Zoo, San Diego, California, and Los Angeles Zoo, Los Angeles, California.    The majority of the animals were aged without recent reproductive activity.  Tumors were mainly in the vaginal tract in the rhinoceros and the uterus of the elephants.  The tumors in two of the three rhinoceroses were discovered clinically via rectal palpation.  A postmortem examination of the rhinoceros at the National Zoo showed endometrial cysts and a large (25 cm) follicular cyst of one ovary.  Ovarian cysts were also found in one of the elephants.  The tumors consisted of circumscribed collections of interlacing, well differentiated, smooth muscle-like cells with varying amounts of connective tissue. The uterine tumors were all intramural, whereas the vaginal tumors in the rhinoceros were often pedunculated.  Although intrauterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are extremely common in women, they are very rare in domestic animals.  The role of hyperestrinism in leiomyoma induction remains controversial in humans, and is presently unknown in animals.  The prevalence of cystic ovaries and reproductive difficulties may indicate a hormonal relationship with leiomyomas in zoo animals as well."

Mann, P.C., Bush, M., Janssen, D.L., Frank, E.S., Montali, R.J., 1981. Clinicopathologic correlations of tuberculosis in large zoo mammals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 179, 1123-1129.
Abstract: In August 1978, a black rhinoceros at the National Zoological Park died with generalized tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. A 2nd black rhinoceros was euthanatized 9 months after M bovis was cultured from its lungs. After these 2 deaths, numerous large zoo mammals that had been potentially exposed were subjected to various procedures to ascertain their status regarding tuberculosis. The procedures were: intradermal tuberculin testing, evaluation of delayed hypersensitivity reaction on biopsy specimens, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, and culture of various secretions and organs. Several of the animals in this series died during the study. These were necropsied and examined for evidence of mycobacterial infection. The results of tuberculin testing varied from species to species and from site to site within a species. Delayed hypersensitivity responses generally correlated well with the amount of swelling at the tuberculin site. In some cases, however, positive reactions were found without any delayed hypersensitivity response. Results of ELISA testing were confirmatory in tuberculous animals. Several species were judged to be nonspecific reactors, based on positive or suspect tuberculin test results, with negative ELISA results and necropsy findings.

McGavin, M.D., Schroeder, E.C., Walker, R.D., McCracken, M.D., 1981. Fatal aspiration pneumonia in an African elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 179, 1249-1250.

Murname, T.G., 1981. Encephalomyocarditis. In: Steele, J.H. (Ed.), CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses, Section B: Viral Zoonoses. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 137-147.

Thoen, C.O., Himes, E.M., 1981. Tuberculosis. In: Davis, J.W., Karstad, L.H., Trainer, D.O. (Eds.), Infectious diseases of wild mammals. The University of Iowa Press, Ames, Iowa.

Hobbled but alive. The Detroit News October 23, 4A. 1980.
Ref Type: Newspaper

 1980. Competent treatment of unusual patient earns good press for hospital -- and profession. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 177, 762-763.

Cumbersome cast. Macomb Daily . 1980.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Brown, T.M., Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., 1980. Rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla: A study of mycoplasma-host interaction in pathogenesis and treatment. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Comparative Pathology of Zoo Animals. Smithsonian Institution, Washington,D.C., pp. 259-265.
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis in a gorilla was first observed at the National Zoo in 1969.  As the result of our preliminary report, several other gorillas were recognized to have similar symptoms.  These true animal models have been observed for seven to nine years with highly successful therapeutic results based upon a pathogenetic concept developed over a 30-year period in a study of the disease in humans.  The seriousness of arthritis in the gorilla is reflected by the reports we have received in the past few years of a total of 26 additional captive gorillas variously affected.  The systemic aspects of rheumatoid arthritis, such as failure to gain weight and grow normally, hot and swollen joints, migratory arthritis, severe localized muscular atrophy, generalized weakness and depression, presented classical evidence of the rheumatoid disease pattern.  Remission occurred in one pregnant gorilla, and a flare reaction followed delivery, which is characteristic of the disease pattern in the human counterpart.      Laboratory studies were in support of rheumatoid disease. Immunoglobulin alterations were noted with reversed A/G ratios and elevations of IgC and IgM.  Positive bentonite flocculation rheumatoid factor tests were observed, and a positive lupus erythematosus (LE) test was noted in one animal.  Abnormal hematologic findings were frequent, with increased sedimentation rates and lymphocytosis.      Evidence of mycoplasma association was indicated by complement-fixing antibody response, positive cultures, and demonstration of the mycoplasma antigen in the tissue.  Of greatest significance were the induced rise and subsequent fall of mycoplasma antibodies resulting from the challenge to the host with antimycoplasma medication and the production of the Jarisch-Herxheimer flare response.  All these mycoplasma relationships have been found in man with the additional demonstration of delayed-type skin reaction with mycoplasma antigen.      It has been stressed that in infectious hypersensitivity, the microbial source is obscured, yet it must be defined and the proper therapy planned on an individualized basis.  The medication must be given in relatively small, intermittent dosage to avoid the development of delayed hypersensitivity which negates the drug effect.  Until more effective medications are developed, the treatment must also be administered over an extended period of time to achieve permanent control of the disease.  The demonstration of the importance of the pathogenesis concept speaks for itself in the final analysis with the recovery of severely disabled gorillas.      In conclusion, it would appear that a study of rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla and man, approached from the point of view of comparative pathology and medicine, has opened a new direction for an understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.  From these studies, one can now visualize for the first time that rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla and in man is a controllable and potentially curable disease.  It seems that new thinking in regard to further demonstrations of etiologic associations must be given to all species where tissue hypersensitivity to microbial agents is basic.  It is suggested that Koch's postulates were not designed to include this area of pathogenesis where the role of the host is as significant as that of the parasite--an omission which has delayed the development of new knowledge in this area for a half a century. Is not the time at hand to revise our concepts and move in a new direction?

Fatti, L.P., Smuts, G.L., Starfield, A.M., Spurdle, A.A., 1980. Age determination in African elephants. Journal of Mammalogy 61, 547-551.

Gaskin, J.M., Jorge, M.A., Simpson, C.F., Lewis, A.L., Olson, J.H., Schobert, E.E., Wollenman, E.P., Marlowe, C., Curtis, M.M., 1980. The tragedy of encephalomyocarditis virus infection in zoological parks of Florida. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 1-7.

Lang, E.M., 1980. Observations on growth and molar change in the African elephant. African Journal of Ecology 18, 217-234.

Strazielle, L., 1980. Birth of an Asian elephant at the Paris Zoo. Mammalia 44, 592-594.

Thoen, C.O., Mills, K., Hopkins, M.P., 1980. Enzyme linked protein A: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagent for detecting antibodies in tuberculous exotic animals. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41, 833-835.
Abstract: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, using protein A labeled with horseradish peroxidase for detecting antibodies in tuberculous exotic animals (llamas, rhinoceroses, elephants).  The modified ELISA provides a rapid procedure for screening several animal species simultaneously for tuberculosis without the production of specific anti-species conjugates.  Heat-killed cells of Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium and purified protein-derivative tuberculin of M. bovis were used as antigens for ELISA.

Thoen, C.O., Himes, E.M., 1980. Mycobacterial infections in exotic animals. In: Montali, R.J., Migaki, G. (Eds.), The comparative pathology of zoo animals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,D.C., pp. 241-245.
Abstract:  Mycobacteria were isolated from 59% of the 826 specimens submitted from exotic animals suspected of having tuberculosis.  Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis accounted for 61% of the isolations from nonhuman primates.  Mycobacterium bovis was the organism most frequently isolated from hoofed animals and Mycobacterium avium was most commonly isolated from birds.  The distribution, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of tuberculosis in exotic animals is discussed.

 1979. "Motty" -- Birth of an African/Asian elephant at Chester Zoo. Elephant 1, 36-40.

Alexander, R.M., Maloiy, G.M.O., Hunter, B., Jayes, A.S., Nturibi, J., 1979. Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoology (Lond) 189, 135-144.
Abstract: Films of buffalo and elephant running, and detailed measurements on dissected legs, have been used to estimate the maximum stresses which occur in locomotion, in certain muscles, tendons and bones.  These stresses are similar to stresses previously determined for some other, smaller mammals.

Alexander, R.M., Jayes, A.S., Maloiy, G.M.O., Wathuta, E.M., 1979. Allometry of the limb bones of mammals from shrews (Sorex) to elephants (Loxodonta). Journal of Zoology (Lond) 189, 305-314.
Abstract: Measurements have been made of the principal leg bones of 37 species representing almost the full range of sizes of terrestrial mammals.  The lengths of corresponding bones tend to be proportional to (body mass)0.35 and the diameters to (body mass)0.36 except in the family Bovidae in which the exponents for length are much nearer the value of 0.25 predicted by McMahon's (1973) theory of elastic similarity.  Comparisons are made between mammals of similar size belonging to different orders.

Baxby, D., Shackleton, W.B., Wheeler, J., Turner, A., 1979. Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos. Archives of Virology 61, 337-340.
Abstract: Poxvirus isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus.  Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not compox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated compox but not elephant and Moscow virus.  A combination of biological test separated all three.  The epidemiological implications are briefly reviewed.

Begoian, A.G., 1979. Death from compression of the neck by an elephant's trunk. Sud Med Ekspert 22, 56-57.

Garlt, C., Kiupel, H., Ehrentraut, W., 1979. Botulism in elephants. Erkrankungen der Zootiere 13, 207-211.

Hall-Martin, A.J., Ruther, H., 1979. Application of stereo photogrammetric techniques for measuring African elephants. Koedoe 22, 187-198.
Abstract: Measurements of shoulder height and back length of African elephants were obtained by means of stereo photogrammetric techniques.  A pair of Zeiss UMK 10/1318 cameras, mounted on a steel frame on the back of a vehicle, were used to photograph elephants in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa.  Several modifications of nomal photogrammetry procedure applicable to the field situation (eg. control points) and the computation of results (eg. relative orientation) are briefly mentioned.  Six elephants were immobilized after being photographed and the measurements obtained from them agreed within a range of 1 cm-10 cm with the photogrammetric measurements.

Hall-Martin, A.J., De Boom, H.P.A., 1979. Dislocation of the elbow and its social consequences for an African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 50, 19-22.
Abstract: A dislocated elbow of a male elephant calf (Loxodonta africana) in the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in it being harassed by other elephants and consequently leaving its maternal herd at the age of 6 years, rather than the more usual age of 9-10 years.  In the absence of large predators the elephant had survived for 9 years and had adapted its locomotion and intraspecific behavior to its injury.  The humeral joint of the affected forelimb was carried in partial extension with the cubital and carpal joints were permanently in partial flexion.  Substantial secondary oseoarthritic changes, extensive fusion and compensatory remodeling of the humerus, radius and ulna had taken place together with compensatory development in the musculature.  The planes of articulation of the limb bones had also be considerably rotated inward.

Kingdon, J., 1979. East African mammals. An atlas of evolution in Africa III. Large mammals. Academic Press, London.

Kirkwood, T.B., Holliday, R., 1979. The evolution of aging and longevity. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 205, 531-546.
Abstract: Aging is not adaptive since it reduces reproductive potential, and the argument that it evolved to provide offspring with living space is hard to sustain for most species. An alternative theory is based on the recognition that the force of natural selection declines with age, since in most environments individuals die from predation, disease or starvation. Aging could therefore be the combined result of late-expressed deleterious genes which are beyond the reach of effective negative selection. However, this argument is circular, since the concept of 'late expression' itself implies the prior existence of adult age-related physiological processes. Organisms that do not age are essentially in a steady state in which chronologically young and old individuals are physiologically the same. In this situation the synthesis of macromolecules must be sufficiently accurate to prevent error feedback and the development of lethal 'error catastrophes'. This involves the expenditure of energy, which is required for both kinetic proof-reading and other accuracy promoting devices. It may be selectively advantageous for higher organisms to adopt an energy saving strategy of reduced accuracy in somatic cells to accelerate development and reproduction, but the consequence will be eventual deterioration and death. This 'disposable soma' theory of the evolution of aging also proposes that a high level of accuracy is maintained in immortal germ line cells, or alternatively, that any defective germ cells are eliminated. The evolution of an increase in longevity in mammals may be due to a concomitant reduction in the rates of growth and reproduction and an increase in the accuracy of synthesis of macromolecules. The theory can be tested by measuring accuracy in germ line and somatic cells and also by comparing somatic cells from mammals with different longevities.

Monfort, A., Monfort, N., 1979. Efficiency of assimilation and energy budget of the young African elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach). Mammalia 43, 543-557.
Abstract: In the present article, the experiments on the digestive efficiencies of young African elephants are described.  Two tame elephants, 27 and 31 months old, were confined in paddocks and were fed with rations consisting of the same plant species that they would select if they were free.  During the study period, the amount of food and energy ingested and rejected was determined.  On the average, the gross assimilation rate was 42.1% for the two animals: 38.3 +/- 4.4% and 45.6 +/- 2.8%  respectively.  Under estimate of the gross assimilation rate and of dung production in natural conditions, it should be possible to estimate the feeding pressure on the home range.  On the basis of the results, we have established an energy budget for the young African elephant in full growth.

Ralls, K., Brugger, K., Ballou, J., 1979. Inbreeding and juvenile mortality in small populations of ungulates. Science 206, 1101-1103.

Rathore, B.S., Khera, SS. Mortality in elephants in India. State Level Workshop on Elephants.  75. 1979. India, College of Veterinary and Animal Sicences, Kerala Agricultural University.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Caple, I.W., Jainudeen, M.R., Buick, T.D., Song, C.Y., 1978. Some clinicopathologic findings in elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Fasciola jacksoni. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14, 110-115.
Abstract: Severe submandidular and ventral abdominal edema was observed in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in which liver flukes ( Fasciola jacksoni) were recovered from the bile ducts at post-mortem examination.  Clinico-pathologic examination of blood samples and serum from this elephant and another 8 elephants showed that most had anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal samples from 6 of the elephants contained from 6 to 83 eggs per gram.  Treatment of elephants with nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection produced severe local reactions at the injection site.  Feces collected 2 and 4 months after treatment were free of trematode eggs.  Hematologic values measured 4 months after treatment showed that the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and plasma protein concentration had increased to within the normal range.

Gruenberg, K., Jarofke, D., 1978. Surgical removal of excessive callous growth from the vulva of an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus). Erkrankungen der Zootiere 14, 301-304.

Hass, G., 1978. Behavioural disorders in a female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus bengalensis) with bony structures on the intermediofacial and statoacoustic nerves. Zoologische Garten 48(4,S.), 297-298.

Mollel, C.L., 1978. Cervico-vaginal prolapse in an African elephant. East African Wildlife Journal 16, 59.

Obi, T.U., 1978. Traumatic granuloma in an African elephant, Loxodonta africana, and its treatment with yatren-casein. East African Wildlife Journal 16, 69-71.

von Richter, W., Drager, N., Patterson, L., Sommerlatte, M., 1978. Observations on the immobilization and marking of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Botswana. Akademie-Verlag 14, 185-191.
Abstract: 58 elephants were successfully immobilized in their natural environment in the Chobe Nation Park and on privately owned farms in Botswana using a drug mixture of etorphine (M99 Reckitt) and acetylpromazine.  The specific antidote cyprenorphine (M285 Reckitt) was used in most cases to resuscitate the animals.  One known mortality occurred.  For the long term monitoring of social organization and long and short term movements collars manufactured from machine belting and fitted with colour codes or symbols proved most satisfactory. Stamping the tusks near the lip provided a permanent marking although not useful for field observation.  Various other marking techniques were tested but were considered unsatisfactory for long term identification.  Various behavioral aspects associated with the immobilizing of elephants are described and discussed.

India's beloved elephant breaks leg, fights to live. The Detroit Free Press July 3, 9C. 1977.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Brownlee, J.W., Hanks, J., 1977. Notes on the growth of young male African elephants. Lammergeyer 23, 7-12.

Effron, M., Griner, L., Benirschke, K., 1977. Nature and rate of neoplasia found in captive wild mammals, birds, and reptiles at necropsy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 59, 185-198.
Abstract: The nature and rate of neoplasia found at necropsy of captive wild animals of the Zoological Society of San Diego collection were studied.  Neoplasia was present at necropsy in 2.75% of 3,127 mammals, 1.89% of 5,957 birds, and 2.19% of 1,233 reptiles.  Neoplasms were not detected during 198 necropsies of amphibians.  Gross and histologic examinations were performed on the 92 mammalian, 111 avian, and 28 reptilian neoplasms.  The lesions were diagnosed.  The findings included a high frequency of lymphosarcomas in birds and reptiles, multiple endocrine tumors in 2 European mouflons (Ovis musimon), and proliferative lessions of the billiary duct and pancreatic ductal systems in several species. Note: Only elephant tumor is Asian female--Papillomatous tumor of vulva.

Marennikova, S.S., Maltseva, N.N., Korneeva, V.I., Garanina, N., 1977. Outbreak of pox disease among carnivora (felidae) and edentata. J Infect Dis 135, 358-366.
Abstract: An outbreak of pox disease in Carnivora of the family Felidae occurred in the Moscow Zoo. Two forms of the disease were found: (1) fatal, fulminant pulmonary without skin lesions and (2) dermal with rash. The severity of the dermal form varied from subclinical to lethal. The pulmonary form was characterized by pneumonia and exudative pleuritis, and large concentrations of virus were observed in the lungs and exudate. In addition to Carnivora of the family Felidae, two giant anteaters had a severe form of the disease (dermal with hemorrhages) and died. The agent of the outbreak appeared to be very closely related to cowpox virus; however, pocks developed at a lower temperature than do those that result from infection with cowpox virus. Strains isolated from sick animals were identical to the virus previously isolated from an outbreak of pox among elephants and okapi. The most probable sources of infection were rats that were fed to some of the animals. During the outbreak, a female attendant at the zoo became infected.

Momin Khan, M.K., 1977. Aging of elephants: estimation by foot size in combination with tooth wear and body dimensions. Malayan Nature Journal 30, 15-23.

Simpson, C.F., Lewis, A.L., Gaskin, J.M., 1977. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection of captive elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 171, 902-905.
Abstract: Four Asian elephants at each of 2 widely separated zoologic gardens in Florida died following a fulminating illness.  Tissue suspensions obtained from an elephant from each of the zoologic gardens were inoculated into newborn mice, 3- to 4-week-old mice, buffalo green monkey and baby hamster kidney cell cultures.  Encephalitis and myocarditis developed in the mice.  The cell cultures were destroyed within 24 to 72 hours, and intracytoplasmic viral inclusions were observed in infected cells by electron microscopy.  The viral agent was neutralized by known antiserum to encephalomyocarditis virus.

Thoen, C.O., Richards, W.D., Jarnagin, J.L., 1977. Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 170, 987-990.

 1976. Hastividyarnava. Publication Board, Assam, India.

Buss, I.O., Estes, J.A., Rasmussen, L.E., Smuts, G.L., 1976. The role of stress and individual recognition in the function of the African elephant's temporal gland. Mammalia 40, 437-451.
Abstract: Biochemical measurements were made from a sample of temporal gland secretion from each of five wild African elephant bulls (23 to 38 years of age) collected in Kruger National Park, South Africa between November 1974 and April 1975.  Total protein content was high (26-57 mg/ml), acid phosphatase ranged between 1.9 and 6.3 mM/h/mgm protein, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were undetectable.  Total lipid content in the secretion averaged 80 mg% and ranged from 75 to 87 mg%.  Triglycerides were just detectable, varying from 2 to 8 mg%, and phospholipids ranged from 9 to 11 mg% (ave. 10 mg%).  Cholesterol content was surprisingly high, measuring 12, 19, 26, 36, and 70 mg% for five samples of secretion.    Field observations indicated that stress triggers liberation of temporal gland secretion.  Among 116 elephants collected in Uganda, secretory activity of their temporal glands was more frequent during dry (probably more stressful) than during wet seasons.  Among 62 elephants driven by helicopter to roadways for collection in Kruger National Park, 23 driven relatively far and fast were in prominent musth; most of those driven slower and shorter distances showed no evidence of musth.  The matriarchal leader of an elephant family near Lake Albert, Uganda developed very prominent temporal gland activity after an hour and 45 minutes of vigorously defending three of her family members.    Chemical individuality of cholesterol levels in temporal glands of five adult bulls suggests a pheromone-producing function which serves for individual recognition by the African elephant.  Direct observations of wild elephants also suggest that the temporal gland functions as a scent gland helping to recognize other members of the group or to find them.

Seitz, A., 1976. Further investigations into the longevity of the Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus in zoos. Part II. Zoologische Garten 46, 198-208.

Takino, Y., Arai, S., 1976. Foreleg fracture in an Indian elephant at Yatsu-Yuen Zoo. Journal of the Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums 18, 1-4.

Burke, T.J., 1975. Probable tetanus in an Asian elephant. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 6, 22-24.

Elder, W.H., Rodgers, D.H., 1975. Body temperature in the African elephant as related to ambient temperature. Mammalia 39, 395-399.

Hiley, P.G., 1975. How the elephant keeps its cool. Natural History 84, 34-41.

Huber, D., Kardum, P., Gomercic, H., 1975. Blood vessels of the fore limb in Indian elephant, Elephas maximus. Veterinarski Arhiv 45, 311-320.

Markowitz, H., Schmidt, M., Nadal, L., Squier, L., 1975. Do elephants ever forget? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 8, 333-335.
Abstract: The adult female elephants (Elephas maximus) were tested on a light-dark discrimination problem with an eight year intertrial interval.  The first subject took only six minutes to reach criterion and made only 2 errors, suggesting remarkable retention.  The other 2 subjects were identified to have visual anomalies which would have gone undetected without this research.

McCullagh, K.G., 1975. Arteriosclerosis in the African elephant: Part 2.  Medial sclerosis. Atherosclerosis 21, 37-59.
Abstract: Summary: A type of spontaneous arteriosclerosis, described as medial sclerosis and quite distinct from atherosclerosis, was found in the aortas, coronary arteries and aortic branch arteries of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Uganda and Kenya. The lesions took the form of calcified fibrotic plaques in the inner tunica media. The calcification appeared to commence in the internal elastic lamina and was associated with atrophy of medial smooth muscle fibres and their replacement by fibrous tissue. In the aorta, medial sclerosis was found to be associated with aortic dilatation, decreased wall thickness and decreased extensibility. These changes were shown to result in substantial increases in the tangential stresses carried by the tissues of the aorta and coronary arteries. As with atherosclerosis, medial sclerosis increased progressively with age; and the approximate involvement of the aorta at different ages could be predicted from linear regression equations. There was no difference in the severity of lesions between male and female animals. Biochemically, the lesions of medial sclerosis were associated with decreased amounts of elastin and increased amounts of collagen in arterial walls. Arterial tissue showing medial calcification always contained less than 30% elastin by weight. In addition, the severity of medial sclerosis in individual elephants was found to be positively correlated with the concentration of calcium in their sera. The pathogenesis of these lesions is discussed and it is suggested that mechanical stress, medial anoxia and high serum calcium levels all contribute to the aetiology of medial sclerosis.

von Benten, K., Fiedler, H.H., Schmidt, U., Schultz, L.C., Hahn, G., Dittrich, L., 1975. Occurrence of tuberculosis in zoo mammals; a critical evaluation of autopsy material from 1970 to the beginning of 1974. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 82, 316-318.

Walker, E.P., 1975. Order Proboscidea. Mammals of the World. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 1319-1324.

Williamson, B.R., 1975. The condition and nutrition of elephants in Wankie National Park. Arnoldia 7, 1-20.

Alford, B.T., Burkhart, R.L., Johnson, W.P., 1974. Etorphine and diprenorphine as immobilizing and reversing agents in captive and free-ranging mammals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 164, 702-705.
Abstract: Summary:  Etorphine, an opium alkaloid derivative of thebaine, and its specific antagonist, diprenorphine, were evaluated by research workers and zoo veterinarians in captive and free-ranging animals.    An intramuscular injection of etorphine usually resulted in rapid immobilization, sedation, analgesia, and muscle relaxation in Equidae, Ursidae, Cervidae and Bovidae, when given at a rate of 0.44, 0.5, 0.98 and 1.09 mg/45 kg (100 lb.), respectively. Satisfactory immobilization was usually achieved within 5 to 15 minutes after intravenous administration of diprenorphine at twice the etorphine dosage.    Procedures performed after etorphine administration included dehorning, blood sampling, tail docking, antibacterial injection, radiography, orthopedic surgery, and obstetrical manipulation.    Side effects were commonly noticed in free-ranging mammals. The type and degree of reaction varied according to the species and included tachycardia, bellowing, bradycardia, respiratory depression, opisthotonos, muscular tremors, mydriasis, and hyperpyrexia.  Of 1,600 animals tested, 2.9% died as a result of severe heat prostration, inhalation pneumonia, respiratory depression, severe excitement due to underdosing, cardiac arrest, and inapparent disease.

Elder, W.H., Rodgers, D.H., 1974. Immobilization and marking of African elephants and the prediction of body weight from foot circumference. Mammalia 38, 33-53.

Perry, J.S., 1974. Implantation, foetal membranes and early placentation of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol] 269, 109-135.

Sacher, G.A., Staffeldt, E.F., 1974. Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: Implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. The American Naturalist 108, 593-615.

Brummer, H., Scheurmann, E., 1973. Euthanasia on an elephant. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 86, 94.

Decker, R.A., Krohn, A.F., 1973. Cholelithiasis in an Indian elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 163, 546-547.
Abstract: Cholelithiasis with accompanying dilation of the bile ducts was found on necropsy on a young Indian elephant ( Elephas maximus).  Salmonella london was isolated from a composite of minced intestine, liver, spleen and heart.

Gainer, B., 1973. A joint injury in an elephant. East African Wildlife Journal 11, 209.

Hanks, J., 1973. Growth and development of the ovary of the African elephant, Loxodonata africana. Puku 7, 126-131.
Abstract: Aspects of growth and development of the ovary of the African elephant are described.  There was a pronounced hypertrophy of foetal ovarian interstitial tissue in the second half of gestation.  The left ovary was larger than the right in the majority of prepubertal and foetal elephants.  There was a gradual increase in the mean number of macroscopically visible follicles from the age of six years up to the mean age of first ovulation at 14 years.

Mayer, J., 1973. Vaccinia in humans caused by generalized infection of a circus elephant. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie,Parasitenkunde,Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene 1. Abt. Originale 224, 448-452.

Pinto, M.R.M., Jainudeen, M.R., Panabokke, R.G., 1973. Tuberculosis in a domesticated Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus. Veterinary Record 93, 662-664.
Abstract: A case of tuberculosis in a domesticated Asiatic elephant, Elephas maximus, was diagnosed on post-mortem examination.  The causal organism was identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis var hominis on the basis of cultural, biochemical and virulence studies.  Microscopically, the lesions resembled tuberculous lesions as seen in man and other domestic animals, but an important difference was the apparent absence of Langerhan's type giant cells.  The problems associated with the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis in the elephant are discussed.

Siegel, I.M., 1973. Orthotic treatment of tibiotarsal deformity in an elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 163, 544-545.

Warwick, M., 1973. Death of a young elephant. East African Wildlife Journal 161.

Gehring, H., Mahnel, H., Mayer, H., 1972. Elephant pox. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. [B]. 19, 258-261.

Hanks, J., 1972. Reproduction of elephant, Loxodonta africana, in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 30, 13-26.
Abstract: Aspects of reproduction in the African elephant in the Luangwa Valley in Zambia were studied in relation to the population dynamics of the species.  The fetal and secondary sex ratio up to 16 years of age did not depart significantly from equality.  Males left family units soon after 16 years of age and joined bachelor herds.  From 1964 to 1968, 88% of conceptions were in the rains, but in 1969 there was a shift in the breeding season peak to dry months of the year.  There was no evidence of seasonal breeding in the male elephant.  Females reached maturity at 14 years, and males at 15 years, when the combined weights of the testes reached 650 to 700 g, and the mean seminiferous tubule diameter reached 90 to 120 micrometers.  The mean calving interval was 3.5 to 4.0 years.  In the population, 6% of the elephant were less than 1 year old. Apparent cycles of recruitment were considered to be artefact caused by slight inaccuracies of the aging technique used. Corpora albicantia accumulated at the approximate mean rate of 0.6/year, and the significance of this was examined in relation to comparative studies of population fertility.  Reproductive senescence was a consequence of a combination of uterine defects and a reduction of oocyte number.

Hanks, J., 1972. Growth of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). East African Wildlife Journal 10, 251-272.
Abstract: The three-stage calculation of the von Bartalanffy equation to describe growth in height and weight with age in the elephant is compared with a new approach to calculating the three coefficients in the function by a computer.  The two methods give different results with respect to the weight/age calculations.  Theoretical von Bertalanffy equations calculated by both methods to describe the growth in height and weight with age in the African elephant in Zambia are compared with previously published equations for the elephant in East Africa.    Details are given of growth in height in two known-age African elephants, a female "Diksie" and a male "Kartoum." Theoretical growth in height curves for the female African and Asiatic elephant are compared.  The coefficients K and t0 for growth in height are not transferable to the growth in weight equations.    Inherent inaccuaracies in the calculation coefficients in the von Bertalanffy equation are discussed, and it is concluded that in animals with a long life-span such as the elephant, the equation serves as a purely empirical representation of weight-at-age data and there is little biological significance in the parameters it contains.  The computer-calculated curves give the best fit to the data.  The regression of log age on log shoulder height from 2-20 years provides a more realistic approach to comparative growth studies.    The increase in animal weight with age is linear.    Tusk growth in relation to age and sex in Zambia is compared with East Africa.  It is concluded that the tusks in Zambia are smaller and are more difficult to sex correctly than their East African counterparts, possibly as a consequence of the Zambian elephant having a greater degree of tusk wear.    Allometric grow is described with emphasis on the estimation of body weight from shoulder height.  The most reliable estimates are obtained from a purely empirical representation of the data, a semilog plot of log body weight on shoulder height.

Hattingh, J., 1972. A comparative study of transepidermal water loss through the skin of various animals. Comp Biochem Physiol A 43, 715-718.

Sokoloff, J., 1972. The pathology of rhematoid arthritis and allied disoders. In: Hollander, J.L., McCarty, D.J. (Eds.), Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia,PA, pp. 309-332.

Windsor, R.S., Ashford, W.A., 1972. Salmonella infection in the African elephant and black rhinoceros. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 4, 214-219.
Abstract: Salmonellosis in two captive African elephants and a black rhinoceros is described.  Necropsy findings and characteristics of the salmonellae isolated are outlined. Possible sources of infection are discussed and on the basis of their findings, the authors make recommendations for the care of newly captured wild animals.

Albl, P., 1971. Studies on assessment of physical condition in African elephants. Biological Conservation 3, 134-140.
Abstract: Series of external measurements were taken from 240 carcasses of African Elephants during the dry season of 1967 in Zambia, in order to investigate fluctuations of subcutaneous fat and muscles.  In addition, the ratio of the weight of the kidneys to kidney-fat, and the contents of fat in the bone-marrow, were determined.  From these investigations are deduced and described simple criteria for assessment of the physical condition of African Elephants, which criteria allow objective classification of representative population samples. Extensive individual variations of external anatomical features complicate assessment of the condition.  Most of the investigated external physical features are more age- than nutrition-dependent.  Only the shape of the lumbar region and the kidney-fat index give a fairly reliable indication of the physical condition of the African elephant.

Basson, P.A., McCully, R.M., de Vos, V., Young, E., Kruger, S.P., 1971. Some parasitic and other natural diseases of the African elephant in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 38 , 239-254.

Buss, I.O., Estes, J.A., 1971. The functional significance of movements and position of the pinnae of the African elephant Loxodonta africana. Journal of Mammalogy 52, 21-27.
Abstract: Observations of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Uganda indicated that flapping and spreading the highly vascularized ears are probably important functions for heat dissipation.  Ear flapping increased as ambient temperatures rose and decreased or ceased during cold or rainy weather.  Rate of ear flapping was inversely related to wind velocity.  Spreading the ears reduced ear flapping, particularly when an elephant faced downwind.  Stimuli that elicited alertness, excitement or hostility caused elephants to raise their heads and spread their ears widely and rigidly, and large elephants occasionally flapped their ears loudly and sharply. Flapping and spreading the ears for heat dissipation are generally not interpreted as danger signals by other elephants.

Prescott, C.W., 1971. Blackleg in an elephant. Veterinary Record 88, 598-599.

Sikes, S.K., 1971. The Natural History of the African Elephant. American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., New York.

Singh, B.S., 1971. Umbilical hernia in an elephant calf. Indian Veterinary Journal 48, 533-536.

Elder, W.H., 1970. Morphometry of elephant tusks. Zoologica Africana 5, 143-159.

Pienaar, U.d.V., 1970. A lasting method for the marking and identification of elephant. Koedoe 13, 123-126.

Rao, A.T., Acharjya, L.N., 1970. A case of fibrosarcoma in a baby elephant. Indian Veterinary Journal 47, 593.

Friant, M., 1969. Brain development and morphology in a proboscidian, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana Blum.). Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg 69, 20-32.

Gorovitz, C., 1969. Tuberculosis in an African elephant. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Newsletter January 20.

Greve, J.H., 1969. Strongyloides elephantis sp.from an Indian elephant, Elephas indicus. Journal of Parasitology 55, 498-499.
Abstract: Strongyloides elephantis sp.parasitic females were recovered from the small intestine of a captive Indian elephant suffering from multiple parasitism.  Principal features of S. elephantis are its size (2.6 to 3.6 mm), the presence of nontwisted ovaries, salient vaginal musculature and vulvar lips, and the posterior position (73% of the body length from anterior end) of the vulva.  Intrauterine eggs measured 23 by 49 microns.  The form passed in the feces and free-living forms were not observed.

McCullagh, K.G., 1969. The growth and nutrition of the African elephant II.  The chemical nature of the diet. East African Wildlife Journal 7, 91-97.
Abstract: The stomach contents of 148 elephants, cropped at different times of the year, were analyzed chemically as part of a programme of elephant research taking place in 1966 and 1967.    On average these samples contained 8.4 g of protein, 1.5 g of fat, 43.5 g of carbohydrate, 35.7 g of fibre and 11.0 g of mineral material in 100 g of their dry matter. The percentage of protein during the dry season was less than half its value during the wet season and calculations suggest that these animals may be deficient in protein at this time.    Calculations suggest that the intake of calcium is higher during the dry season than during the wet season, although it is argued that this is not a factor in inducing damage to trees.    Analysis of the quality of the dietary fat showed it to contain relatively small amounts of essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids.

McCullagh, K.G., 1969. The growth and nutrition of the African elephant I. Seasonal variations in the rate of growth and the urinary excretion of hydroxyproline. East African Wildlife Journal 7, 85-90.

Poczopko, P., 1969. Self-defense against hyperthermia in animals. Acta Physiologica Polonica 20, 893-905.

Reuther, R.T., 1969. Growth and diet of young elephants in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 9, 168-178.

Short, R.V., 1969. Notes on the teeth and ovaries of an African elephant of known age. Journal of Zoology (Lond) 158, 421-425.
Abstract: A captive female African elephant, known to be 27 years old, died as a result of trauma.  Her growth rate was similar to that of other captive African elephants, and slightly greater than that of wild animals.  The 5th molar was in full wear, and the 6th was just coming into wear.  There was extensive dental caries of the labial, lingual and occlusal surfaces of the 5th molars, presumably due to the unnatural diet.  The ovaries contained a large number of cystic follicles, and at least 50 regressing corpora lutea.  These abnormalities are probably related to the fact that the elephant had never been mated.

Sikes, S.K., 1969. Habitat and cardiovascular diseases, observations made on elephants (Loxodonta africana) and other free-living animals in East Africa. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 32, 1-104.
Abstract: A field survey to investigate the ecology of cardiovascular disease in free-living East African wild animals is described.  Its aim was to assess the susceptibility of such animals to arteriosclerosis, and particularly to atherosclerosis, and to examine in greater detail the ecology of cardiovascular disease in a single, naturally-susceptible species in relation to dietary change and stress in naturally occurring situations.  A total of 201 specimens, representing 43 species of mammals and 25 of birds, was examined: 37 species of mammals had uncomplicated lipid deposits in the arterial intima, thought to represent a normal physiological occurrence; ten had atheroma-like lesions of the intima, and a number had medial sclerosis and/or other arteritides.  Twenty species of birds had intimal lipid deposits.  The African elephant was selected for special study.  The ecology of its cardiovascular disease patterns was studied in three different habitat types: one "natural" (the "control") and two degenerate ("stressed" or "disturbed").  Atherosclerosis and medial sclerosis were not found in elephants living in the "natural" habitat type, but were correlated with habitat degeneration in the other two "stressed" or "disturbed" ranges, where potential "stress" factors included excessive continuous exposure to sunlight, dietary changes, frustration of the migratory habit, disrupted calving patterns, and over-population.  Neither disease was found to be directly related to age, and each had a distinct intra-arterial development pattern: the aetiology of each is therefore thought to be basically independent, although in advanced cases interaction had occurred.  Incidental original observations include comparisons, in various species, or the functional anatomy of the arterial supportive thickenings at ostia, bifurcations and regions of mechanical strain in relation to the normal intra-aortic distribution of intimal lipid deposits; a note on the nutrition of the Spring hare; a note on the formulation of a new field technique for assessing relative age in the African elephant; notes on abnormalities other than cardiovascular disease, and discussion on ecological data collected which may have practical relevance to current problems of wildlife management.

Krumrey, W.A., Buss, I.O., 1968. Age estimation, growth, and relationships between body dimensions of the female elephant. Journal of Mammalogy 49, 22-31.
Abstract: Fifty-six female savanna African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were collected in western Uganda from November 1958 to April 1959.  Ages of the 32 elephants from which teeth were available were estimated using criteria of molar-usage intervals, degree of molar replacement, and extent of molar wear. Based upon these estimated ages and total body weights, a growth equation for female elephants up to 25 years in age was calculated.  The correlation coefficient based upon measurements of 56 specimens between body weight and shoulder height is 0.99, and between body weight and body length is 0.97.

Kurt, F., Nettasinghe, A.P.W., 1968. Estimation of body weight of the Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus). Ceylon Veterinary Journal 16, 24-26.

Meyer-Holzapfel, M., 1968. Abnormal behavior in zoo animals. Abnormal behavior in animals. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 479-484.

Sikes, S.K., 1968. Observations on the ecology of arterial disease in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya and Uganda. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 21, 251-273.
Abstract: Complete aortae, and samples of selected arteries, were recently collected for detailed study from forty African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya and Uganda.  In every case a wide range of additional data was obtained, relating to the status of each individual elephant from which the material was collected and its ecological background.  These elephants were collected from three distinct habitat types, and a correlation is indicated between the occurrence of certain arterial abnormalities which have been found in the elephants and ecological differences in the habitat types.  It seems possible that the effects of the modern human pressures, which frequently directly affect the vegetational cover, soil character and animal migrations in a given environment, may also indirectly influence the behaviour patterns and physiological rhythms of the elephants.  Such combined pressures may also result in nutritional imbalance, influencing calcium and lipid metabolism, and producing associated changes in the arterial structure.

Sikes, S.K., 1968. The disturbed habitat and its effect on the health of animal populations, with special reference to cardiovascular disease in elephants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 61, 160-161.

Johnson, O.W., Buss, I.O., 1967. The testis of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). II. Development, puberty and weight. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 13, 23-30.

Laws, R.M., 1967. Eye lens weight and age in the African elephant. East African Wildlife Journal 5, 46-52.
Abstract: Eye lens dry-weights have been determined for 543 African elephants from three populations in East Africa.  When plotted against estimated ages based on tooth replacement and wear criteria they indicate growth curves with rapid initial growth in lens weight, succeeded by a phase of rectilinear growth which apparently persists throughout life.    Parameters for the regressions of lens dry weight on age have been calculated by sex and locality.  Confidence limits are fitted and no significant difference in growth ratescan be demonstrated, except for a sex difference in the values for the a intercept.    Variability at age is slightly greater in males than females, but is little greater than is indicated by studies on other species using known-age animals.  This is taken to confirm the accuracy of the age criteria adopted and leads to conclusions on their precision.    It is suggested that this method might provide an objective check on the accuracy and precision of age estimates in other species.

Laws, R.M., Parker, I.S.C., Archer, A.L., 1967. Estimating live weights of elephants from hindleg weights. East African Wildlife Journal 5, 106-111.

Sikes, S.K., 1967. The African elephant, Loxodonta africana:  A field method for the estimation of age. Journal of Zoology (Lond) 154, 235-248.
Abstract: A new field method, now termed the "FM technique", for age estimation in wild African elephants was outlined in a previous paper (Sikes, 1966).  In this technique, the stage reached in the molar progression which occurs throughout the life of any elephant, is related to a fixed point, namely the foramen mentale, in the lower jaw.  The stage reached in any individual elephant, of either sex may thus be described as its "molar age" by the "FM formula" (a descriptive, non mathematical formula). Up to the age of 30 years, molar age may be converted with reasonable accuracy to year age.  Above this point, however, any such conversion must be regarded as arbitrary and of doubtful value until such time as adequate additional data from older African elephants on known age become available.  The molars are briefly described, and the molar progression of the species outlined.  A hypothesis is offered as a possible explanation of the mechanism of the progression.  The field procedure for using the FM technique is explained, and its advantage over previous methods discussed.  A comprehensive Age Reference Chart for field use is given, covering the whole potential life span of the African elephant.

Sikes, S.K. A survey of cardiovascular disease in free-living wild animals with particular reference to the African elephant.  1967. England, Ph.D. Thesis, London University.
Ref Type: Thesis/Dissertation

Sikes, S.K., 1967. How to tell the age of an African elephant. African Wild Life 21, 191-202.

Krumrey, W.A. Age estimation and observations on the adrenal gland of the female African elephant.  -69pp. 1966. Pullman, WA, USA, Washington State University.
Ref Type: Thesis/Dissertation

Laws, R.M., 1966. Age criteria for the African elephant, Loxodonta a. africana. East African Wildlife Journal 4, 1-37.

Pienaar, U.d.V., Van Niekerk, J.W., Young, E., 1966. The use of oripavine hydrochloride (M.99) in the drug immobilization and marking of wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach) in the Kruger national park. Koedoe 9, 108-124.

Ratnesar, P., 1966. Can elephants transmit disease to man? Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 215-216.

Seneviratna, P., Wettimuny, S.G., Seneviratna, D., 1966. Fatal tuberculosis pneumonia in an elephant. Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Clinician 60, 129-132.
Abstract: A fatal case of tuberculosis pneumonia with anemia and helminthiasis in a Ceylon elephant is reported. Acid-fast organisms resembling Mycobacterium tuberculosis  and tubercular nodules were seen in large numbers in sections of the lung.

Sikes, S.K., 1966. The African elephant, Loxodonta africana: a field method for the estimation of age. Journal of Zoology (Lond) 150, 279-295.
Abstract: The need for a field method of determining and describing the relative age of African elephants collected in their natural habitat arose during a recent research project, and has led to an attempt to formulate a laminary age standard for use in the field, based upon direct observations and measurements on the lower right molars.  For this purpose a series of 31 African elephants of both sexes, covering almost the complete potential age range of an elephant's life, and of known body condition, locality and size, have been used as the basis for constructing a reference chart of molar laminary age. Eye lens weights were also obtained for 26 of these specimens, but, although indicative of a direct correlation with laminary age, they were obtained in insufficient numbers to provide an adequate sequence.  Each of the specimens used was first observed alive, then shot and examined post mortem during the course of a research project on cardiovascular disease, in which the determination of relative age formed an integral part.

Buss, I.O., Wallner, A., 1965. Body temperature of the African elephant. Journal of Mammalogy 46, 104-107.

Johnson, O.W., Buss, I.O., 1965. Molariform teeth of male African elephants in relation to age, body dimensions and growth. Journal of Mammalogy 46, 373-384.
Abstract: This paper is based upon the teeth, body dimensions and weights of 58 male elephants (Loxodonta africana) collected in Uganda and represents an attempt to relate dental status to approximate age as revealed by a hypothetical growth curve.  The elephant bears a successional series of six molars in each half of its jaw during its potential life of about 70 years.  Molars 1, 2,3 and 6 can be readily identified.  Molars 4 and 5 are difficult to identify, but satisfactory designations appear possible by reference to the body weight of the individual.  The correlation coefficient between body weight and shoulder height is 0.99.  This relationship, when compared to data from an elephant of known age, makes possible the construction of a growth curve.  Comparisons of tooth data with the growth curve reveal the approximate times that the teeth appear in an individual and also their subsequent periods of usage.  By knowing the approximate longevity of each tooth, one can satisfactorily estimate the ages of individual animals.

Neitz, W.O., 1965. A check-list and host-list of the zoonoses occurrring in mammals and birds in South and South West Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 32, 189-374.

Perry, J.S., 1964. The structure and development of the reproductive organs of the female African elephant. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol] 248, 35-52.

Brattstrom, B.H., Stabile, A.J., Williams, F.R., Des Lauiers, J., Pope, D., 1963. Body temperature of Indian elephants. Journal of Mammalogy 44, 282-283.

Gorovitz, C., 1962. Tuberculosis in an African elephant. Nord Vet Med 14, 351-352.

Robertson-Bullock, W., 1962. The weight of the African elephant Loxodonta africana. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 138, 133-135.

West, L.J., Pierce, C.M., 1962. Lysergic acid diethylamide: Its effects on a male Asiatic elephant. Science 138, 1100-1103.
Abstract: Summary:Researchers gave LSD to a zoo elephant in order to "induce a behavioral abberation that might resemble the phenomenon of going on musth."  Elephant cause of death was asphixiation secondary to laryngeal spasm.

Evans, G.H., 1961. Elephants and Their Diseases: A Treatise on Elephants. Government Printing, Rangoon, Burma.

Harthoorn, A.M., Lock, J.A., Luck, C.P., 1961. Handling and marking of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) with the use of the drug immobilizing technique -- a preliminary report. British Veterinary Journal 117, 87-91.

Bigalke, R., 1957. The ages to which elephants live. African Wild Life 2, 140-143.

Colyer, F., Miles, A.E.W., 1957. Injury to and rate of growth of an elephant tusk. Journal of Mammalogy 38(2), 243-247.

Hashimoto, Y., Yamauchi, S., Yasunobo, E., 1956. Dissection of an elephant. Bulletin University Osaka Prefecture series B 6, 30-52.

Holmes, T.H., 1956. Multidiscipline studies of tuberculosis. In: Sparer, P.J. (Ed.), Personality,stress, and tuberculosis. Int. Univ. Press, New York, pp. 65-125.

Lindsay, S., Skahen, R., Chaikoff, I.L., 1956. Arteriosclerosis in the elephant. Arch. Pathol. 61, 207-218.

Nicholson, B.D., 1956. The African elephant: How to shoot it humanely, when necessary. African Wild Life 10, 25-36.

Selye, H., 1956. Recent progress in stress research, with reference to tuberculosis. In: Sparer, P.J. (Ed.), Personality, stress, and tuberculosis. Int. Univ. Press, New York, pp. 45-64.

Deraniyagala, P.E.P., 1955. Some Extinct Elephants, Their Relatives and the Two Living Species. Ceylon National Museums publication, Government Press, National Museum, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

Rensch, B., Harde, K.W., 1955. Growth gradients of Indian elephants. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 52, 841-851.

Taylor, J.I., 1955. The rearing of an African elephant in captivity. Veterinary Record 67, 301-302.

Attwell, R.I.G., 1954. A note on wounds in elephants. African Wild Life 8, 204-205.

Perry, J.S., 1954. Some observations on growth and tusk weight in male and female African elephants. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 124, 97-104.

McGaughey, C.A., Schmid, E.E., Velaudapillai, T., Weinman, A.N., 1953. Salmonella typhimurium in young elephants and chimpanzees. Veterinary Record 65, 431-432.

Ayer, A.A., Mariappa, D., 1952. A radiographic study of ossification in the Indian elephant fetus. Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 1, 3-10.

Sutherland, A.K., O'Sullivan, P.J., Ohman, A.F.S., 1950. Helminthiasis in an elephant. Australian Veterinary Journal 26, 88-90.

Buttiauz, R., Gaumont, R., 1948. Infection mortelle d'un elephant par Salmonella oslo. Bull. Acad. Vet. Fr. 21, 399-342.

Flower, S.S., 1948. Further notes on the duration of life in mammals -- V.  The alleged and actual ages to which elephants live. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 117, 680-688.

Ferrier, A.J., 1947. The care and management of elephants in Burma. Steel Brothers, London.

Seidemann, R.M., Wheeler, H.M., 1947. Human anthrax from elephant's tusks. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 135, 837.

Burne, E.C., 1943. A record of gestation periods and growth of trained Indian elephant calves in the Southern Shan States, Burma. Proc. Zool. Soc. London Ser. A 113, 27-43.

Flower, S.S., 1943. Notes on age at sexual maturity, gestation period and growth of the Indian elephant, Elephas maximus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London Ser. A 113, 21-26.

Pillai, N.G., 1941. On the height and age of an elephant. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 42, 927-928.

Pfaff, G., 1940. Diseases of Elephants. Superintendent, Govt. Printing and Stationary, Burma, Rangoon.

Griffith, A.S., 1939. Infections of wild animals with tubercle and other acid-fast bacilli. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 32, 1405-1412.

Hill, W.C.O., 1938. The external and radiological anatomy of a foetal Asiatic elephant. Ceylon Journal of Science 21, 31-43.

Urbain, A., 1938. Tuberculosis in wild animals in captivity. Annales de L'Institute Pasteur 61, 705-730.

Winogradradsky, S., 1938. La microbiologie ecologique ses principes - son procede. Annales de L'Institute Pasteur 64, 715-730.

Iyer, A.K., 1937. Veterinary science in India, ancient and modern with special reference to tuberculosis. Agric. Livest. India 7, 718-724.

Benedict, F.G., Lee, R.C., 1936. Studies on the body temperatures of elephants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 22, 405-408.

Curasson, G., 1936. Treatise on the pathology of exotic animals. Vigot Freres, Paris.

Foot, A.E., 1935. Age of puberty in the Indian elephant. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 38, 392.

Morris, R.C., 1935. Death of 14 elephants (Elephas maximus Linn.) by food poisoning. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37, 722-723.

Morris, R.C., 1935. Death of an elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) while calving. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37, 722.

Datta, S.C.A., 1934. Report of the pathology section. Ann. Rep. Imp. Inst. Vet. Research Muktesar 25-33.

Hundley, G., 1934. Statistics of height increments of Indian calf elephants. Proc. Zool. Soc. London Ser. A 104, 697-698.

Hundley, G., 1934. Statistical record of growth in the Indian elephant. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37,  487-488.

Beckett, J., 1932. Death of an elephant from rabies. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36, 242-243.

Richmond, R.D., 1932. Elephants: age to which they live in captivity. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36, 494-496.

Seth-Smith, D., 1932. Remarks on the age at which the Indian elephant attains sexual maturity. Proc. Zool. Soc. London Ser. A 102, 816.
Abstract: The entire article is as follows:  Mr. D. Seth-Smith, F.Z.S., made the following remarks upon the age at which the Indian Elephant attains sexual maturity: -- "Lt.-Col. G.H. Evans, quoting Sanderson, gives the usual age at which the female elephant produces her first calf at sixteen years, but he quotes an instance, on the authority of W.A. Bell, of a cow dropping a calf when she was only nine years and one month old.  This cow subsequently died. "Herr Heck, director of the Zoological Garden at Munich, informs me that a cow elephant under his charge, known to be only eight years old, has produced a calf.  This was apparently premature, and for the first twelve days of its life, the young animal was unable to suck, and the cow had to be milked by hand and the calf fed with its mother's milk from a bottle.  At twelve days old it began to suck.  The father of this calf is now ten years old and mating took place when the bull was eight and the cow six years old.  Another cow in the Munich gardens which is nine years old is expected to produce a calf in a few months' time."

Flower, S.S., 1931. Contributions to our knowledge of the duration of life in vertebrate animals. V. Mammals. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1931, 145-234.

Boyle, D., 1929. Height in elephants. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 33, 437.

Scott, H.H., 1927. Report on the deaths occurring in the society's gardens during the year 1926. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1927, 173-198.

Coyler, E.J., 1926. The pathology of the teeth of elephants. Dental Record 46, 1-80.

Humphreys, H.F., 1926. Particulars relating to the broken tusk of a wild Indian elephant. Brit. Dent. J. 47, 1400-1407.

Narayanan, R.S., 1925. A case of tuberculosis in an elephant. Journal of Comparative Pathology 38, 96-97.

Benedict, F.G., Fox, E.L., Baker, M.L., 1921. The skin temperature of pachyderms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 7, 154-156.

Ishigami, T., 1918. The influence of psychic acts on the progress of pulmonary tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc. 2, 470-484.

Todd, T.W., 1913. Notes on the respiratory system of the elephant. Anatomischer Anzeiger 44, 175-183.

Stannus, H.S., 1911. Diseases of elephants' tusks. The Lancet 1, 617.

Thieringer, H., 1911. About tuberculosis in an elephant. Berl. Tierarztl. Wschr. 27, 234-235.

Bland-Sutton, J., 1910. The diseases of elephants' tusks in relation to billiard balls. The Lancet 2, 1534-1537.

Evans, G.H., 1910. Elephants and Their Diseases: A Treatise on Elephants. Government Printing, Rangoon, Burma.

Mitchell, W.D., 1903. Some notes upon the dentition of the elephant and injuries thereto. Dent. Rev. ,London 17, 83-110.

Shaw, W., 1900. Castration of an elephant. Veterinary Journal of London,N. S. 2, 151-152.

Busch, F., 1890. Ueber Verletzungen, Abscesse und Dentikel am Stosszahn des Elephanten. Dtsch. Mschr. Zahnheilk. 8, 62-65.

Garrod, A.H., 1875. Report on the Indian elephant which died in the society's gardens on July 7th, 1875. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1875, 542-543.

Gray, J.E., 1868. Notes on the foetus of an Elephant, etc. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 491.

Mullen, A., 1682. An anatomical account of the elephant accidentally burnt in Dublin, on Fryday, June 17, in the year 1681. London.



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