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arthritis, biomechanics, femur, foot care, foot disorders, fracture, locomotion, musculoskeletal, osteomyelitis, trunk

Elephant Bibliographic Database

References updated October 2009 by date of publication, most recent first.

Greenwald, R., Lyashchenko, O., Esfandiari, J., Miller, M., Mikota, S., Olsen, J.H., Ball, R., Dumonceaux, G., Schmitt, D., Moller, T., Payeur, J.B., Harris, B., Sofranko, D., Waters, W.R., Lyaschenko, K.P., 2009. Highly accurate antibody assays for early and rapid detection of tuberculosis in African and Asian elephants. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 16, 605-612.
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a reemerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current methods for screening and diagnosis rely on trunk wash culture, which has serious limitations due to low test sensitivity, slow turnaround time, and variable sample quality. Innovative and more efficient diagnostic tools are urgently needed. We describe three novel serologic techniques, the ElephantTB Stat-Pak kit, multiantigen print immunoassay, and dual-path platform VetTB test, for rapid antibody detection in elephants. The study was performed with serum samples from 236 captive African and Asian elephants from 53 different locations in the United States and Europe. The elephants were divided into three groups based on disease status and history of exposure: (i) 26 animals with culture-confirmed TB due to M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, (ii) 63 exposed elephants from known-infected herds that had never produced a culture-positive result from trunk wash samples, and (iii) 147 elephants without clinical symptoms suggestive of TB, with consistently negative trunk wash culture results, and with no history of potential exposure to TB in the past 5 years. Elephants with culture-confirmed TB and a proportion of exposed but trunk wash culture-negative elephants produced robust antibody responses to multiple antigens of M. tuberculosis, with seroconversions detectable years before TB-positive cultures were obtained from trunk wash specimens. ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins were immunodominant antigens recognized by elephant antibodies during disease. The serologic assays demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 95 to 100% specificity. Rapid and accurate antibody tests to identify infected elephants will likely allow earlier and more efficient treatment, thus limiting transmission of infection to other susceptible animals and to humans.

Greenwald, R., Lyashchenko, O., Esfandiari, J., Miller, M., Mikota, S., Olsen, J.H., Ball, R., Dumonceaux, G., Schmitt, D., Moller, T., Payeur, J.B., Harris, B., Sofranko, D., Waters, W.R., Lyashchenko, K.P., 2009. Highly accurate antibody assays for early and rapid detection of tuberculosis in African and Asian elephants. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16, 605-612.
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a reemerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current methods for screening and diagnosis rely on trunk wash culture, which has serious limitations due to low test sensitivity, slow turnaround time, and variable sample quality. Innovative and more efficient diagnostic tools are urgently needed. We describe three novel serologic techniques, the ElephantTB Stat-Pak kit, multiantigen print immunoassay, and dual-path platform VetTB test, for rapid antibody detection in elephants. The study was performed with serum samples from 236 captive African and Asian elephants from 53 different locations in the United States and Europe. The elephants were divided into three groups based on disease status and history of exposure: (i) 26 animals with culture-confirmed TB due to M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, (ii) 63 exposed elephants from known-infected herds that had never produced a culture-positive result from trunk wash samples, and (iii) 147 elephants without clinical symptoms suggestive of TB, with consistently negative trunk wash culture results, and with no history of potential exposure to TB in the past 5 years. Elephants with culture-confirmed TB and a proportion of exposed but trunk wash culture-negative elephants produced robust antibody responses to multiple antigens of M. tuberculosis, with seroconversions detectable years before TB-positive cultures were obtained from trunk wash specimens. ESAT-6 and CFP10 proteins were immunodominant antigens recognized by elephant antibodies during disease. The serologic assays demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 95 to 100% specificity. Rapid and accurate antibody tests to identify infected elephants will likely allow earlier and more efficient treatment, thus limiting transmission of infection to other susceptible animals and to humans

Haakonsson, J.E., Semple, S., 2009. Lateralisation of trunk movements in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)
112. Laterality. 14, 413-422.
Abstract: Behavioural lateralisation has been widely investigated in vertebrates. Most studies in this area have focused on laterality in paired organs such as hands, limbs, and eyes. Fewer studies have explored side preferences in unpaired organs such as tails or trunks. We investigated laterality of trunk use among captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), quantifying side preference in four different trunk movements: feeding, sand spraying, self-touching, and swinging. We found evidence for significant side preference in all four movement categories. Variation in the occurrence and direction of side preference was seen both within and between individuals but no overall population-level side bias was seen for any of the four trunk movements. The strength of side preference in trunk use was significantly higher for feeding than for self-touching and swinging. This study adds to the very limited data on laterality in unpaired organs generally, and elephants' trunks more specifically. In addition it provides novel information about directional lateralisation in trunk use across a range of functionally distinct contexts

Jantou, V., Turmaine, M., West, G.D., Horton, M.A., McComb, D.W., 2009. Focused ion beam milling and ultramicrotomy of mineralised ivory dentine for analytical transmission electron microscopy
114. Micron. 40, 495-501.
Abstract: The use of focused ion beam (FIB) milling for preparation of sections of mineralised ivory dentine for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is investigated. Ivory dentine is essentially composed of fibrillar type-I collagen and apatite crystals. The aim of this project is to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between the organic and inorganic components of ivory dentine using analytical TEM, in order to utilise these analytical techniques in the context of common skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and arthritis. TEM sections were prepared in both single and dual beam FIB instruments, using two standard lift-out techniques, in situ and ex situ. The FIB sections were systematically compared with sections prepared by ultramicrotomy, the traditional preparation route in biological systems, in terms of structural and chemical differences. A clear advantage of FIB milling over ultramicrotomy is that dehydration, embedding and section flotation can be eliminated, so that partial mineral loss due to dissolution is avoided. The characteristic banding of collagen fibrils was clearly seen in FIB milled sections without the need for any chemical staining, as is commonly employed in ultramicrotomy. The FIB milling technique was able to produce high-quality TEM sections of ivory dentine, which are suitable for further investigation using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtering TEM (EFTEM) to probe the collagen/apatite interface

Lozi, H., Goodwin, T.E., Rasmussen, L.E.L., Whitehouse, A.M., Schulte, B.A., 2009. Sexual dimorphism in the performance of chemosensory investigatory behaviours by African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Behaviour 146, 373-392.
Abstract: Sexual dimorphism in morphology can be accompanied by behavioural differences between the sexes. We examined if investigatory behaviour involving the trunk of African elephants showed sexual dimorphism. Males compete and search for females, but they have a lengthy period of development before they are socially viable mates. Receptive females are relatively rare. We hypothesized that males would display higher rates of chemosensory behaviour following puberty than females. Because males disperse, they were hypothesized to be more likely to contact elephants outside their kinship group. We observed the trunk tip, chemosensory behaviours of African elephants at Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. For 208 elephants, we found no significant differences in state behaviours around waterholes by age or sex. Yet, older elephants were more likely to investigate the environment and elephant excrement than younger animals. Males were more likely to investigate urine and faeces than females. Only post-puberty animals contacted non-family with males investigating both sexes, while investigations by and to females only involved post-puberty males. Overall, the probability of performing chemosensory behaviours depended on age and sex. Male elephants appear more reliant than females on signals in urine and faeces with ensuing inspections of individuals through trunk tip contacts.

Paul, G., 2009. The nearly columnar limbs of elephants are very different from the more flexed, spring action limbs of running mammals and birds. J. Exp. Biol. 212, 152-3, author.

Rees, P.A., 2009. Activity budgets and the relationship between feeding and stereotypic behaviors in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoo
75. Zoo. Biol. 28, 79-97.
Abstract: Activity budgets were studied in eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Chester Zoo (UK) for 35 days, between January and November 1999. Recordings were made between 10:00 and 16:00 hr (with most behavior frequencies calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 hr). The elephants exhibited variation in activity depending on their age, sex, the time of day and the time of year. Only the five adult cows exhibited stereotypic behavior, with frequencies ranging from 3.9 to 29.4% of all observations. These elephants exhibited individual, diurnal and seasonal variation in stereotypic behavior. This has implications for studies that use short sampling periods and may make comparisons of data collected at different times of the day or year invalid. The six adult elephants spent 27.4-41.4% of the time feeding (between 10:00 and 14:00 hr), 22.9-42.0% standing still, 6.1-19.2% walking and 3.9-9.6% dusting. The hypothesis that the frequency of stereotypic behavior in adult cow elephants was negatively correlated with the frequency of feeding behavior was tested and was found to be true. Stereotypic behavior increased in frequency toward the end of the day-while waiting to return to the elephant house for food--and elephants spent more time stereotyping during the winter months than during the summer months. Elephants were inactive (i.e. exhibited behaviors other than locomotion) for between 70.1 and 93.9% of the time. Creating more opportunities for elephants to exhibit foraging behavior and the introduction of greater unpredictability into management regimes, especially feeding times, may reduce the frequency of stereotypic behavior and increase general activity levels

Shyan-Norwalt, M.R., Peterson, J., Milankow, K.B., Staggs, T.E., Dale, R.H., 2009. Initial findings on visual acuity thresholds in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Zoo. Biol. 28, 1-6.
Abstract: There are only a few published examinations of elephant visual acuity. All involved Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and found visual acuity to be between 8' and 11' of arc for a stimulus near the tip of the trunk, equivalent to a 0.50 cm gap, at a distance of about 2 m from the eyes. We predicted that African elephants (Loxodonta africana) would have similarly high visual acuity, necessary to facilitate eye-trunk coordination for feeding, drinking and social interactions. When tested on a discrimination task using Landolt-C stimuli, one African elephant cow demonstrated a visual acuity of 48' of arc. This represents the ability to discriminate a gap as small as 2.75 cm in a stimulus 196 cm from the eye. This single-subject study provides a preliminary estimate of the visual acuity of African elephants. Zoo Biol 28:1-6, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Soltis, J., 2009. Vocal communication in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)
61. Zoo. Biol. 28, 1-18.
Abstract: Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks. Zoo Biol 28:1-18, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Aupperle, H., Reischauer, A., Bach, F., Hildebrandt, T., Goritz, F., Jager, K., Scheller, R., Klaue, H.J., Schoon, H.A., 2008. Chronic endometritis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 107-110.
Abstract: A 48-yr-old female Asian elephant with a history of pododermatitis developed recurrent hematuria beginning in 2002. Transrectal ultrasonography and endoscopic examination in 2004 identified the uterus as the source of hematuria and excluded hemorrhagic cystitis. Treatment with Desloreline implants, antibiotics, and homeopathic drugs led to an improved general condition of the elephant. In July 2005, the elephant was suddenly found dead. During necropsy, the severely enlarged uterus contained about 250 L of purulent fluid, and histopathology revealed ulcerative suppurative endometritis with high numbers of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus and Escherichia coli identified on aerobic culture. Additional findings at necropsy included: multifocal severe pododermatitis, uterine leiomyoma, and numerous large calcified areas of abdominal fat necrosis. Microbiologic culture of the pododermatitis lesion revealed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus, Staphylococcus sp., Corynebacterium sp., and Entercoccus sp

Fowler, M.E. Wound healing in elephants. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  143-144. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Basic Wound Healing
A wound into the subcutaneous tissue follows sequential stages of healing, namely inflammation, débridement, proliferation, epithelization and contraction (scarring). Elephant wounds go through the same sequences if allowed to do so. Basic mammalian wound healing involves the epidermis, germinal epithelium, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In the elephant foot the
epidermis becomes the cornified sole, pad or nail, which is produced by the germinal epithelium.The dermis becomes the corium (vascularized fibrous tissue connecting the cornified shell to the digits). The healing process may take weeks, months and even years. Particular emphasis will be given to anatomy as it relates to foot infections, basic principles of wound healing in mammals as applied to elephants, predisposing factors and factors that inhibit wound healing. Predisposing Factors of Foot Infections
Genetics (conformation defects), malnutrition (rickets), abnormal behavior (stereotypy, pawing, resting with pressure on a specific area of the foot, excessive pressure to compensate for pain in another limb), degenerative joint disease, poor sanitation, no variation in the enclosure substrate, and minimal opportunity to exercise are such factors.
Cardinal Rules Governing Wound Management, Specifically Foot Infections
 1. Elephants should be trained to allow foot inspection of all feet on a daily basis.
2. Minimize or eliminate predisposing factors.
3. Remove all necrotic material, dirt, feces, urine and debris from the wound cavity.
4. Obtain adequate drainage for an exudate to exit the cavity.
5. Prevent recontamination of the clean wound either by packing the wound cavity with
disinfectant soaked gauze or by applying a protective boot.

Kilgallon, C., Flach, E., Boardman, W., Routh, A., Strike, T., Jackson, B., 2008. Analysis of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 527-536.
Abstract: Two human enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and one radioimmunoassay (RIA) were validated and used to measure osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the cross-linked telopeptide domain of type I collagen (ICTP), in serum from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Sera from four adult females sampled on 7 consecutive days were also analyzed to assess the existence and magnitude of intraindividual day-to-day variability of the serum concentration of these markers. Sample dilution curves were parallel with assay standard curves, which demonstrated that excellent cross reactivity existed between assay antibodies and elephants marker antigens. Statistically significant inverse correlations were found between age and concentrations of all three markers: BAP, r = -0.862 (P < 0.01); OC, r = -0.788 (P < 0.002); and ICTP, r = -0.848 (P < 0.01). Strong positive correlations were found between BAP and OC (r = 0.797, P < 0.01), OC and ICTP (r = 0.860, P < 0.01), and between BAP and ICTP (r = 0.958, P < 0.01). No statistically significant intraindividual variability was found over 7 days in the four adult females for any of the markers assessed (OC: P = 0.089; ICTP: P = 0.642; BAP: P = 0.146; n=4 in each case). The overall coefficient of variability observed in this group of animals was 10.3%, 7.4%, and 5.5% for OC, BAP, and ICTP, respectively. These results suggest a potential role for biochemical markers of bone turnover in monitoring skeletal health and bone disease in Asian elephants

Meyers, D.A., Isaza, R., MacNeill, A. Evaluation of acute phase proteins for diagnosis of inflammation in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  128. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: In many domestic species, routine hematology assays are useful diagnostic tools to diagnose inflammatory conditions. Unlike other species, these hematologic tests apparently are insensitive indicators of inflammation in elephants.1 We studied a novel group of blood proteins, called acute phase proteins, which increase during inflammatory conditions, for their usefulness in diagnosing elephants with inflammatory diseases. Although these proteins currently are useful in humans and domestic animals, each species has a different set of important proteins that must be individually investigated.2 We tested several acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, alpha-1 glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, and albumin) as well as complete blood counts, chemistry panels, serum protein electrophoresis, and 3-D gel electrophoresis to determine their usefulness for diagnosing different types of inflammatory conditions in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Animals with inflammatory conditions were classified as those individuals with known illnesses such as mycobacteriosis, arthritis, nail bed abscesses, and malignant tumors. Control animals were thoseanimals that were suspected to not have any inflammation and be healthy at the time of testing as determined by physical examination and obtaining a thorough medical history.
1. Lyashchenko, K., R. Greenwald, J. Esfandiari, J. Olsen, R. Ball, G. Dumonceaux, F. Dunker, C. Buckley, M.
Richard, S. Murray, J.B. Payeur, P. Anderson, J.M. Pollock, S. Mikota, M. Miller, D. Sofranko, and W.R.
Waters. 2006. Tuberculosis in Elephants: Antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium
, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 13: 722-732.
2. Murata H., N. Shimada, M. Yoshioka. 2004. Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis:
an overview. Vet J. 168: 28-40.

Miller, J., McClean, M. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after a single rectal dose. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  224-225. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Captive African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) are susceptible to many types of gram negative bacterial infections such as Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma  spp., Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Proteus spp. Enrofloxacin (Baytril®, Bayer Health Care, Animal Health Division, P.O. Box 390, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201) is a potentially effective antibiotic for
treatment of these bacterial infections in elephants. Very limited data exists on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in elephants2 and most of the dosage regimes for gastrointestinal absorption are based on horse dosages since they share a similar  gastrointestinal tract. Three African elephants from Wildlife Safari in Winston, Oregon, two females both 37-yr-old and one male 26-yr-old, were used to determine whether therapeutic levels of enrofloxacin could be achieved thru rectal administration of liquid injectable enrofloxacin (Baytril 100®, 100 mg/ml, Bayer Health Care, Animal Health Division, P.O. Box 390, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201) at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. A pretreatment baseline blood sample was collected. Following administration, blood samples were collected at 45 min, 1.5hr, 2.5hr, 5hr, 9hr, 23hr, 36hr to determine plasma enrofloxacin levels. Plasma enrofloxacin levels were measured at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels were measured concurrently. Results indicate plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin did not reach adequate bacteriocidal levels for any of the the following common bacterial isolates in captive elephants: Mycoplasma
spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Proteus spp. The study determined that a rectally administered dosage of 2.5 mg/kg of liquid injectable enrofloxacin was insufficient to obtain therapeutic levels in African elephants. The low plasma levels of enrofloxacin in all three elephants may be a result of poor absorption in the distal large intestine. A future study will determine if oral administration will provide a more efficient mode of drug delivery and absorption in African elephants. It is also possible that the current dosage of 2.5 mg/kg is too low to achieve adequate therapeutic levels.
I would like to thank the elephant and veterinary staff at Wildlife Safari for their participation in conducting this study. Thanks to Doctors: Modesto McClean, Jason Bennett, Andi Chariffe, Tessa Lohe, Benji Alacantar. Also thanks to Dinah Wilson, Carol Matthews, Anthony Karels, Mary Iida, Shawn Finnell, Patches Stroud, Katie Alayan.
1. Haines, G.R., et. al. 2000. Serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after intravenous and intragastric administration to mares. Can. J.Vet. Res. 64(3):171-177.
2. Sanchez, C.R., et. al. 2005. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of enrofloxacin administered orally to captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Am. J. Vet. Res. 66:1948-1953.

Ramanathan, A., Mallapur, A., 2008. A visual health assessment of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in India. J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 148-154.
Abstract: A visual health assessment and survey questionnaire was conducted on 81 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in 10 animal facilities throughout India between November 2004 and February 2005. The survey questionnaire consisted of 10 questions that evaluated the health of the elephants, and they were completed after visually assessing each individual elephant. The information collected was ranked on a scale that was used to statistically compare the health among the study subjects. This study documented that 43.21% of the captive elephants surveyed exhibited hyperkeratosis. A significant proportion of the elephants owned by tourist camps had poor skin condition when compared with elephants from zoos and at a forest camp. Similarly, captive-born individuals were found to have better skin condition than animals that were caught from the wild. Sixty (74.1%) of the captive elephants that were observed during this study had fissures in their footpads, 20% of which were severe. The prevalence of foot fissures was significantly higher in females. A greater proportion of elephants owned by tourist camps displayed vertical and horizontal toenail cracks in comparison with the forest camp and zoo elephants. It was noted that 76.9% of the wounded animals and 80% of those having abscesses were housed at temples and tourist camps. Also, approximately 8.5% of the captive elephant population observed during this study had eye-related problems, and they were all housed at temples and tourist camps. In conclusion, it was evident that elephants housed at temples or tourist camps exhibited poor skin condition with wounds and abscesses. These findings suggest that the overall condition of the elephants housed at tourist camps was poor compared with elephants housed at zoos and at the forest camp

Ren, L., Butler, M., Miller, C., Paxton, H., Schwerda, D., Fischer, M.S., Hutchinson, J.R., 2008. The movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants. J. Exp. Biol. 211, 2735-2751.
Abstract: As the largest extant terrestrial animals, elephants do not trot or gallop but can move smoothly to faster speeds without markedly changing their kinematics, yet with a shift from vaulting to bouncing kinetics. To understand this unusual mechanism, we quantified the forelimb and hindlimb motions of eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and seven African elephants (Loxodonta africana). We used 240 Hz motion analysis (tracking 10 joint markers) to measure the flexion/extension angles and angular velocities of the limb segments and joints for 288 strides across an eightfold range of speeds (0.6-4.9 m s(-1)) and a sevenfold range of body mass (521-3684 kg). We show that the columnar limb orientation that elephants supposedly exemplify is an oversimplification--few segments or joints are extremely vertical during weight support (especially at faster speeds), and joint flexion during the swing phase is considerable. The 'inflexible' ankle is shown to have potentially spring-like motion, unlike the highly flexible wrist, which ironically is more static during support. Elephants use approximately 31-77% of their maximal joint ranges of motion during rapid locomotion, with this fraction increasing distally in the limbs, a trend observed in some other running animals. All angular velocities decrease with increasing size, whereas smaller elephant limbs are not markedly more flexed than adults. We find no major quantitative differences between African and Asian elephant locomotion but show that elephant limb motions are more similar to those of smaller animals, including humans and horses, than commonly recognized. Such similarities have been obscured by the reliance on the term ;columnar' to differentiate elephant limb posture from that of other animals. Our database will be helpful for identifying elephants with unusual limb movements, facilitating early recognition of musculoskeletal pathology

Schmitt, D., Charmason, S., Wiedner, E. Use of luteinizing hormone ELISAs  in breeding elephants. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  120-121. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Successful artificial insemination (AI) of elephants depends heavily on determining the unique luteinizing hormone (LH) surges that occur during the follicular phase of the elephant's estrous cycle. Natural breeding of elephants also can benefit from a rapid and accurate determination of the two LH surges found in elephants. There are three ELISAs available for determining the LH
surge; two are commercially-available assays and one is a laboratory in-house assay. Each vary in their cost, time to complete the assay, and ease of performing the procedures. Detection of the initial non-ovulatory peak in luteinizing hormone (LH1) is best accomplished by use of an in house LH assay, or use of the LH assay available from Dr. Nancy Dahl (UC-Davis, Davis, CA
95616 USA), both of which are quantitative assays for detection of LH. For cow-side use during estrus, the qualitative ELISA Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit (Symbiotics Corporation, Kansas City, MO 64163 USA) detects LH in elephants within 20 min. This assay requires a minimum of laboratory precision to detect the ovulatory LH peak (LH2).
Elephants are the only species known to exhibit a double LH peak during a single estrous cycle.2,4 Increased success of artificial insemination in elephants occurred partly in response to the ability to detect the LH1 surge about 21 days prior to the ovulatory LH2 surge that occurs at the end of a two to three day estrus.1 The first reports regarding detection of the double LH
surges were performed in laboratories using custom ELISA technology that require exacting procedures and two days to complete the quantitative assays.2,4 A semi-quantitative elephant LH ELISA that can be performed in the field in about 2.5 hr was developed at UC-Davis.3 A qualitative LH assay was developed for use in dogs and cats that uses a latex strip ELISA. The time for development of the test is 20 min and detects a LH surge greater than 1 ng/ml using serum. Elephants have LH1 and LH2 surges in the 4-16 ng/ml range,2,4 well within the detectable range for all of the assays described. The detection of the LH1 peak usually is from daily samples submitted weekly; this allows some efficiency of assay resources and provides at least a two-wk notice of LH2. However, accurate and timely detection of LH2 is needed at least daily and at times twice daily during estrus. The use of an LH assay which can be performed 'cow-side' and accurately detect LH2 is essential for successful AI and can be helpful in determining estrus status for natural breeding. The Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit from Symbiotics was developed for use in dogs and cats, but is effective in other species, including elephants, and meets these requirements.
Detection of LH1 provides information for predicting the LH2 surge and performance of assays that require more laboratory time and precision are useful since detection of LH1 is not as timesensitive as LH2 detection. Both of the quantitative assays have unique advantages. An inhouse assay can be set up, but requires greater preparation time, precision of laboratory procedures is more demanding, often takes two days to perform, and is more susceptible to environmental variables. The assay developed by UC-Davis costs about $5.00 per well, takes about 2.5 hr to perform and is more stable. However, for quantitative results the overhead costs of the standard curve requires about 16 wells ($90), plus two wells for each unknown sample. The UC-Davis assay can be set up as a qualitative test with high and low controls and no standard curve. This requires from three to six wells for a single sample. The Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit has a control built into each test strip and costs about $25.00 per sample. Because 'cow-side' testing possible using the Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit, I recommend its use for detection of LH2, although the UC-Davis Elephant ELISA is competitively priced and can be performed in a nearby temporary laboratory. Because timing is
critical in detecting LH2 and performing subsequent AI, I recommend using the Witness® LH Ovulation Timing Test Kit at the time of estrus, preceded by either one of the other assays for detecting LH1, depending on availability of laboratory labor and equipment.
1. Brown, J. L., F. Goritz, N. Pratt-Hawkes, R. Hermes, M. Galloway, L. H. Graham, C. Gray, S. L. Walker, A. Gomez, R. Moreland, S. Murray, D. L. Schmitt, J. G. Howard, J. Lehnhardt, B. Beck, A. Bellem, R. Montali, and T. B. Hildebrandt. 2004. Successful artificial insemination of an Asian elephant at the National Zoological Park. Zoo Biol. 23: 45-63.
2. Brown, J. L., D. L. Schmitt, A. Bellem, L. H. Graham, and J. Lehnhardt. 1999. Hormone secretion in the Asian elephant (
Elephas maximus): Characterization of ovulatory and anovulatory luteinizing hormone surges. Biol. Reprod. 61: 1294-1299.
3. Dahl, N. J., D. Olson, D. L. Schmitt, D. R. Blasko, R. S. Kristipati, and J. F. Roser. 2004. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the elephant (
Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus). Zoo Biol. 23: 65-78.
4. Kapustin, N., J. K. Critser, D. Olson, and P. V. Malven. 1996. Nonluteal estrous cycles of 3-week duration are initiated by anovulatory luteinizing hormone peaks in African elephants. Biol. Reprod. 55:1147-1154.

Siegal-Willott, J., Isaza, R., Johnson, R., Blaik, M., 2008. Distal limb radiography, ossification, and growth plate closure in the juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 320-334.
Abstract: Eleven juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were evaluated radiographically to determine the relative times of growth plate closure and phalangeal ossification in the bones of the distal forelimb. Specifically, the first, second, and third phalanges of the third digit (D3) were evaluated, as well as the third phalanx of digits 1, 2, 4, and 5. All elephants were healthy at the time of examination. A retrospective evaluation of radiographs from six of the 11 juvenile elephants was also completed to augment the data set. This study reports the methods used to obtain high-quality radiographs of the distal juvenile elephant limb, ossification characteristics of the phalanges, relative times of growth plate closure within the proximal phalanges of D3, and a method for age estimation based on radiographic findings. This study will help clinicians in conducting elephant foot radiography, in evaluating foot radiographs in juvenile elephants, in recognizing normal versus pathologic change, and in estimating juvenile elephant age based on radiographic ossification characteristics and growth plate closure times. Consistent use of the proposed foot radiograph technique is recommended to facilitate foot disease recognition and as part of the annual examination of captive Asian elephants

Slade-Cain, B.E., Rasmussen, L.E., Schulte, B.A., 2008. Estrous state influences on investigative, aggressive, and tail flicking behavior in captive female Asian elephants
78. Zoo. Biol. 27, 167-180.
Abstract: Females of species that live in matrilineal hierarchies may compete for temporally limited resources, yet maintain social harmony to facilitate cohesion. The relative degree of aggressive and nonaggressive interactions may depend on the reproductive condition of sender and receiver. Individuals can benefit by clearly signaling and detecting reproductive condition. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) live in social matrilineal herds. Females have long estrous cycles (14-16 weeks) composed of luteal (8-12 weeks) and follicular (4-8 weeks) phases. In this study, we observed the behavior of four captive Asian elephant females during multiple estrous cycles over 2 years. We evaluated whether investigative, aggressive, and tail flicking behaviors were related to reproductive condition. Investigative trunk tip contacts showed no distinct pattern by senders, but were more prevalent toward female elephants that were in their follicular compared with their luteal phase. The genital area was the most frequently contacted region and may release reproductively related chemosignals. Aggression did not differ significantly with estrus; however, rates of aggression were elevated when senders were approaching ovulation and receivers were in the luteal phase. Females in the follicular phase may honestly advertise their condition. Contacts by conspecifics may serve to assess condition and reduce aggression. A behavior termed "tail flicking" was performed mainly during the mid-follicular phase when estrogen and luteinizing hormone levels are known to spike. Tail flicking may disperse chemical signals in urine or mucus as well as act as a tonic signal that could provide a means of anticipating forthcoming ovulation by elephants and also for human observers and caretakers. Zoo Biol 27:167-180, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Steenkamp, G., Ferguson, W.H., Boy, S.C., Ferreira, S.M., Bester, M.N., 2008. Estimating exposed pulp lengths of tusks in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana). J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 79, 25-30.
Abstract: Captive and wild African elephants frequently suffer tusk fractures. Several institutions shorten the tusks of captive elephants to reduce fractures and injury as a result of behaviour within enclosures. Fracturing or coronal amputations that expose pulp lead to pain for the elephant. Estimating coronal pulp lengths may thus help to minimise the risk of pulp exposure during amputations. We aimed to determine the length of the pulp beyond the lip margin from an external tusk characteristic. Tusks collected from elephants in Namibia and the Kruger National Park had similar morphological relationships. This statistical property allowed us to correct for missing data in our data sets. Pulp volume and pulp length correlated with tusk circumference at the lip. Even so, the circumference at the lip could not predict the length of the pulp in the crown external to the lip. Our findings suggest that tusks, irrespective of sex or age, amputated further than 300 mm from the lip should not expose pulp

Steinmetz, H.W., Eulenberger, U., Hatt, J.M. Daily clinical examinations in a herd of captive asian elephants. Proc American Associaton of Zoo Veterinarians and Assoc of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.  124. 2008. 11-10-2008.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is not self-sustaining.2 Poor reproduction and high juvenile mortality are key factors in the decreasing population. Infection with endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) is one of the major causes of death in the captive population, and has resulted in the loss of at least 40 captive animals.1 EEHV has been
responsible for the peracute death of two juvenile males at Zurich Zoo, Switzerland. Mortality due to peracute infection with EEHV mainly is seen in juveniles. Early detection of characteristic clinical signs of EEHV and immediate initiation of therapy are of crucial
importance due to its rapid progression. Based on past fatal EEHV experiences, Zurich Zoo modified its daily clinical health monitoring program to increase staff awareness of EEHV infection. Examinations have been incorporated into the daily routine and include daily evaluation of behaviour, appetite, colour of mucosal membranes and the measurement of body temperature; these examinations are performed by keepers. In our experiences, characteristic signs of acute EEHV infection are lethargy, anorexia, mild
colic, and cyanosis of the mucosal membranes. Results of temperature measurements have shown that best estimations of body temperature are done by measurement of the temperature in the centre of a fecal ball 5-9 min after defecation. Mean values of 36.5°C (± 0.2°C SD) are within published reference values, although adult elephants have shown significantly lower body temperature than juveniles. Establishment of individual reference values for each elephant is essential to detect unusual temperature peaks that may indicate possible EEHV viremia. The present study has shown that daily health examinations increase the awareness of keepers for
early signs of EEHV infection (e.g., peaks in body temperature and cyanotic mucosal membranes).
The authors thank B. Aeschbach and all elephant keepers for taking special care of our elephants. The work and organization of Ms. G. Hürlimann is gratefully appreciated.
1. Mikota, S. 2007. Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV). http://www.elephantcare.org/herpes.htm. cited: 10.04.2008:
2. Wiese, R. J. 2000. Asian elephants are not self-sustaining in North America. Zoo Biol. 19: 299-309.

Wiedner, E.B., Gray, C., Rich, P., Jacobson, G.L., Isaza, R., Schmitt, D., Lindsay, W.A., 2008. Nonsurgical repair of an umbilical hernia in two Asian elephant calves (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 248-251.
Abstract: Umbilical hernias were diagnosed in two captive-born, female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves several weeks after birth. Daily manual reduction of the hernias for 5 wk in the first case and for 5 mo in the second resulted in complete closure of the defects. Nonsurgical repair of uncomplicated, fully reducible umbilical hernias in Asian elephants can be an alternative to surgery

Bicer, S., Reiser, P.J., 2007. Variations in apparent mass of mammalian fast-type myosin light chains correlate with species body size, from shrew to elephant
424. Am. J. Physiol Regul. Integr. Comp Physiol 292, R527-R534.
Abstract: A recent study (Bicer S and Reiser PJ. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 25: 623-633, 2004) suggested considerable variation in the apparent molecular mass (M(a)), deduced from electrophoretic mobility, in fast-type myosin light chains (MLCF), especially MLC1F, among mammalian species. Furthermore, there was an indication that MLC1F M(a) generally correlates with species body mass, over an approximately 4,000-fold range in body mass. The results also suggested that M(a) of other low-molecular-weight myofibrillar proteins is less variable and not as strongly correlated with body mass among the same species. The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that the M(a) of MLCs does, in fact, vary and correlate with species body mass. The electrophoretic mobilities of MLCF isoforms from 19 species, varying in size approximately 500,000-fold, were quantitated. The results confirm that the M(a) of MLC1F and MLC2F vary significantly among mammals, spanning a very broad range in body mass; the MLC1F M(a) varies more than that of other low-molecular-weight myofibrillar proteins; and there is a significant correlation between species body mass and MLC1F M(a). Differences in MLC1F M(a) among five species can be accounted for by differences in the reported amino acid sequence, especially the length of a common polyalanine region near the NH(2)-terminal actin-binding site. The possibility that the differences in MLC1F sequence among mammalian species, in and adjacent to the actin-binding region, are related to differences in modulation of cross-bridge kinetics in species with diverse locomotion kinetics is discussed

Blake, S., Strindberg, S., Boudjan, P., Makombo, C., Bila-Isia, I., Ilambu, O., Grossmann, F., Bene-Bene, L., de, S.B., Mbenzo, V., S'hwa, D., Bayogo, R., Williamson, L., Fay, M., Hart, J., Maisels, F., 2007. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin. PLoS. Biol. 5, e111.
Abstract: Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale

Bouley, D.M., Alarcón, C.N., Hildebrandt, T., O'connell-Rodwell, C.E., ., 2007. The distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of Pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication. J Anat 211, 428-435.
Abstract: Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. Unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. The distribution, morphology and tissue density of Pacinian corpuscles, specialized mechanoreceptors, were studied in a forefoot and hindfoot of Asian elephants. Pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis and distal digital cushion and were most densely localized to the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral region of each foot, with the highest numbers in the anterior region of the forefoot (52.19%) and the posterior region of the hindfoot (47.09%). Pacinian corpuscles were encapsulated, had a typical lamellar structure and were most often observed in large clusters. Three-dimensional reconstruction through serial sections of the dermis revealed that individual Pacinian corpuscles may be part of a cluster. By studying the distribution and density of these mechanoreceptors, we propose that Pacinian corpuscles are one possible anatomic mechanism used by elephants to detect seismic waves.

Dai, X., Shannon, G., Slotow, R., Page, B., Duffy, K.J., 2007. Short-Duration Daytime Movements Of A Cow Herd Of African Elephants. Journal of Mammalogy 88, 151-157.
Abstract: We examined daytime movements of a herd of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at 10-min, 15-min, and 20-min intervals in Pongola Game Reserve, South Africa. This group tended to proceed in a consistent direction during consecutive movements, especially during long moves. Serial movement lengths and serial movement angles were autocorrelated at 10-min and 15-min intervals but not at 20-min intervals, indicating that 20-min intervals may be a suitable temporal scale to avoid oversampling. Herd movements followed a Lévy-modulated correlated random walk. In addition, looping movements were detected. Spatial scale of the loops averaged about 1 km. Movement strategies that include both Lévy walks and correlated random walks are thought to optimize foraging.

Fritsch, A., Hellmich, C., 2007. 'Universal' microstructural patterns in cortical and trabecular, extracellular and extravascular bone materials: micromechanics-based prediction of anisotropic elasticity
390. Journal of Theoretical Biology 244, 597-620.
Abstract: Bone materials are characterized by an astonishing variability and diversity. Still, because of 'architectural constraints' due to once chosen material constituents and their physical interaction, the fundamental hierarchical organization or basic building plans of bone materials remain largely unchanged during biological evolution. Such universal patterns of microstructural organization govern the mechanical interaction of the elementary components of bone (hydroxyapatite, collagen, water; with directly measurable tissue-independent elastic properties), which are here quantified through a multiscale homogenization scheme delivering effective elastic properties of bone materials: at a scale of 10nm, long cylindrical collagen molecules, attached to each other at their ends by approximately 1.5nm long crosslinks and hosting intermolecular water inbetween, form a contiguous matrix called wet collagen. At a scale of several hundred nanometers, wet collagen and mineral crystal agglomerations interpenetrate each other, forming the mineralized fibril. At a scale of 5-10microm, the extracellular solid bone matrix is represented as collagen fibril inclusions embedded in a foam of largely disordered (extrafibrillar) mineral crystals. At a scale above the ultrastructure, where lacunae are embedded in extracellular bone matrix, the extravascular bone material is observed. Model estimates predicted from tissue-specific composition data gained from a multitude of chemical and physical tests agree remarkably well with corresponding acoustic stiffness experiments across a variety of cortical and trabecular, extracellular and extravascular materials. Besides from reconciling the well-documented, seemingly opposed concepts of 'mineral-reinforced collagen matrix' and 'collagen-reinforced mineral matrix' for bone ultrastructure, this approach opens new possibilities in the exploitation of computer tomographic data for nano-to-macro mechanics of bone organs

Hildebrandt, T., Drews, B., Gaeth, A.P., Goeritz, F., Hermes, R., Schmitt, D., Gray, C., Rich, P., Streich, W.J., Short, R.V., Renfree, M.B., 2007. Foetal age determination and development in elephants. Proc. Biol. Sci. 274, 323-331.
Abstract: Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown-rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85-90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation.

Kokshenev, V.B., 2007. New insights into long-bone biomechanics: are limb safety factors invariable across mammalian species? J. Biomech. 40, 2911-2918.
Abstract: The most common function of limb bones is to provide stiff levers acting against muscles and gravity; however, a general mechanical description is not yet available. This research attempts such a description by modeling the bone's intrinsic biomechanics through elastic stability of solid long cylinders considered in non-critical, transient and critical mechanical regimes distinguished conventionally through maximal resisting elastic strains. The non-critical regime controls bones' adaptation through the safety factor (bone strength related to the peak functional stress) S2. This is ensured by bone-diameter (d=1/3+beta) and bone-length (l=1/3-beta) scaling exponents generally following from compressive-stress constraints. Prange's index (0<beta<<1) known from long-bone allometry is related to the components of bone-stress tensor. The tensor-stress components depend weakly on body size, whereas the overall peak limb-compressive stress in running animals remains almost weight-independent. The transient regime (1<S<2) activated in animal vigorous activity determines elastic stability of slightly curved limb bones by avoiding critical-stress bending via non-critical torsion and critical torsion via moderate bending. A physical description of the transient regime suggests a united mechanical pattern. Established under most general consideration, the scaling rules for peak strains, forces, momenta, and stresses challenge locomotor patterns distinguished in small mammals and birds, lizards, primates and non-primate mammals. Taking into account that all scaling rules are limited by S=1 associated with critical regime, reliable estimates for critical body masses are obtained for living elephants and extinct dinosaurs. Our study of the variable limb safety factor provides evidence that land-dwelling and land-moving giants are biomechanically accommodated to the peak bending and torsion functional stresses, respectively

Lacasse, C., Terio, K., Kinsel, M.J., Farina, L.L., Travis, D.A., Greenwald, R., Lyashchenko, K.P., Miller, M., Gamble, K.C., 2007. Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 38, 101-107.
Abstract: Mycobacterium szulgai was associated with mortality in two captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Lincoln Park Zoo. The first elephant presented with severe, acute lameness of the left rear limb. Despite extensive treatments, the animal collapsed and died 13 mo after initial presentation. Necropsy revealed osteomyelitis with loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas with intralesional M. szulgai. The second elephant collapsed during transport to another institution with no premonitory clinical signs. This animal was euthanized because of prolonged recumbency. Granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional M. szulgai was found at necropsy. Two novel immunoassays performed on banked serum samples detected antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in both infected elephants. It was not possible to determine when the infection was established or how the elephants were infected. When reviewing the epidemiology of this organism in humans, however, transmission between elephants seemed unlikely because human-to-human transmission of this organism has never been reported and a third elephant in the herd was not affected. In addition to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial organisms need to be considered potentially pathogenic in elephants

Meller, C.L., Croney, C.C., Shepherdson, D., 2007. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity. Zoo. Biol. 26, 51-61.
Abstract: Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Ren, L., Hutchinson, J., 2007. Three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology A-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 146, S110-S111.
Abstract: Elephants do not trot or gallop, but can move smoothly to high speeds without changing their footfall pattern. Do they change gait? We measured the 3D centre of mass (CoM) motions and trunk rotations of three African elephants at West Midlands Safari Park, UK and two Asian elephants at Woburn Safari Park, UK using a novel multi-sensor met hod i ntegrating 3D accelerometers and 3D gyroscopes. Hundreds of continuous gait cycles were recorded in the field at different speeds. The CoM motions and mechanical energies in each stride cycle were calculated. The mechanical energy recovery was assessed at
different speeds.

Ren, L., Hutchinson, J.R., 2007. The three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants reveal a smooth gait transition at moderate speed. J R Soc Interface Epub ahead of print.
Abstract: We examined whether elephants shift to using bouncing (i.e. running) mechanics at any speed. To do this, we measured the three-dimensional centre of mass (CM) motions and torso rotations of African and Asian elephants using a novel multisensor method. Hundreds of continuous stride cycles were recorded in the field. African and Asian elephants moved very similarly. Near the mechanically and metabolically optimal speed (a Froude number (Fr) of 0.09), an inverted pendulum mechanism predominated. With increasing speed, the locomotor dynamics quickly but continuously became less like vaulting and more like bouncing. Our mechanical energy analysis of the CM suggests that at a surprisingly slow speed (approx. 2.2ms-1, Fr 0.25), the hindlimbs exhibited bouncing, not vaulting, mechanics during weight support. We infer that a gait transition happens at this relatively slow speed: elephants begin using their compliant hindlimbs like pogo sticks to some extent to drive the body, bouncing over their relatively stiff, vaulting forelimbs. Hence, they are not as rigid limbed as typically characterized for graviportal animals, and use regular walking as well as at least one form of running gait.

Roca, A.L., Georgiadis, N., O'Brien, S.J., 2007. Cyto-nuclear genomic dissociation and the African elephant species question. Quat. Int. 169-170, 4-16.
Abstract: Studies of skull morphology and of nuclear DNA have strongly concluded that African elephants comprise two species. Nonetheless, Debruyne (2005) has suggested a single-species model for Loxodonta based on the polyphyly of a single genetic locus, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Discordant patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers were subsequently reported in some African savanna elephant populations, further supporting a two-species model, and prompting us to re-examine here the geographic distribution of different elephant morphotypes and their relationship to nuclear and mtDNA phylogeographic patterns. We used exact tests to compare the distribution of forest elephant-typical and savanna elephant-typical characteristics across eight published datasets containing morphological, mtDNA or nuclear DNA data for African elephants. Among the elephants examined by Debruyne (2005), we found that patterns of forest vs. savanna characteristics were significantly different (p < 10(-5)) between mtDNA and morphology, suggesting the presence of cyto-nuclear genomic dissociation. We show that the eight African elephant continent-wide datasets compared, including that of Debruyne (2005), together support a two-species model with cyto-nuclear genomic dissociation rather than a one-species model, and together indicate that Africa harbors two species of elephant

Witter, K., Egger, G.F., Boeck, P., 2007. Renaut bodies in nerves of the trunk of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. J Morphol 268, 414-422.
Abstract: Renaut bodies are loosely textured, cell-sparse structures in the subperineurial space of peripheral nerves, frequently found at sites of nerve entrapment. The trunk of the elephant is a mobile, richly innervated organ, which serves for food gathering, object grasping and as a tactile organ. These functions of the trunk lead to distortion and mechanical compression of its nerves, which can therefore be expected to contain numerous Renaut bodies. Samples of the trunk wall of an adult African elephant (Loxodonta africana) were examined histologically using conventional staining methods, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. Architecture of nerve plexuses and occurrence of Renaut bodies in the elephant trunk were compared with those in tissues surrounding the nasal vestibule of the pig. Prominent nerve plexuses were found in all layers of the elephant trunk. Almost all (81%) nerve profiles contained Renaut bodies, a basophilic, discrete subperineurial layer resembling cushions around the nerve core. In contrast, Renaut bodies were seen in only 15% of nerve profiles in the porcine nasal vestibule. Within Renaut bodies, fusiform fibroblasts and round, ruff-like cells were placed into a matrix of acidic glycosaminoglycans with delicate collagen and very few reticular fibers. The turgor of this matrix is thought to protect nerves against compression and shearing strain. Renaut bodies are readily stained with alcian blue (pH 2.5) favorably in combination with immunohistochemical markers of nerve fibers. They should be regarded as a physiological response to repeated mechanical insults and are distinct from pathological alterations.

Witter, K., Egger, G.F., Boeck, P., 2007. Renaut bodies in nerves of the trunk of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. J. Morphol. 268, 414-422.
Abstract: Renaut bodies are loosely textured, cell-sparse structures in the subperineurial space of peripheral nerves, frequently found at sites of nerve entrapment. The trunk of the elephant is a mobile, richly innervated organ, which serves for food gathering, object grasping and as a tactile organ. These functions of the trunk lead to distortion and mechanical compression of its nerves, which can therefore be expected to contain numerous Renaut bodies. Samples of the trunk wall of an adult African elephant (Loxodonta africana) were examined histologically using conventional staining methods, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. Architecture of nerve plexuses and occurrence of Renaut bodies in the elephant trunk were compared with those in tissues surrounding the nasal vestibule of the pig. Prominent nerve plexuses were found in all layers of the elephant trunk. Almost all (81%) nerve profiles contained Renaut bodies, a basophilic, discrete subperineurial layer resembling cushions around the nerve core. In contrast, Renaut bodies were seen in only 15% of nerve profiles in the porcine nasal vestibule. Within Renaut bodies, fusiform fibroblasts and round, ruff-like cells were placed into a matrix of acidic glycosaminoglycans with delicate collagen and very few reticular fibers. The turgor of this matrix is thought to protect nerves against compression and shearing strain. Renaut bodies are readily stained with alcian blue (pH 2.5) favorably in combination with immunohistochemical markers of nerve fibers. They should be regarded as a physiological response to repeated mechanical insults and are distinct from pathological alterations. alterations

Ball, R., Dumonceaux, G., Olsen, J., Burton, M.S., 2006. Comparison of trunk wash results matched to Multiantigen Print Immunoassay (MAPIA) in a group of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Proceedings International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium 242-243.

Ball, R.L., Dumonceaux, G., Olsen, J.H., Burton, M.S., Lyashchenko, K. Comparison of trunk wash results matched to multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) in a group of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). 2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  303-304. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Introduction: Between 1994 and June 2005, there were 34 confirmed cases of tuberculosis in elephants in the U.S. population. Thirty-one Asian (Elephas maximus) and three African (Loxodonta africana) elephants were affected. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the etiologic agent in 33 cases and M. bovis in one case. Cases of tuberculosis caused by an unusual nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. szulgai have recently occurred as well.  Currently, TB in elephants remains a diagnostic dilemma. The sensitivity of trunk wash culture, the currently recommended test for diagnosis, is unknown. False negatives have been documented (trunk wash negative elephants that were subsequently found to be culture positive at necropsy).  Other non-culture techniques for TB diagnosis include ELISA, and PCR. A novel technology, MultiAntigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow technology (Rapid Test)  has been evaluated and used to diagnose tuberculosis in captive elephants with encouraging results.  One concern with this serologic testing is the possibility of Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT) cross-reacting with the antigen used in the Rapid Test or the MAPIA and leading to a false positive.  With numerous MOTT routinely cultured from trunk washes, this is a valid concern. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was done at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay and Chembio, Inc. that matched trunk wash results to serum samples.  All serum was collected within 7 days of the trunk wash and analyzed with the Rapid Test and MAPIA. Four Asian elephants with a total of 18 samples met this criteria and had serum submitted for testing. Results and Discussion: Table 1 lists the results and the organisms cultured. While the sampling is limited in this pilot project, it appears that MOTT does not evoke a response when assayed with the Rapid Test or MAPIA. The recent cases of M. szulgai do demonstrate the potential usefulness for this test when a disease develops from MOTT.  The usefulness of this new technology, taken in conjunction with other clinical data including trunk washes when indicated, is a valuable tool in the healthcare of captive elephants.

1 Lacasse, C., K.C. Gamble, K. Terio, L.L. Farina, D.A. Travis, and M.Miller. 2005. Mycobacterium szulgai osteroarthritis and pneumonia in an African elephant (Loxdonta africana). Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Ann. Meet. Pp. 170-172.
2 Larsen, R.S., M.D. Salman, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, R.J. Montali, and J. Triantis.  2000.  Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in captive elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31:291-302.
3 Lyashchenko, K., et al.  2000. A multiantigen print immunoassay for the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases.  J. Immunol. Methods  242:91-100
4 Lyashchenko, K., M. Miller, and  W.R. Waters. 2005. Application of multiple antigen print immunoassay and rapid lateral flow technology for tuberculosis testing of elephants. Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Ann. Meet.  Pp. 64-65

Benz, A., Zenker, W., Hildebrandt, T.B., Weissengruber, G., Geyer, H. Recent findings about the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the elephants hooves (Elephantidae). Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  38-41. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Dale, R.H.I. Variability in the gaits of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  77-81. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Elzanowski, A., Sergiel, A., 2006. Stereotypic behavior of a female Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) in a zoo
381. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 9, 223-232.
Abstract: This study recorded daytime behavior of a female Asiatic elephant at the Municipal Zoo, Wroclaw, Poland, in both an indoor pen and an outdoor paddock as continuous scan sampling for 140 hr, over 35 days in 1 year. Stereotypic sequences involved bouts of highly repetitive stereotypic movements and much more variable interbout behavior. The study found both stereotypic movements, nodding and body (corpus) swaying, were asymmetric, accompanied by protraction of the right hind leg and to-and-fro swinging of the trunk. The elephant spent 52% of the daytime in stereotypic movements, 3.5 times the level reported for females in other zoos' groups. The share of time devoted to stereotypic behavior was lowest in the summer when the elephant was regularly released to the paddock and highest in the late fall after she had stayed in the pen after months of days outside. This suggests that changes in the management routine enhance stereotypies. Comparing the summer and winter stable management periods, stereotypies were much more frequent in the indoor pen than the outdoor paddock, suggesting that the confinement to a barren pen contributed to the observed levels of stereotypies

Fischer, M.S., Blickhan, R., 2006. The tri-segmented limbs of therian mammals: kinematics, dynamics, and self-stabilization--a review
397. J. Exp. Zool. A Comp Exp. Biol. 305, 935-952.
Abstract: The evolution of therian mammals is to a large degree marked by changes in their motion systems. One of the decisive transitions has been from the sprawled, bi-segmented to the parasagittal, tri-segmented limb. Here, we review aspects of the tri-segmented limb in locomotion which have been elucidated in our research groups in the last 10 years. First, we report the kinematics of the tri-segmented therian limb from mouse to elephant in order to explore general principles of the therian limb configuration and locomotion. Torques will be reported from a previous paper (Witte et al., 2002. J Exp Biol 205:1339-1353) for a better understanding of the anti-gravity work of all limb joints. The stability of a limb in z-configuration will be explained and its advantage with respect to other potential solutions from modeling will be discussed. Finally, we describe how the emerging concept of self-stability can be explained for a tri-segmented leg template and how it affects the design of the musculoskeletal system and the operation of legs during locomotion. While locomotion has been considered as mainly a control problem in various disciplines, we stress the necessity to reduce control as much as possible. Central control can be cheap if the limbs are "intelligent" by means of their design. Gravity-induced movements and self-stability seem to be energy-saving mechanisms

Henderson, D.M., 2006. Burly gaits: Centers of mass, stability, and the trackways of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26, 907-921.
Abstract: The narrow- and wide-gauge trackways attributed to sauropod dinosaurs are hypothesized to be a consequence of the relative positions of their centers of mass. This hypothesis was tested using three-dimensional, trackwayproducing computer models of two sauropods and studies of Asian elephants. Centers of mass of sauropod models were computed using density distributions that reflect the high degree of pneumatization of the skeletons and air sacs within the body. A close correspondence was found between the relative areas of hand and foot prints in different trackways and the relative fractions of the body weight borne by the forefeet and hindfeet in the different types of sauropods inferred to have made the trackways. Experimental studies of Asian elephants corroborated the close correspondence between relative areas of the hindfeet and forefeet and body weight distribution. Replicating actual sauropod trackways with the walking models enabled testing of proposed gaits for a sauropod model. Brachiosaurus brancai, with its more centrally positioned center of mass, was stable and possessed a wide safety margin only when replicating a wide trackway. Conversely, Diplodocics carnegii, with a more posteriorly placed center of mass, was most stable when replicating a narrow trackway. A trend for large sauropods (> 12 tons), independent of clade, to have more anteriorly positioned centers of mass was identified, and it is proposed that all large sauropods were restricted to producing wide-gauge trackways for stability reasons. The primitive gait state for Sauropodomorpha was determined to be one that produced narrow-gauge trackways.

Hutchinson, J.R., Schwerda, D., Famini, D.J., Dale, R.H., Fischer, M.S., Kram, R., 2006. The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size
410. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 3812-3827.
Abstract: For centuries, elephant locomotion has been a contentious and confusing challenge for locomotion scientists to understand, not only because of technical difficulties but also because elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s(-1) to the fastest reliably recorded speed for elephants, 6.8 m s(-1). These data reveal that African and Asian elephants have some subtle differences in how size-independent kinematic parameters change with speed. Although elephants use a lateral sequence footfall pattern, like many other quadrupeds, they maintain this footfall pattern at all speeds, shifting toward a 25% phase offset between limbs (singlefoot) as they increase speed. The duty factors of elephants are greater for the forelimbs than for the hindlimbs, so an aerial phase for the hindquarters is reached at slower speeds than for the forequarters. This aerial phase occurs at a Froude number of around 1, matching theoretical predictions. At faster speeds, stance and swing phase durations approach asymptotes, with the duty factor beginning to level off, concurrent with an increase in limb compliance that likely keeps peak forces relatively low. This increase of limb compliance is reflected by increased compression of the hindlimbs. Like other tetrapods, smaller elephants are relatively more athletic than larger ones, but still move very similarly to adults even at <500 kg. At any particular speed they adopt greater relative stride frequencies and relative stride lengths compared to larger elephants. This extends to near-maximal locomotor performance as well - smaller elephants reach greater Froude numbers and smaller duty factors, hence likely reach relatively greater peak loads on their limbs and produce this force more rapidly. A variety of lines of kinematic evidence support the inference that elephants change their mechanics near a Froude number of 1 (if not at slower speeds), at least to using more compliant limbs, if not spring-like whole-body kinetics. In some ways, elephants move similarly to many other quadrupeds, such as increasing speed mainly by increasing stride frequency (except at fast speeds), and they match scaling predictions for many stride parameters. The main difference from most other animals is that elephants never change their footfall pattern to a gait that uses a whole-body aerial phase. Our large dataset establishes what the normal kinematics of elephant locomotion are, and can also be applied to identify gait abnormalities that may signal musculoskeletal pathologies, a matter of great importance to keepers of captive elephants

Kilgallon, C., Flach, E., Boardman, W., Routh, A., Strike, T., Jackson, B. Biochemical markers of bone in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a cross sectional analysis of two serum markers of bone formation and one serum marker of bone resorption.
2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  183-184. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Conventional radiography has traditionally been employed for investigations of skeletal disease of captive elephants.  However, it is predominantly cortical bone which is assessed by standard radiography, and quantitative assessment of bone is only possible when pathology is advanced. A precise and relatively non-invasive method of quantitatively assessing bone, in isolation, or as a compliment to standard radiography would have positive health and welfare implications for elephants, because skeletal disease is prevalent in both extant species in captivity. The advent of biochemical markers of bone metabolism represents a watershed in non-invasive diagnostics of normal bone homeostasis and pathology in humans and animals alike. These markers are classified as markers of formation and resorbtion and are comprising of enzymes expressed by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, or organic compounds released during the synthesis or resorption of bone matrix. In this study, two human enzyme immunoassays (METRA™ Osteocalcin EIA kit, METRA™ BAP EIA kit, Quidel Corporation, San Diego, California 92121 USA) and one radioimmunoassay (UniQ™ ICTP RIA, Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) were validated and used to measure osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the C-terminal telopeptide domain of type I collagen (ICTP) respectively, three biochemical markers of bone, in serum procured from a small sample population (n=12) of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) of various ages, from three European zoos. Serum from four adult females sampled on 7 days consecutively were as also analyzed to assess the existence and magnitude of the intra-individual, day-to-day variability of these markers. Excellent cross reactivity was found to exist between assay antibodies and elephants marker antigens. Significant inverse correlations were found between the age of the animals and concentrations of all three markers. Strong significant positive correlations were also noted between serum concentrations of all three markers. No statistically significant intra-individual variability was found over 7 days in the population of adult females for any of the markers assessed. The results suggest a promising role for biochemical markers of bone turnover in monitoring skeletal growth and bone disease in captive Asian elephants.

Liang, Y., McMeeking, R.M., Evans, A.G., 2006. A finite element simulation scheme for biological muscular hydrostats
478. Journal of Theoretical Biology 242, 142-150.
Abstract: An explicit finite element scheme is developed for biological muscular hydrostats such as squid tentacles, octopus arms and elephant trunks. The scheme is implemented by embedding muscle fibers in finite elements. In any given element, the fiber orientation can be assigned arbitrarily and multiple muscle directions can be simulated. The mechanical stress in each muscle fiber is the sum of active and passive parts. The active stress is taken to be a function of activation state, muscle fiber shortening velocity and fiber strain; while the passive stress depends only on the strain. This scheme is tested by simulating extension of a squid tentacle during prey capture; our numerical predictions are in close correspondence with existing experimental results. It is shown that the present finite element scheme can successfully simulate more complex behaviors such as torsion of a squid tentacle and the bending behavior of octopus arms or elephant trunks

Lyashchenko, K.P., Greenwald, R., Esfandiari, J., Olsen, J.H., Ball, R., Dumonceaux, G., Dunker, F., Buckley, C., Richard, M., Murray, S., Payeur, J.B., Andersen, P., Pollock, J.M., Mikota, S., Miller, M., Sofranko, D., Waters, W.R., 2006. Tuberculosis in elephants: antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment
438. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13, 722-732.
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current diagnosis relies on trunk wash culture, the only officially recognized test, which has serious limitations. Innovative and efficient diagnostic methods are urgently needed. Rapid identification of infected animals is a crucial prerequisite for more effective control of TB, as early diagnosis allows timely initiation of chemotherapy. Serology has diagnostic potential, although key antigens have not been identified and optimal immunoassay formats are not established. To characterize the humoral responses in elephant TB, we tested 143 serum samples collected from 15 elephants over time. These included 48 samples from five culture-confirmed TB cases, of which four were in Asian elephants infected with M. tuberculosis and one was in an African elephant with Mycobacterium bovis. Multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) employing a panel of 12 defined antigens was used to identify serologic correlates of active disease. ESAT-6 was the immunodominant antigen recognized in elephant TB. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to ESAT-6 and other proteins were detected up to 3.5 years prior to culture of M. tuberculosis from trunk washes. Antibody levels to certain antigens gradually decreased in response to antitubercular therapy, suggesting the possibility of treatment monitoring. In addition to MAPIA, serum samples were evaluated with a recently developed rapid test (RT) based on lateral flow technology (ElephantTB STAT-PAK). Similarly to MAPIA, infected elephants were identified using the RT up to 4 years prior to positive culture. These findings demonstrate the potential for TB surveillance and treatment monitoring using the RT and MAPIA, respectively

Sarma, B., Dutta, B., Lekharu, J.C. Critical care of an elephant calf suffering from femur fracture. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  170. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Sarma, K.K., Thomas, S. Foot diseases in the working elephants in eastern India. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  262-270. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Schmitt, D., Cartmill, M., Griffin, T.M., Hanna, J.B., Lemelin, P., 2006. Adaptive value of ambling gaits in primates and other mammals
460. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 2042-2049.
Abstract: At speeds between the walk and the gallop, most mammals trot. Primates almost never trot, and it has been claimed that they transition directly from a walk to a gallop without any distinctive mid-speed running gait. If true, this would be another characteristic difference between the locomotion of primates and that of most other quadrupedal mammals. Presently, however, few data exist concerning the actual presence or absence of intermediate-speed gaits (i.e. gaits that are used between a walk and a gallop) in primates. Video records of running in twelve primate species reveal that, unlike most other mammals, all the primates studied almost exclusively adopt an 'amble'--an intermediate-speed running gait with no whole-body aerial phase--rather than trot. Ambling is also common in elephants and some horses, raising the question of why ambling is preferred over trotting in these diverse groups of animals. Mathematical analyses presented here show that ambling ensures continuous contact of the body with the substrate while dramatically reducing vertical oscillations of the center of mass. This may explain why ambling appears to be preferable to trotting for extremely large terrestrial mammals such as elephants and for arboreal mammals like primates that move on unstable branches. These findings allow us to better understand the mechanics of these unusual running gaits and shed new light on primate locomotor evolution

Takahashi, H., Yamashita, M., Shigehara, N., 2006. Cranial photographs of mammals on the web: The Mammalian Crania Photographic Archive (MCPA2) and a comparison of bone image databases. Anthropological Science 114, 217-222.
Abstract: The Mammalian Crania Photographic Archive (MCPA2) is a website (http://1kai.dokkyomed.ac.jp/mammal/en/mammal.html) that includes a collection of 10,950 photographs of mammalian crania, which have been taken with a high-resolution digital camera. In the present report, we outline the characteristics of MCPA2 and how it was created, and make brief comparisons with several similar websites currently accessible via the internet. The archived MCPA2 materials include 1825 cranial specimens, ranging from insectivores to elephants, which have been macerated in Japan during the past 35 years and prepared for osteological study. Of the 16 orders represented in the database, primates comprise the major group with 704 specimens. Each cranium was placed with the orbitomeatal (Frankfort) or palatine plane horizontal, and was photographed in six perpendicular views from a long distance using a telephoto or telemacro lens. These long-distance shots decrease perspective distortion that lead to measurement errors when studying cranial profiles and landmark positions, and enable detailed observation and measurement of specific bony characteristics on a computer screen. From our website, images can be searched using (1) the taxonomic table, (2) Japanese name, (3) English name, and (4) scientific name. In the page of search results, in addition to the images, four caliper measurements and additional text (taxonomy, sex, and age) are available for every specimen.

Thitaram, C., Pongsopawijit, P., Thongtip, N., Angkavanich, T., Chansittivej, S., Wongkalasin, W., Somgird, C., Suwankong, N., Prachsilpchai, W., Suchit, K., Clausen, B., Boonthong, P., Nimtrakul, K., Niponkit, C., Siritepsongklod, S., Roongsri, R., Mahasavankul, S., 2006. Dystocia following prolonged retention of a dead fetus in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)
458. Theriogenology 66, 1284-1291.
Abstract: A 32-year-old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) showed signs of parturition 8 months later than predicted from the breeding records. However, while serosanguineous fluid, necrotic tissue and pieces of amnion were expelled, second-stage labor did not progress. Since the fetus was not found during an endoscopic examination of the vestibule, it was assumed that the elephant had calved unseen and she was returned to the forest to recuperate. Twelve months later, the elephant showed clear signs of second-stage labor accompanied by a bulge in the perineum and passage of keratinized nail through the vulva. A 35 cm episiotomy incision was made in the perineum just below the anus, via which chains were attached to the forelimbs of the fetus. Traction on the forelimbs alone proved insufficient to achieve delivery because the fetal head kept rotating and impacting in the pelvis. However, traction applied via a hook inserted behind the mandibular symphysis allowed the head to be elevated and extended, and the fetus to be delivered. The episiotomy wound was sutured in two layers and although the skin did not heal during primary closure it subsequently healed uneventfully by second intention. Retrospective evaluation of the elephant's serum progestagens profile demonstrated a fall to baseline at the suspected onset of parturition, supporting the supposition that the fetus was retained in the uterus for 12 months after parturition began. It is suggested that serum progestagens concentrations should be monitored regularly in mated elephant cows to verify the establishment of pregnancy and to better estimate the expected timing, and the onset of calving

Wall, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F., 2006. Elephants avoid costly mountaineering. Curr. Biol. 16, R527-R529.

Weissengruber, G.E., Egger, G.F., Hutchinson, J.R., Groenewald, H.B., Elsasser, L., Famini, D., Forstenpointner, G., 2006. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
380. Journal of Anatomy 209, 781-792.
Abstract: The uniquely designed limbs of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal. Besides other morphological peculiarities, the feet are equipped with large subcutaneous cushions which play an important role in distributing forces during weight bearing and in storing or absorbing mechanical forces. Although the cushions have been discussed in the literature and captive elephants, in particular, are frequently affected by foot disorders, precise morphological data are sparse. The cushions in the feet of African elephants were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both the forelimb and the hindlimb a 6th ray, the prepollex or prehallux, is present. These cartilaginous rods support the metacarpal or metatarsal compartment of the cushions. None of the rays touches the ground directly. The cushions consist of sheets or strands of fibrous connective tissue forming larger metacarpal/metatarsal and digital compartments and smaller chambers which were filled with adipose tissue. The compartments are situated between tarsal, metatarsal, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges or other structures of the locomotor apparatus covering the bones palmarly/plantarly and the thick sole skin. Within the cushions, collagen, reticulin and elastic fibres are found. In the main parts, vascular supply is good and numerous nerves course within the entire cushion. Vater-Pacinian corpuscles are embedded within the collagenous tissue of the cushions and within the dermis. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermal papillae of the foot skin. The micromorphology of elephant feet cushions resembles that of digital cushions in cattle or of the foot pads in humans but not that of digital cushions in horses. Besides their important mechanical properties, foot cushions in elephants seem to be very sensitive structures

Weissengruber, G.E., Fuss, F.K., Egger, G., Stanek, G., Hittmair, K.M., Forstenpointner, G., 2006. The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations
513. Journal of Anatomy 208, 59-72.
Abstract: Elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. In elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. In addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. Here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight African (Loxodonta africana) and three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Furthermore, we performed radiography in five African and two Asian elephants and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one African elephant. Macerated bones of 11 individuals (four African, seven Asian elephants) were measured with a pair of callipers to give standardized measurements of the articular parts. In one Asian and three African elephants, kinematic and functional analyses were carried out using a digitizer and according to the helical axis concept. Some peculiarities of healthy and arthrotic knee joints of elephants were compared with human knees. In contrast to those of other quadruped mammals, the knee joint of elephants displays an extended resting position. The femorotibial joint of elephants shows a high grade of congruency and the menisci are extremely narrow and thin. The four-bar mechanism of the cruciate ligaments exists also in the elephant. The main motion of the knee joint is extension-flexion with a range of motion of 142 degrees . In elephants, arthrotic alterations of the knee joint can lead to injury or loss of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament

Wynne, J., Greer, L. Management of digital osteomyelitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).
2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  185-186. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: A 47-yr-old female Asian elephant was diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the left front digit 5, involving phalynges 1 and 2. Based on culture results of Pseudomonas and Bacteroides, enrofloxacin and metronidazole rectal suppository treatment was started. Serum levels were measured and different formulations were developed to attempt to deliver appropriate drug levels. The osteomyelitis progressed over the next 55 days. Enrofloxacin was discontinued based on culture and sensitivities (C&S) and regional limb perfusion (RLP) using amikacin started. From this point on, daily treatments with RLP have been performed. The 3-g amikacin dose was based on 5% of the elephant's systemic dose.  Two weeks later, RLP with 6 g of ampicillin was started on alternate days based on C&S, and the following week, 400 mg fluconazole was added on a third day in response to C&S and tissue biopsies indicating invasive Candida. Despite aggressive medical therapy, radiographs and bone biopsy indicated the osteomyelitis continued. Surgery was performed 3 mo after systemic antibiotics were initiated.  All infected bone and tissue was identified with methylene blue, and removed.  Only the most proximal third of P1 remained post surgery.  Post surgery, daily sterile bandage changes were performed and rotational RLP treatment was continued with amikacin (8 g), ampicillin (15 g), and fluconazole (800 mg).  This daily treatment regime, with some drug adjustments, has been continued for 6 mo. One month after surgery P1 was radiolucent at the distal margin, and was progressing to a fragmented appearance, indicating the osteomyelitis may still be present.  Amikacin serum levels were collected post RLP, before the tourniquet was removed.  Systemic theraputic levels were reached, but not the recommended 10 times MIC. Amikacin was replaced with 12 g of ceftazidime in the RLP rotation. Two months post surgery a fragment of the remaining P1 was easily biopsied from the healing surgical tract with culture results indicating Enterococcus, but not Pseudomonas. Three months post surgery we reinstituted enrofloxacin suppositories at a higher dose. At 5 mo post surgery, cultures indicated that we had successfully eliminated Pseudomonas and anaerobic growth; however, the healing site continued to yield various gram-negative bacteria, including a Klebsiella resistant to ceftazidine.  We replaced ceftazidine with 12 g of ceftriaxone and continued ampicillin and fluconazole in the 3-day RLP rotation. Since this last medical alteration the remaining P1 fragments have been radiographically unchanged for 3 mo and the surgical wound has been reduced to a tract that is <2 mm in diameter and 4 cm deep. The current success of this treatment is attributed to a very tractable patient that has allowed daily medical care for over 8 mo. We are continuing her daily treatments and I will give an update on the progression of the case.

Zuba, J.R., Oosterhuis, J.E., Pessier, A.P. The toenail "abscess" in elephants: treatment options including cryotherapy and pathologic similarities with equine proliferative pododermatitis (canker).  2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  187-190. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Foot problems potentially represent the single most important clinical disease of captive elephants.  Predisposing factors include obesity, lack of exercise, nail or sole overgrowth, improper foot care, poor hygiene, inappropriate enclosure surfaces, poor conformation, malnutrition and secondary skeletal disorders such as degenerative joint disease.  Furthermore, factors such as elephant management philosophy, disposition of elephants, facilities and competency of staff in caring for elephant feet will contribute significantly to the foot health of captive animals.  It is important to note that these conditions are rarely reported in free-ranging elephants. The elephant toenail abscess is characterized grossly by proliferative outgrowth of "crab meat-like" tissue that may acutely rupture through the surface of the nail wall and/or adjacent cuticle or sole. True abscess formation with localized collections of suppurative material is not a consistent clinical feature.  In most cases, the inciting cause of these lesions are typically not found and are likely due to one or more of the predisposing factors listed above.  Once established, these frustrating lesions require extensive, intensive and prolonged medical attention.  If not cared for properly, these wounds may progress to phalangeal osteomyelitis and the need for surgical intervention.  Sole abscesses are equally frustrating and difficult to manage with proposed etiologies similar to toenail lesions. There are no reports in the literature describing the pathology of the classic proliferative abscess tissue of the elephant nail abscess.  Although variously interpreted as fibrous or granulation tissue, the authors are unaware of previous histologic descriptions of this tissue.  Biopsy samples of toenail abscess tissue from two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park (SDWAP) consisted of stratified squamous epithelium arranged in columns resembling horn tubules.  The predominant histologic finding was marked, near diffuse, hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes.  There were multifocal areas of suppurative inflammation with admixed bacterial colonies.  Inflammatory foci comprised only a small portion of the lesion and were interpreted as the external surfaces of the biopsy with likely secondary bacterial colonization. Because descriptions of the normal histology of the elephant toenail could not be located, a grossly normal toenail from a different Asian elephant was obtained to compare histologic features with those of the toenail abscesses.  Sections demonstrated formation of the toenail in a manner similar to that of the hoof of the horse and cattle with tubular, intertubular and laminar horn.  Primary and secondary epidermal laminae were identified.  Proliferative lesions of horn-producing epithelium associated with ballooning degeneration and inadequate keratinization of keratinocytes, have been described in horses as equine "canker" and coronary band dystrophy.  Equine canker is most commonly observed in the hind feet of draft horses and begins in the frog sometimes with extension to the sole and hoof wall.  Grossly, lesions are characterized by soft white papillary to "cauliflower-like" tissue associated with a foul odor. Similar to what is noted in elephant foot problems, predisposing factors for the development of equine canker include poor hygiene or wet environmental conditions. There is a lack of gross and histologic description of the normal nail and sole tissue of the elephant and further investigations are warranted.  A review of the anatomy and histology of the normal equine hoof may provide a basic understanding of the elephant nail until more specific and detailed elephant information is available.  From our investigation, the authors offer that a more accurate description of the elephant toenail abscess would be proliferative pododermatitis, the term synonymous with equine canker.  A more colloquial term such as "elephant canker" may be appropriate, as well. Canker in the horse is an uncommon but difficult to treat disease of the hoof.  Historically, treatment options for elephant toenail abscesses include corrective trimming, superficial debridement and application of topical disinfectants or antibiotics. Others have constructed innovative sandals to treat and protect the affected sole or nail with success. The use of regional intravenous perfusion of the affected limb with antibiotics has also been successful. Since the elephant nail abscess now appears to be histologically and clinically comparable to equine canker, this novel characterization of an old disease may offer unique insight for treatment.  In the least, it has provided our practice with a new list of treatment options and experienced equine clinicians for consultation who have been managing patients with a similar disease for many years. One of the Asian elephants at the SDWAP has had chronic toenail abscesses for over 2 yr. Radiographs of the affected digits, as reported by others to assess degree of involvement, have fortunately been negative for evidence of osteomyelitis.  Several bacterial and fungal cultures of deep tissue biopsies and swabs of affected lesions have resulted in a mixture of organisms with no consistent single etiologic agent.  Biopsies were found negative for presence of viral DNA (elephant papillomavirus and herpesvirus) by PCR.  Typical elephant foot care at the SDWAP includes trimming and debriding with hoof knives, foot soaks and topical antibiotics.  Although difficult, attempts are made in keeping the affected foot clean and dry.  Following recommendations for the treatment of equine canker, we recently implemented the routine use of cryotherapy in all elephants with proliferative pododermatitis with improved success in the control and recession of exuberant nail lesions. The proliferative tissue of the nail is first cleaned then disinfected, debrided, trimmed with hoof knives and allowed to dry. Modified brass branding tools with contact surfaces of variable size (2-5 cm diameter) and shape (round or ovoid) are placed into liquid nitrogen (-196 C) for several minutes and then placed directly on the cankerous tissue for 30-60 sec.  This process is then repeated 4-5 min later, following a complete thaw of tissue.  Within 24 hr, the cryoburned tissue becomes macerated and necrotic and is readily removed with gentle scrubbing.  Cryotherapy offers the advantage of destroying tissue to a deeper level than trimming alone and provides hemostasis, as well.  Because of decreased sensation at the cryotherapy treatment site, a memorable painful event is avoided and the elephant patient is more routinely accepting of this technique. With the use of hoof knives, we typically remove 2-3 mm of proliferative tissue before the patient refuses further treatment, presumably due to discomfort.  With cryotherapy, we are able to remove an additional 3-5 mm of tissue by cell freezing and necrosis.  The result is quicker resolution of cankerous lesions without the need for aggressive, and potentially painful, interventions. In conclusion, it appears that elephant nail abscesses can best be described as proliferative pododermatitis, or canker, as is seen in other species.  Further gross and microscopic descriptions of normal and pathologic nail or sole lesions are necessary.  Routine cryotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of these chronic, frustrating and potentially devastating lesions of our captive elephants.

Benz, A., Zenker, W., Hildebrandt, T.B., Weissengruber, G.E., Geyer, H. About the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of elephants' hooves (Elephantidae).  Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere / International Symposium on Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animals. 42, 164-166. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Benz, A. The elephant's hoof: macroscopic and microscopic morphology of defined locations under consideration of pathological changes.  2005.  Vetsuisse-Fakultät Universität Zürich.
Ref Type: Thesis/Dissertation

Gunther, B., Morgado, E., Cocina, M., 2005. [Homeostatic range of the oxidative metabolism: 60 years of integrative fisiometry]. Rev. Med. Chil. 133, 362-370.
Abstract: The energetic metabolism and its relationship with body weight generated a vivid controversy, since the Rubner's surface law was introduced into biology. Recently, the multifactor theory (Darveau et al) has caused again a revival of this polemic topic. Moreover, the investigations concerning metabolism and body weight include all terrestrial mammals, from the shrew (3 grams) to the elephant (three tons). The corresponding allometric exponent for standard metabolic rate, both theoretical and empirical, fluctuates around an average value of 0.75, in contrast with the surface law, which postulated a value of 0.67. The "metabolic range" (rest vs maximal exercise) does vary from 1 to 10, due to the prevalent influence of the skeletal muscle activity. Recent investigations have emphasized the fact that the allometric exponent is not unique (0.75), but it should be subjected to statistical variability, both in standard and in maximal exercise

Konishi, S., 2005. [Jaws of herbivorous mammals]
582. Clin. Calcium 15, 1414-1417.
Abstract: The jaws of herbivorous mammals are characterized by their large occlusal surface of the molar; high crown of the molar; long snout; etc. However, elephants, the biggest herbivorous mammal, have other characteristics. In the evolutionary trends of proboscidean skulls, concomitant with the increase in tusk size comes on the enlargement, antero-posterior shortening, dorso-ventral elongation of the cranium with increasing cheek teeth size. Naturally, the jaw follows the same evolutionary trends as the cranium

Lacasse, C., Gamble, K.C., Terio, K., Farina, L.L., Travis, D.A., Miller, M. Mycobacterium szulgai osteoarthritis and pneumonia in an African elephant (Loxodonta Africana). 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  170-172. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis, particularly Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis, is an important health issue in zoological collections.  Zoos are a particular public health concern because of the close contact between tuberculosis-susceptible animals and humans, specifically animal handlers and visitors.16 Evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission between humans and elephants, confirmed by DNA fingerprinting, has been reported.13 Between 1994 and 2001, M. tuberculosis was isolated from trunk washes of captive elephants from 11 herds in the United States.17  To date, most reported cases of tuberculosis have occurred in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).14 In 1997, the National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species partnered with the USDA to formulate the "Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants." 15 This document outlines criteria for the testing, surveillance, and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants. The guidelines recommend annual monitoring of elephants by mycobacterial culture of three direct trunk washes collected over 1 wk.  Isolation of Mycobacterium avium and non-tuberculous mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash samples is common, but these organisms have not been associated with clinical disease.14,18 This case report details clinical disease with fatal complications of an atypical mycobacterial infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). In September 2003, an African elephant presented with acute, severe lameness of the left rear limb with subsequent swelling of the stifle.  Diagnostic procedures included aspiration cytology of the swelling, radiographs, and thermographic imaging.  The exact location of the injury could not be detected, but a lesion to the stifle or coxofemoral articulation was suspected.  After 13 mo of treatment, including pulse therapy with a variety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), weekly to biweekly injections of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan, and intensive foot care efforts to treat secondary pedal lesions of both rearlimbs, the animal died acutely.  Gross necropsy revealed granulomatous osteomyelitis with necrosis/loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas.  Both of these lesions contained acid-fast bacteria on cytology. While awaiting confirmatory culture results, quarantine procedures were established for the elephant facility and a program was established to screen all zoo personnel in close contact with the elephant or who participated in the necropsy.  All personnel were tested by the Chicago Department of Public Health without documented conversion. Mycobacterium szulgai was ultimately cultured from both coxofemoral and pulmonary lesions. Mycobacterium szulgai is an uncommon nontuberculous mycobacterium that is usually isolated from pathologic lesions in humans.21 This bacterial species was first identified in 1972.11 The lungs are the main locality for pathologic manifestation in humans and several cases have been in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.9,20,21 Infection due to M. szulgai most frequently produces thin-walled cavities in lungs resembling tuberculosis.4 Other documented sites of infection include the skin, bone, and tendon sheath (causing a carpal tunnel syndrome).2,9,10,12,19,20  Intra-operative contamination from ice water has led to M. szulgai keratitis after laser-assisted ophthalmic surgeries.6 A case of disseminated disease in a previously healthy young human has been reported.5  No evidence of human-to-human transmission of this organism has been documented and human cases are believed to originate from environmental sources.12  The natural habitat of the organism is unknown, but previous reports suggest an association of the bacteria with water of swimming pools and fish tanks.1,21 The organism has been cultured from a snail and tropical fish.1,3 No standard recommendation for the treatment of M. szulgai infection currently exists.  In general, triple antibiotic therapies used in standard mycobacterial treatments are reported with a low rate of relapses and sterilization of sputum cultures within a mean of 3 mo.3 Pulmonary lesions in this elephant were chronic; it was not possible to determine when initial infection occurred. Infection could have occurred in captivity or in the wild prior to captivity. Three trunk washes over the past year had been negative for mycobacterial culture. Osteomyelitis in the hip may have developed secondary to hematogenous spread from the lungs with the acute lameness resulting from a pathologic fracture associated with this infection. Alternatively, though considered less likely, a traumatic fracture of the hip could have occurred, with bacterial inoculation and secondary osteomyelitis as a result of increased blood flow to the site. The source of infection for this elephant remains unknown.  Prevalence of this organism in the natural habitat or captive environment of the elephants has not been previously documented.
1 Abalain-Colloc, M.L., D. Guillerm, M. Salaun, S. Gouriou, V. Vincent, and B. Picard.  2003.  Mycobacterium szulgai isolated from a patient, a tropical fish, and aquarium water.  Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.  22: 768-769.
2.Cross, G.M., M. Guill, and J.K. Aton.  1985.  Cutaneous Mycobacterium szulgai infection. Arch. Dermatol. 121: 247-249.
3. Davidson, P.T. 1976. Mycobacterium szulgai: a new pathogen causing infection of the lung.  Chest 69: 799- 801.
4. Dylewski, J.S., H.M. Zackon, A.H. Latour, and G.R. Berry.  1987.  Mycobacterium szulgai: an unusual pathogen.  Rev. Infect. Dis.  9: 578-580.
5. Gur, H., S. Porat, H. Haas, Y. Naparstek, and M. Eliakim.  1984.  Disseminated mycobacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium szulgai. Arch. Intern. Med. 144: 1861-1863.
6.Holmes, G.P., G. Bond, R.C. Fader, and S.F. Fulcher.  2002. A cluster of cases of Mycobacterium szulgai keratitis that occurred after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.  Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 1039-1046.
7.Horusitzky, A., X. Puechal, D. Dumont, T. Begue, M. Robineau, and M. Boissier.  2000.  Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by Mycobacterium szulgai. J. Rheumatol 27: 1299-1302.
8.Hurr, H., and T. Sorg.  1998.  Mycobacterium szulgai osteomyelitis.  J. Infect.  37: 191-192.
9.Luque, A.E., D. Kaminski, R. Reichman, and D. Hardy. 1998.  Mycobacterium szulgai osteomyelitis in an AIDS patient. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30: 88-91.
10.Maloney, J.M., C.R. Gregg, D.S. Stephens, F.A. Manian, and D. Rimland.  1987.  Infections caused by Mycobacterium szulgai in humans.  Rev. Infect. Dis.  9: 1120-1126.
11.Marks, J., P.A. Jenkins, and M. Tsukamura.  1972.  Mycobacterium szulgai: a new pathogen.  Tubercle 53: 210.
12.Merlet, C., S. Aberrane, F. Chilot, and J. Laroche.  2000.  Carpal tunnel syndrome complicating hand flexor tenosynovitis due to Mycobacterium szulgai. Joint Bone Spine 67: 247-248.
13.Michalak, K., C. Austin, S. Diesel, J.M. Bacon, P. Zimmerman, and J. N. Maslow.  1998. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a zoonotic disease: transmission between humans and elephants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 283-287.
14.Mikota, S.K., R.S. Larsen, and R.J. Montali.  2000.  Tuberculosis in elephants in North America.  Zoo Biol. 19: 393-403.
15.National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species. 2000. Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in elephants.  USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services.
16.Oh, P., R. Granich, J. Scott, B. Sun, M. Joseph, C. Stringfield, S. Thisdell, J. Staley, D. Workman-Malcolm, L. Borenstein, E. Lehnkering, P. Ryan, J. Soukup, A. Nitta, and J. Flood.  2002.  Human exposure following  Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo.  Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1290-1293.
17.Payeur, J.B., J.L. Jarnagin, J.G. Marquardt, and D.L. Whipple.  2002.  Mycobacterial isolations in captive elephants in the United States.  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 969: 256-258.
18.Shojaei, H., J.G. Magee, R. Freeman, M. Yates, N.U. Horadagoda, and M. Goodfellow.  2000. Mycobacterium elephantis sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-chromogenic Mycobacterium isolated from an elephant.  Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.  50: 1817-1820.
19.Stratton, C.W., D.B. Phelps, and L.B. Reller.  1978.  Tuberculoid tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome caused by Mycobacterium szulgai.  Am. J. Med.  65: 349-351.
20.Tappe, D., P. Langmann, M. Zilly, H. Klinker, B. Schmausser, and M. Frosch.  2004.  Osteomyelitis and skin ulcers caused by Mycobacterium szulgai in an AIDS patient.  Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 36: 883-885.
21.Tortoli, E., G. Besozzi, C. Lacchini, V. Penati, M.T. Simonetti, and S. Emler.  1998.  Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium szulgai, case report and review of the literature.  Eur. Respir. J.  11: 975-977.

Larsen, R.S., Kay, M., Triantis, J., Salman, M.D. Update on serological detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants. 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  62-63. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis has become an important disease in captive elephants, particularly Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Diagnosing tuberculosis in elephants has been problematic as many tests have inadequate sensitivity or specificity.2-4 A multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was previously investigated for detecting infection in Asian elephants and African elephants (Loxodonta africana); this test had excellent sensitivity and specificity, but needed further evaluation.1 Modifications to the multiple-antigen ELISA panel have since been made. Valuable antigens were retained, other antigens were removed, and new ones were added.  This modified ELISA was re-evaluated, using serum from 68 Asian elephants. Sixteen had M. tuberculosis -positive trunk cultures, while 52 were either culture negative at necropsy or had a history of negative trunk cultures and no contact with infected elephants. Seven elephants were evaluated over time. The test was 100% (95% CI; 95-100%) specific and 94% (95% CI; 79-100%) sensitive using two of the six antigens (M. bovis strain AN5 culture filtrate and M. tuberculosis early secretory antigenic target 6). "Effectively-treated" elephants had decreasing seroreactivity, but those that were culture-positive post-treatment were more consistently seroreactive.  Although "effectivelytreated" elephants had declining seroreactivity, they still usually had higher values than animals that had never been infected. Serology continues to show great promise in detecting tuberculosis in elephants, often detecting infection months-to-years sooner than trunk wash culture.  Advances in techniques may soon make serology even more practical.  While serology should not replace trunk-wash culture, it is a useful adjunct for early detection of infection in elephants and for monitoring treatment.
ACKNOLWEDGMENTS We thank the many veterinarians, owners, caretakers, and managers of elephant-owning institutions that participated in this investigation, as well as Drs. Michele Miller and Susan Mikota for helping to coordinate sample collection. We also thank Kimberly Deines and other laboratory personnel who processed ELISA samples.  The study was partially funded by a grant from USDA, CSREES to Colorado State University Program of Economically Important Infectious Animal Diseases.
1.Larsen, R.S., M.D. Salman, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, R.J. Montali, and J. Triantis. 2000.  Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31: 291-302.
2. Mikota, S.K., L. Peddie, J. Peddie, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, G. West, W. Lindsay, R.S. Larsen, M.D. Salman, D. Chatterjee, J. Payeur, D. Whipple, C. Thoen, D.S. Davis, R.J. Montali and J. Maslow.  2001. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in six groups of elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 32: 1-16.
3. Mikota, S.K., R.S. Larsen, and R.J. Montali.  2000.  Tuberculosis in elephants in North America.  Zoo Biol. 19: 393-403.
4. U.S. Department of Agriculture.  2003.  Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in elephants.  Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Animal Care. Washington, D.C. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/TBGuidelines2003.pdf.

Lewerin, S.S., Olsson, S.L., Eld, K., Roken, B., Ghebremichael, S., Koivula, T., Kallenius, G., Bolske, G., 2005. Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo
637. Veterinary Record 156, 171-175.
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2003, there was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a Swedish zoo which involved elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. Cultures of trunk lavages were used to detect infected elephants, tuberculin testing was used in the giraffes and buffaloes, and tracheal lavage and tuberculin testing were used in the rhinoceroses. The bacteria isolated were investigated by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five elephants and one giraffe were found to have been infected by four different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Luikart, K.A., Stover, S.M., 2005. Chronic sole ulcerations associated with degenerative bone disease in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 36, 684-688.
Abstract: Chronic foot lesions and degenerative joint disease are common causes of morbidity in elephants. Lesions may become intractable and progressive despite intensive treatment regimens. The forelimbs of two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with chronic nonhealing sole ulcerations were examined using manual dissection and computed tomography. Both elephants had abnormal limb conformation that preceded the development of sole ulcerations. In both cases, sole ulcers were associated with remodeling and degeneration of underlying bones of the digits. Conformational abnormalities and altered weight distribution in these individuals may have induced compensatory bony degeneration and secondary ulcer formation. Sole ulcerations associated with digital abnormalities may have a guarded prognosis for resolution, even with aggressive treatment. Because limb conformational abnormalities could predispose to or result from chronic digital lesions, elephants with conformational abnormalities may have increased likelihood of having chronic sole ulcerations

Lyashchenko, K., Miller, M., Waters, W.R. Application of MAPIA (Multiple antigen print immunoassay) and rapid lateral flow technology for tuberculosis testing of elephants. 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  64-65. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious re-emerging disease in wildlife and zoo animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been isolated from 30 captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus within 14 herds in the United States (1994-2004) and Mycobacterium bovis has been isolated from one African elephant (Loxodonta africana) (Mikota, pers. comm.).3 There are several challenges with elephant TB diagnosis. Culture of trunk wash has relatively poor sensitivity and is subject to contamination.  Skin test is not validated in elephants and there is little reliability in these results.4   Serologic tests are appealing because  samples can be stored for future analysis, archived samples can be analyzed, various assay platforms can be directly compared, and these assays are amenable to serial analysis (e.g., to monitor therapy).  There is currently a multiple antigen ELISA test available for experimental use in elephants.1

To improve tuberculosis control, new diagnostic tools should be rapid, accurate, and host species-independent. Two novel serologic methods, MultiAntigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow technology (Rapid Test), have been adapted for use in white-tailed deer, European badger, cattle, and Asian and African elephants for the detection of TB-specific antibody. Serologic markers of diagnostic importance have been identified for each host tested so far. With MAPIA, a machine prints specific antigens horizontally on a nitrocellulose membrane which can be cut into strips and used in Western blot.2   Strips are incubated with test serum samples, then an anti-Ig conjugate and color developer.  Using this assay, an antibody response to multiple mycobacterial antigens has been observed in sera from M. tb-infected elephants. No antibody response was detected to any antigens in non-infected elephant sera.  Additionally, the kinetics of antibody responses by elephants undergoing antibiotic therapy indicates that the MAPIA could be used for monitoring treatment and to determine recrudescence of infection. 

Using selected antigens, a lateral-flow test was developed for rapid antibody detection that can be used in multiple species. The Rapid Test can use serum, plasma, or whole blood and provides results within 15 min.  These tests are similar to in-clinic tests for FIV/FeLV detection (snap test, IDDEX). If a band is present in the test strip, it indicates a positive reaction (antibody present).
A panel of sera from healthy and TB infected elephants showed good correlation between the MAPIA and the rapid test (Table 1).

In summary, it appears that TB-infected elephants produce a robust antibody response that can be detected in serologic assays.  Of special significance is the kinetics of the response, which may permit earlier detection of infection than current diagnostic methods.  While initial results are promising, additional studies are required to validate these two assays.  A relatively small set of serum samples from documented infected and non-infected elephants was used, and more samples are needed to further validate the tests. MAPIA has been used to optimize antigen selection in order to make the most sensitive and specific Rapid Test. This strategy may also allow for identification of "treatment-sensitive" antigens that could be used in the MAPIA format to monitor TB therapy.  While elephants will be used as an initial "proof of concept" species for test development, additional samples from other species will also be evaluated to determine applicability to other species (i.e., a host species-independent test), thus benefiting other groups such as primates, rhinos, cervids, etc.


The authors thank the zoos and individuals that have provided samples and assistance with this research, including Ray Ball, Carol Buckley, Jenifer Chatfield, Genny Dumonceaux, Javan Esfandiary, Rena Greenwald, Scott Larsen, Susan Mikota, Torsten Moller, Dick Montali, Mike Richards, Heidi Riddle, Mo Salman, Scott Terrell, and many others.  This research was supported by Chembio Diagnostics, Inc.
1 Larsen, R.S., M.D. Salman, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, R.J. Montali, and J. Triantis. 2000.  Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  
  infection in captive elephants.  J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 31:291-302.
2 Lyashchenko, K., et al.  2000. A multiantigen print immunoassay for the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases.  J. Immunol. Methods  242:91-100. 
3 Mikota, S.K., and J. Maslow.  2002.  Epidemiology and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants:  2002.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Annu. Meet.  Pp. 384-387.

Neil, K.M., Caron, J.P., Orth, M.W., 2005. The role of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in treatment for and prevention of osteoarthritis in animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226, 1079-1088.

Ortolani, A., Leong, K., Graham, L., Savage, A., 2005. Behavioral indices of estrus in a group of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology 24, 311-329.
Abstract: This study investigated behavioral signals of estrus by systematically monitoring the interactions of one male with four female African elephants housed in a naturalistic outdoor enclosure at Disney's Animal Kingdom over a period of 11 months. We measured changes in five spatial behaviors and 22 tactile-contact behaviors, as well as changes in serum progestagen and LH concentrations, across three ovarian cycles for each female. Two females did not cycle during the study. Three different phases of the ovarian cycle were identified: mid luteal, anovulatory follicular, ovulatory follicular.  The male followed more and carried out more genital inspections, flehmen, and trunk-to-mouth behaviors toward cycling females during their ovulatory phase. Genital inspections by the male peaked above baseline levels on  the  day of an LH surge, and up to 9 days before, in both cycling females  and,  thus, might be a useful behavioral index of estrus. The male also carried out more genital inspections, flehmen, and trunk touches to the back leg toward ovulatory cycling than noncycling females. Overall, our results  indicated that: 1) a single subadult African elephant male could  discriminate two females in the ovulatory phase of their cycle (i.e.,  during  the 3 weeks preceding ovulation) from the mid luteal phase; 2) the male  also  discriminated two cycling females in the ovulatory and anovulatory  follicular phases from two noncycling females; 3) two females in the  ovulatory phase of the cycle displayed a greater variety of  tactile-contact  behavior toward the male compared to the other cycle phases.

Rush, E.M., Brawner, W.R., Ogburn, A.L., Marshall, A., Hathcock, J.T. Comparison of radiographs versus computed tomography evaluation of the distal limb in an Asian elephant. 2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group.  68-69. 2005.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Feet problems are the most commonly seen ailment in captive elephants.  In the field of zoo and wildlife medicine, radiographs are the accepted standard of skeletal evaluation of the distal limb of elephants, to show changes in bone density and conformation .1 Although radiographs are considered reliable to show severe degenerative change in the distal phalanges, it is difficult to assess detail of the carpus and tarsus due to the anatomy and superimposition of the large carpal and tarsal bones. Radiographic images of the distal limbs of a geriatric, female Asian elephant, were compared with postmortem computed tomography (CT) images.  This animal had a long history of clinical nail disease treated for many years with diligent foot care and aggressive paring of multiple nails. Arthritis of the carpi, tarsi and/or digits was suspected and had been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Serial radiographs from several years showed obvious degenerative change in multiple digits, especially those most severely affected clinically at the nail. Osseous detail in the carpi and tarsi was suboptimal on radiographs even when postmortem specimens were radiographed with a stationary, high capacity radiograph machine designed for large animal radiology.  CT images of the distal limbs revealed degenerative skeletal changes that were not readily apparent on radiographs.  Most degenerative change was noted in the periosteal areas of the carpal and tarsal bones, particularly at articular surfaces. Realizing that CT of feet and distal limbs of live elephants is impractical, if not impossible, this comparison of radiographs and CT demonstrates that radiographs may not reveal all abnormalities present in joints of the distal extremities. Comparative CT images of younger or clinically normal animals were not available, so it has not been possible to determine the clinical significance of the apparent degenerative changes noted on these radiographs and CT images at the time of this publication.  Nonetheless, consideration should be given for the lack of detail when evaluating radiographs of elephant feet. When radiographic changes are noted in the distal limbs of elephants suffering from arthritis with a history of nail disease, the attending veterinarian may consider prophylactic antibiotic therapy to treat possible osteomyelitis in the bones of the distal limb.  Also, in animals with arthritic change on radiographs and no nail disease, implementation of appropriate antiinflammatory drugs and/or joint supplements should be considered.  Hydrotherapy, acupuncture, limb exercise and other topical therapies may be warranted, depending on each individual case and the clinical signs exhibited. Routine and diagnostic radiographs should be taken from several angles, including oblique views, to assure the most accurate assessment of bony change in the distal limb and to give the best overall images for retrospective comparison. Radiographs should include the carpus and tarsus if the radiograph machine has the capacity for the bone density of that region.
Thanks to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Radiology for all of their time, expertise and contributions to this study.  Also, thanks to Marcia Riedmiller and the pachyderm care staff at the Birmingham Zoo.
1.Fowler, M.E., and R.E. Miller. 2003. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, 5th Edition. St. Louis: Elsevier Science. Pp 547-548.

Elvin, M., 2004. The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. Yale University Press.
Abstract: Review from Nature 430, 505 - 506 (29 July 2004):                
Pity the poor elephants! Over more than 4,000 years they were gradually forced from living all over China to a few protected enclaves near the border with Burma. The main reason was the destruction of their habitat as humans cut down forests and introduced agriculture. Farmers found the dwindling elephant herds a nuisance, as crops were trampled and plundered. Others came to value elephants for military, transport and ceremonial purposes: their ivory was prized and their trunks became a gourmet delicacy. Elephant numbers shrank until they were little more than a memory for most Chinese. Mark Elvin uses the decline of the elephant as an allegory to illustrate the transformation of the Chinese environment to the end of pre-industrial times. Some of the same story can be seen in Africa today.

Elvin's book is not so much an environmental history of China as a collection of its fragments. With copious quotations from Chinese written sources of all kinds, he shows what happened in different places and why. Even if we can see from archaeology that comparable events took place elsewhere, only in China are there such written records, giving a unique account of how it felt to live through them. It was not always a pleasant or edifying process, and as usual the voices of those worst affected will never be heard.

In broad terms, the transformation of the Chinese environment, which was faster in some areas than others, had certain characteristics. First, deforestation made way for agriculture. There was then a bonanza as resources were exploited, species were lost and human numbers rose. This triggered the growth of towns, cities and states with social stratification, followed by increasing competition between them, with war as the spur and the environment sometimes used as a weapon. Better technology was mitigated by mismanagement of resources. Entrapment in limited local circumstances
left people vulnerable to change. Finally, there was a greater risk of social and economic collapse affecting society as a whole. Elvin shows the differences clearly in three areas: Jiaxing to the south of the Yangzi river; Guizhou in the south, where the Han people gradually displaced the indigenous Miao; and Zunhua in the mountainous northeast.

Everywhere, control of water was essential. 'Hydraulic despotism' may tell only part of the story, but communities and even states grew partly out of the need to manage this precious and sometimes capricious resource. The struggle to run irrigation systems, limit marine incursions, maintain banks and walls, undertake dredging, cope with floods and storms, and adapt to ever-changing weather patterns is as difficult today as it ever was. With huge populations dependent on particular systems, any change can become increasingly difficult to cope with.

The complexity of Chinese attempts to manage human effects on the environment is remarkable. Even more special are the Chinese beliefs and attitudes towards the environment that have existed over the millennia. Generalizations are bound to be misleading but, in general terms, the Chinese were driven, in Elvin's words, by a desire for rational mastery of the world. They had little hesitation in uprooting forests, redirecting and polluting rivers, destroying natural landscapes and giving political and military needs absolute priority. They had remarkable powers of organization, and ran projects far beyond European capacities at the time. But in doing so, the Chinese paid scant regard to the environment and unwittingly created many long-term problems.

On the other hand, the Chinese had a particularly sensitive respect for nature and natural beauty in all its forms. Even as forests were destroyed, individual trees were singled out for admiration. Heaven and Earth were closely linked, and the line between the natural and the supernatural was blurred. There was a confluence of matter leading to energy, and energy leading to life, each a product of Bright Force and Dark Force. Dragons and spirits were sometimes seen above the surface in thunder and lightning, and sometimes below it in earthquakes. They formed part of a living world that
sustained and punished humans. They even related the behaviour of the weather to human activity, so there was morality in meteorology.

In such a world, it was crucial to divine what the invisible forces felt or did. This could involve sacrificing animals or humans, or burning cracks in the shoulder blades of mammals or the undershells of turtles. In Shang times, such practices had political significance as the ruler was the intermediary between the visible and the invisible world. This was also true in other epochs when the apparatus of authority was given almost divine attributes.

It is as difficult for us to enter into this mental cosmology as into that of our own ancestors in pre-scientific times. Elvin shows that searching for observable and verifiable facts about the world, and putting them to use in programmes of thought, was almost entirely alien to the Chinese. As a result, the shock of change was more abrupt in China than it was in Europe, where the scientific revolution began earlier. Traces of the old thinking may have survived Mao Zedong and persist in fundamental ways today.

The Retreat of the Elephants is not an easy book to read. Some of the quotations seem scarcely relevant, and the whole text could have been usefully pruned. At the end there is an unilluminating venture into equations, as if sustainability could be reduced to an algorithm. Yet taken as a whole, the book is a fascinating, scholarly miscellany of stories, poetry and ideas from the history of the longest continuous civilization on Earth. The relationship of that civilization with its fragile and often tortured surroundings contains lessons for others - particularly at a time when industrial society in China, as elsewhere, is pressing harder than ever on the environment. This will be a source book, elephants and all, for generations to come.

Leal, W.S., 2004. Pheromone unwrapping by pH flip-flopping
692. Chem. Biol. 11, 1029-1031.
Abstract: The Asian elephant utilizes the same sex pheromone as a number of moth species, (Z)-7-dodecen-1-yl acetate encapsulated in a serum-derived albumin. The chemical signal is emitted in the urine and received in the mucus of the trunk. The unwrapping of the package is pH mediated

Seidon, A., Hine, E.A.S., 2004. Acupuncture treatment on a female Asian elephant with trunk paralysis. Science India 9 and 10, 82-85.

Stringfield, C.E., Oh, P., Granich, R., Scott, J., Sun, B., Joseph, M., Flood, J., Sedgwick, C.J. Epidemiologic investigation of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo. 2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE.  46-48. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: From 1997 to 2000, six cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection were diagnosed in three species of animals at, or recently originating from, the Los Angeles Zoo. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis showed that five of six animal isolates shared an identical IS6110 pattern, with the sixth differing only by one additional band. A multiinstitutional epidemiologic investigation was conducted to identify and interrupt possible transmission among the animal cases, and to screen personnel for active TB infection and TB skin-test conversion.
Animal Cases
In April and October of 1994, Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) #1 and Asian elephant #2 arrived at the Los Angeles Zoo from a private elephant facility where they had lived together. They were housed together at the zoo until November of 1996 when elephant #2 was returned to the facility for several months before transfer to another zoo. In the spring of 1997, Elephant #1 (30 yr old) died of salmonellosis, with M. tuberculosis found in granulomatous lymph node lesions from the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and Elephant #2 (30 yr old) was found to have a positive trunk wash culture for M. tuberculosis. In July of 1998, one of a closed herd of three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) consisting of a sire and two offspring, died of pulmonary M. tuberculosis at 6 yr of age. The goat's asymptomatic herdmates were screened and had negative chest radiographs and tracheal wash cultures, but one of the two goats was positive on tuberculin skin-test. In October of 1998, a clinically normal Black rhinocerus (Diceros bicornis) was diagnosed with Mycobacerium tuberculosis after a positive skin test and nasal wash culture. In the winter of 1998, the two remaining goats were evaluated again with negative chest radiographs and tracheal wash cultures. However, 1 yr later, both were humanely euthanatized at 8 and 12 yr of age due to clinical evidence of tuberculosis on chest radiographs (both animals), and active clinical signs in one (neither were able to be orally treated). In January of 2001, a rhino was humanely euthanatized after a protracted illness that was nonresponsive to aggressive treatment. The rhino was found to have severe multifocal hemosiderosis and atypical mycobacterial infection in her lungs, with no M. tuberculosis  cultured. This animal had been treated with oral Isoniazid and Rifampin for 1 yr, cultured routinely, and was never culture positive again.
 Epidemiologic Investigation
Investigators examined medical and location histories of the affected animals, animal handling practices, health-care procedures, and performed an infection control assessment of the animal compounds and health-care facilities (including measuring air flow in the compounds by smoke testing). We conducted a review of zoo employee medical records for evidence of TB symptoms, tuberculin skin-test results, and chest radiograph information. A list of current and former employees was cross-matched with reported TB cases in the California state registry from 1985 to 2000. As part of the annual occupational health screening in June of 2000, zoo employees underwent questioning regarding TB symptoms, received tuberculin skin tests, and completed a questionnaire on medical history, job type, and history of contact with the infected animals.
Epidemiologic Findings
No common cross-species contact outside the animal compounds and no contact with an infectious human were found. The distance at which the public was kept from the animals and the distance of the compounds from each other (the elephant compound was 27 meters from the rhino compound and the goat compound was 90 m from both) suggests that direct transmission was unlikely. No active TB cases in humans were found, and no matches were found in the database of reporte d cases. The RFLP analysis of this strain of M. tuberculosis matched that of three elephants with which #1 and #2 were housed at a private elephant facility from September of 1993-February of 1994.1 We hypothesize that elephants #1 and #2 were infected at the private facility and were shipped with latent M. tuberculosis infection in 1994, subsequently infecting the black rhino and Mountain goats at the Los Angeles Zoo.
Of interest, animal caretaking and animal contact were not associated with a positive tuberculin skin-test, while groundskeepers were found to have an increased risk of tuberculin skin-test conversion compared with other job categories. Employees attending the elephant necropsy and employees who trained elephants were more likely to have tuberculin skin-test conversion than those who did not.
This is the first documented human and veterinary epidemiologic investigation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis affecting multiple species in a zoo. 2 No evidence of transmission from humans to animals or active infections in humans were found. Genotyping evidence strongly suggests transmission from one species to another, although no evidence of transmission was discovered. Human tuberculin skin-test conversions associated with the elephants were most likely due to lack of respiratory protection for these employees when the risk of TB infection was not known. The finding that groundskeepers and not animal handlers were associated with a higher risk of tuberculin skin-test conversion was surprising, and we hypothesized that this may have to do with groundskeepers as a group being more likely to have
been born outside of the United States.
Control measures to eliminate the spread of disease to people and animals were undertaken immediately and throughout this outbreak, and no further cases of M. tuberculosis have been diagnosed at the zoo in the past 3 yr despite ongoing surveillance. Four elephants and three rhinos that had direct contact with the infected animals remain TB negative by trunk and nasal wash culture methods as outlined by the USDA for elephant TB surveillance. Methods of indirect transmission in mammalian zoo species and causes of variability in infection and morbidity within and among species warrant further investigation. Ongoing vigilance, occupational health programs and infection control measures in potentially exposed animals are recommended to prevent ongoing transmission of M. tuberculosis in zoo settings.
The authors thank the Animal Care and Animal Health staff of the Los Angeles Zoo who cared so well for these animals, and the veterinarians (including consulting pathologists), technicians, and medical records staff who collected, analyzed, and organized the clinical data. We could not have performed this evaluation without Sue Thisdell, Safety Officer at the Los Angeles Zoo; Jothan Staley and Donna Workman-Malcom of the City of Los Angeles Occupational Health Services Division; Lee Borenstein, Elenor Lehnkering, Patrick Ryan, Jeanne Soukup, and Annette Nita of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services; and Diana Whipple for her RFLP expertise.
1. Mikota, S.K., L. Peddie, J. Peddie, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, G. West, W. Lindsay, R.S.Larsen, M. D. Salman, D. Chatterjee, J. Payeur, D. Whipple, C. Thoen, D. Davis, C. Sedgwick, R.J. Montali, M. Ziccardi, J. Maslow. 2001. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 32: 1-16.
2. Oh, P., R. Granich, J. Scott, B. Sun, M. Joseph, C. Stringfield, S. Thisdell, J. Staley, D. Workman-Malcolm, L. Borenstein, E. Lehnkering, P. Ryan, J. Soukup, A.Nitta, J. Flood. 2002. Human exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (11): 1290-1293.orte

Weissengruber, G.E., Forstenpointner, G., 2004. Musculature of the crus and pes of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): insight into semiplantigrade limb architecture
689. Anat. Embryol. (Berl) 208, 451-461.
Abstract: The limbs of elephants are designed to support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal, and they display unique morphological peculiarities among mammals. In this article we provide a new and detailed anatomical description of the muscles of the lower hindlimb in African elephants (Loxodonta africana), and we place our observations into a comparative anatomical as well as a functional morphological context. At the cranial aspect of the shank (crus) and the foot (pes), the flexors of the tarsal joint and the extensors of the toes form a flat muscular plate covering the skeletal elements. Caudal to the tibia and the fibula the Musculus (M.) soleus is strongly developed, whereas the M. gastrocnemius and the M. flexor digitorum superficialis are thin. Small flexors, adductors, and abductors of the toes are present. The M. tibialis caudalis as well as the Mm. fibularis longus and brevis mainly support the tarsal joint. The design of the muscular structures matches the specific requirements of heavy-weight bearing as well as of proboscidean limb posture and locomotion patterns

Xie, H. How to use acupuncture for elephants. The North American Veterinary Conference.  1457-1458. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

 2003. Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi.

Bechert, U., Christensen, J.M., Finnegan, M. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered ibuprofen in elephants. Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  84-85. 2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders (e.g., trauma, arthritis) occur commonly in captive elephants, affecting 73% of the animals studied in 69 zoos in North America.1  To treat these and other conditions, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., ibuprofen and phenylbutazone) are used strictly on an empirical basis in elephants.  There is some indication that species differences in drug metabolism exist between African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, although this has not been substantiated.2  Determination of safe and therapeutic dosing regimens for ibuprofen and phenylbutazone will improve medical management of captive elephants by providing efficacious dosage regimens, improved control of pain, and prevention of potential toxic side effects resulting from improper drug administration. The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ibuprofen administered per os in elephants, and 2) to establish therapeutic dosage regimens for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus ) male and female elephants.  Twenty healthy elephants (five males and five females of each species) housed in zoos throughout North America were used in this study.  Pilot studies were conducted at the Oregon Zoo with Asian elephants using empirically derived dosing regimens and preceded each set of clinical trials to ensure that proper ranges for dosage and dosing frequency determinations would be utilized.  Therapeutic dosage requirements were determined using 4, 5 and 6 mg/kg dosages in each animal, and blood samples were collected at –5, 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes, 1½, 2, 4, 10, 12, 24 and 48 hours post-oral administration from superficial ear veins.  Optimal dosing frequency was then determined by conducting 12 and 24 hour dosing interval trials, with blood samples collected hourly for 4 hours after each of three administrations, then every 6 hours plus 1 hour prior to the next administration.  Washout periods between all trials were 3 weeks in duration and allowed for complete elimination of residual drug metabolites. Following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen and a rapid absorption phase, mean ibuprofen serum concentrations peaked in African and Asian elephants at 4 hrs at 16.75 ± 6.79 μg/mL (mean ± SD).  Five mg/kg dosages of ibuprofen resulted in peak serum concentrations of 17.20 ± 7.78 μg/mL, and with 6 mg/kg dosages, serum concentrations increased to 22.42 ± 12.30 μg/mL.  Ibuprofen was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 4 to 4.5 hrs.  The volume of distribution (Vd/F) was estimated to be 200.8 ± 101.17 mL/kg for African and 164.4 ± 34.60 mL/kg for Asian elephants.  The doses used in this study with elephants resulted in serum concentrations at or above therapeutic concentrations for humans (15-30 mg/L) for up to 12 hrs.  Serum ibuprofen concentrations decreased to below 5 μg/mL 24 hr post-administration in all elephants.  There were no statistically significant pharmacokinetic parameter differences between males and females of either species, and differences between African and Asian elephants existed but were not significant (p < 0.12).  The mean AUC and t1/2 life values for Asian elephants were higher as compared to African elephants, and the mean clearance and elimination rate constant were lower in Asian elephants as compared to African elephants.  Ibuprofen administered at 6 mg/kg/12 hrs for Asian elephants and at 7 mg/kg/12 hrs for African elephants resulted in therapeutic serum concentrations of this anti-inflammatory agent.  Acknowledgments:The elephant keeper staff at the Kansas City Zoo, Riddle's Elephant Sanctuary, the Bowmanville Zoo, Pittsburgh Zoo, Have Trunk Will Travel, and Oregon Zoo did a great job collecting the blood samples for this study.  The Morris Animal Foundation funded this research. References: 1.Mikota, S.K., E.L. Sargent, and G.S. Ranglack.  1994.  Medical Management of the Elephant.  Indira Publishing House, West Bloomfield, Michigan, pp. 137-150. 2.Mortenson, J., and S. Sierra.  1998.  Determining dosages for anti-inflammatory agents in elephants.  Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet, pp. 477-479.

Hutchinson, J.R., Famini, D., Lair, R., Kram, R., 2003. Biomechanics: Are fast-moving elephants really running? Nature 422, 493-494.

Kajaysri, J., Huayjunteuk, S., Reunpech, S., Thammakarn, C., et, al. The condition of paper thin bone layer and fracture by metabolic bone disease in an orphan elephant. Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 3-7 February, 2003.  508-515. 2003.  Kasetsart University; Bangkok; Thailand.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Sarma, B., 2003. Foot care and common surgical disorders of elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 141-144.

 2002. Large Animal Internal Medicine. Mosby, St.Louis.

Kim, C.S., Won, C.K., Cho, G.H., Cho, K.W., Park, J.S., Rho, G.J., 2002. A case of fused thoracic vertebrae, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and ilium of African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Korean Journal of Veterinary Research 42, 131-136.

Nayar, K.N.M., Chandrasekharan, K., Radhakrishnan, K., 2002. Management of surgical affections in captive elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 55-59.

 2001. The Elephant's Foot: Prevention and Care of Foot Conditions in Captive Asian and African Elephants. Iowa State University Press, Ames,Iowa, USA.

Boardman, W.S.J., Jakob-Hoff, R., Huntress, S., Lynch, M., Reiss, A., Monaghan, C., 2001. The medical and surgical management of foot abscesses in captive Asiatic elephants: case studies. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 121-126.

Buckely, C., 2001. Captive Elephant Foot Care: Natural Habitat Husbandry Techniques. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 53-55.
Abstract: Many factors, including environment, diet, and management, determine the psychological and physical health of captive elephants.  When these factors are suboptimal, resulting in stress, the captive elephants' response will manifest in disorders of the mind and/or body.  The link between these disorders and an unhealthy environment, inadequate diet, or inferior management techniques is not always obvious; but often is painfully obvious. For the purpose of this chapter, "natural habitat" is defined as a vast space of diverse terrain and natural substrate, complete with wetlands, seeded and volunteer pastures, wooded areas, natural year-round water sources (including spring-fed ponds, washes, streams, and dry creek beds), and a wide range of live vegetation suitable for the species being maintained.

Cooper, R.M., Honeyman, V.L., French, D.A., 2001. Surgical management of a chronic infection involving the phalange of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 133-134.

Endo, H., Hayashi, Y., Komiya, T., Narushima, E., Sasaki, M., 2001. Muscle architecture of the elongated nose in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 63, 533-537.
Abstract: The architecture of the M. caninus in the elongated nose was examined in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The following complicated musculature of the M. caninus was observed in the proximal and distal regions of the nose: (1) Proximal region: In the superficial layer, the longitudinal bundles are confirmed in the dorsal part, and the obliquely-oriented ones in the ventral part. In the middle layer, some bundles run ventro-distally, while other ones represent longitudinally-oriented running. The deep layer consists of complicated architecture of many bundles. Some muscle bundles run medio-laterally, while the others extend proximo-distally in this space. (2) Distal region: In the dorsal part of the M. caninus, the bundles run at deep-superficial direction, while in the ventral part the bundles are longitudinally arranged. The bundles run at lateral direction near the septum of the nasal conduits. The N. facialis and N. infraorbitalis send many branches in the lateral area of the M. caninus in the trunk. This muscle architecture of multi-oriented bundles and well-developed innervation to them suggest that they enable the elongated nose to act as a refined manipulator in the Asian elephant.

Finnegan, M., Monti, M., 2001. Surgical management of phalangeal osteomyelitis in a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 135-137.

Fowler, M.E., 2001. Elephant foot care: concluding remarks. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 147-149.

Fowler, M.E., 2001. An Overview of Foot Conditions in Asian and African Elephants. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA, USA, pp. 3-7.

Gage, L., 2001. Treatment of osteomyelitis in elephant feet. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press,  Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 117-118.

Gibson, K., Flanagan, J.P., 2001. Ouch, do that again! Treatment of chronic nail infections in an Asian bull elephant using protected contact. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 87-88.

Hinke, A., Wipplinger, J. A Severe Case of Pox Disease in Two Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) of a Small Travelling Circus Overwintering Near Erfurt. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  53-56. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: A 32 and a 35 year old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) belonging to a small travelling circus showed symptoms of a severe pox disease in September 2000 during overwintering near Erfurt. From mucous conjunctival excretions and typical lesions of the mucosa of the mouth a poxvirus strain was isolated which showed the biological characteristics of cowpox virus (Orthopoxvirus bovis). Because of the fact that the elephants were treated about 5 weeks the wrong way from another veterinarian who had no experience with pox disease in elephants medical treatment started to became a bit difficult. After weeks of intensive medical care the condition improved, however due to massive cycles of further virus development it deteriorated, and the animals had to be euthanised after about 5 weeks of treatment.

Houser, D., Simmons, L.G., Armstrong, D.L., 2001. Treatment of an abscessed footpad of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) using a sandal and topically applied chitosan. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 107-113.

Hughes, J., Southard, M., 2001. Elephant Foot Care for an Asian Elephant at Mesker Park Zoo and Botanic Garden. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press,  Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 73-77.
Abstract: Mesker Park Zoo and Botanic Garden, Evansville, Indiana, has a 46-year old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) who is left unchained in a stall with a concrete floor at night.  She has daily access to a yard with a substrate of large rock (number 53 limestone) covered with crushed limestone (number 10 with fines) and an area of sand.  We have an aggressive, free-contact regimen to prevent serious foot problems.  The preventive regimen includes interior exhibit and yard maintenance, general husbandry, daily hands-on inspections, twice a day foot scrubs, and weekly pedicures for all four feet.  To make more efficient use of time, pedicures are done with power tools (planer, sander) in addition to the usual hand tools.  If an incipient problem is detected, treatment is aggressive.  Treatment usually consists of medical soaks, topical antimicrobials, and removal of all necrotic tissue.  In this manner we have been able to contain relatively minor problems and prevent major problems from developing.  Therefore, Mesker Park Zoo and Botanic Garden has instituted a free-contact, preventive foot care program for our Asian elephant.  Incorporated into this program are general husbandry practices, inside and outside exhibit maintenance, daily foot inspections, weekly pedicures, and two-way communication between keepers and veterinary staff.  The program is updated as new problems arise and as old treatments cease to work.  This preventive program allows minor programs to be identified and treated early, thus avoiding any major future problems.

Kalk, P., Wilgenkamp, C., 2001. Elephant Foot Care Under the Voluntary-Contact System: Problems and Solutions              . In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 63-64.
Abstract: Dependable, consistent access to an elephant's nails and pads is a crucial aspect of keeping captive elephants healthy.  This requires the cooperation from the elephant, a facility design that allows safe access to the elephant, and flexible thinking from those who provide the care.  This is true under any method of elephant management, but provides some new challenges with the relatively new, voluntary (or protected) contact style of elephant handling.  We discuss in this chapter some simple elephant facility modifications and training strategies that have allowed us to provide sound foot care for elephants in a voluntary-contact facility. Reliable foot care is critical to the health of captive elephants.  There has been considerable concern about the restricted access to elephant feet, nails and pads under a voluntary-contact system (Priest 1994).  Voluntary contact (VC) is a more accurate and descriptive term than protected contact because it emphasizes the elephants' voluntary cooperation with the keeper (Doherty et al. 1996).  VC has been the sole method of management for four of our Indian Elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) since May 1995.  We describe in this chapter our solutions to obstacles in VC elephant foot access, care, and treatment.  Simple facility modification and systemic training, with thoughtful positioning of the elephant relative to the keeper, has allowed us to provide reliable, sound care for our elephants' feet.

Kam, R., 2001. Preoperative conditioning and postoperative treatments of a protected-contact bull elephant. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 127-131.

Lahiri-Choudhury, D.K., 2001. Historical lessons for the treatment of foot diseases in captive Asian elephants. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 81-83.

O'Sullivan, T.J., Junge, E., 2001. The use of sonography in the follow-up care of a foot abscess in a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 115-116.

Ramsay, E., Henry, R., 2001. Anatomy of the Elephant Foot. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA, USA, pp. 9-12.
Abstract: While elephants have played an important role in human ecology throughout recorded history, their anatomy has been the subject of relatively few studies, and these studies considered only a limited number of specimens.  This is especially true for the elephants' feet, despite the common occurrence of foot disease in elephants (Evans 1961, Mikota et al. 1994).  One study that surveyed North American captive elephants found that 50 percent had experience foot problems (Mikota et al. 1994). Despite their phylogenetic differences, the components of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants feet are remarkably similar.  The major differences are the shape of the rear foot and the number of phalanges and toenails.  This is not to say that the feet of the two species are the same.  The differences in their wild habitats and the more common occurrence of foot lesions in captive Asian elephants suggest that the biology of the two species' feet are quite different.  The following describes anatomical characteristics common to both species unless otherwise identified.

Roocroft, A., Oosterhuis, J., 2001. Foot Care for Captive Elephants. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 21-52.
Abstract: Elephant foot care has been practiced for hundreds of years- ever since elephants have been in captivity.  Foot problems are frequently encountered in captive elephants and treated in a variety of ways.  The solutions chosen to correct these problems and the measures that are taken to prevent them can influence the overall health of captive elephants.  There are numerous approaches to keeping elephants in captivity and an equal number of opinions as to what constitutes proper elephant foot care.  The following is a brief look at what we consider to be the factors that influence elephant foot problems, what constitutes good foot care practice, how to deal with problems when they develop, and what to do to prevent them from occurring.  We believe that no matter how good a foot care program is, eventually foot problems will be seen because they are the result of keeping elephants in captivity.  We also believe that whatever the type of elephant contact allowed in an institution, proper foot care can be accomplished.

Rutkowski, C., Hopper, R., Marion, F., 2001. Record Keeping as an Aid to Foot Care in the Asian Elephant. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 17.
Abstract: Foot care is a major husbandry component for keeping Asian elephants in captivity.  In order to track problems, which may take a long time to resolve, and to maintain a schedule of foot trimming, adequate and accurate records are needed.  There are several ways to keep good records.  The first and foremost is a written record-keeping system.  The second is by incorporating still photographs to augment the written records.  Finally, a videotape of the actual foot trimming process can show what was done to the foot.

Rutkowski, C., Marion, F., Hopper, R., 2001. Split nails, abscesses, and cuticular fluid pockets. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 85-86.

Saddler, W., 2001. The Role of Nutrition and Its Possible Impact on Elephant Foot Care. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA, USA, pp. 13-15.
Abstract: Webster defines a nutrient as "something that nourishes or promotes growth and repairs the natural wastage of organic life."  The key to sound nutrition is to provide the proper levels of many different nutrients.  Rarely does providing one nutrient or family of nutrients solve a problem alone.  The best analogy for proper health is still a chain.  So it is with nutrition, all of the nutrients must serve as strong links to allow good overall health.   This chapter will discuss a number of key nutrients that are frequently related to the care of the feet and nails of elephants, but by no means will nutrients alone solve these problems.

Sampson, J., 2001. Foot Care at the Indianapolis Zoo: A Comprehensive Approach. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 57-62.
Abstract: Maintaining healthy feet in captive elephants is one of the biggest challenges facing those who work with these large, complex mammals.  Wild elephants walk great distances every day in search of food and water, while captive elephants occupy much smaller spaces and are provided with life's necessities.  Lack of exercise and extended time spent on improper substrate can lead to overgrown pads and cracked nails, which in turn can result in infections.  Foot care is an essential part of any captive elephant management program and depends on more than just careful trimming techniques.  Healthy feet are the product of the entire husbandry program and the environment in which the elephants are kept.  The Indianapolis Zoo is home to five female African elephants managed in a free-contact system.  None of the elephants have experienced any major foot problems.  Our husbandry program emphasizes exercise and training, good nutrition, sanitary barn and yard conditions, cleanliness of the skin and feet, frequent inspections of the feet, and timely pad trimming and nail filing.

Sanyathitiseree, P., Thongthip, N., Thayananuphat, A., Aumarm, W. Fiberglass Casting in an Asian Elephant. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  136-139. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: A 19-year-old female Asian elephant was submitted to Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of being hit by a car. Physical examination revealed that the elephant had lameness and showed a serious pain in her right leg. Oblique fracture of the distal part of the right tibio-fibular was diagnosed radiographically. The fiberglass casting was used to fix the fracture on the third day after  accident, the fracture healed after 60 days of casting, but the angulation deformity of the bone remained on her foot.

Sarma, K.K., Sarma, M., Ramanathan, A., Kheria, T., 2001. Peribursal haematoma in a working elephant of Kaziranga National Park. Intas Polivet 2, 206-207.

Schwammer, H., 2001. Elephant Husbandry and Foot Care at the Schonbrunner Tiergarten, Vienna. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 69-71.
Abstract: Zoo visitors consistently rank elephants as number one on their list of the most fascinating animals.  In the wild, the Asian elephant is nearing extinction and the African elephant is endangered.  In captivity, the breeding results are still far from sufficient to maintain the zoo population.  The cause is a lack of zoo facilities able to house bulls.  In addition, many elephant keepers and handlers have insufficient training and knowledge of these species.  There is considerable discussion about the merits of two handling methods: protected contact (hands off) or free contact ( hands on) (Doherty et al. 1996, Priest 1994).  In 1996 the Schonbrunner Tiergarten, Vienna, erected a new facility for African elephants (Pechlaner et al. 1997).  The facility provides for protected-contact or hands-off management for a 7-year old bull and free contact system for the cows.  The latter approach represents the most promising method for managing cows when well-trained animal keepers are available.

Seidon, A., 2001. Procedure for nail reconstruction and treatment for an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Iowa State University Press, pp. 89-91.

Sorensen, D., 2001. A History of Elephant Foot Care at the Milwaukee County Zoo. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 65-68.
Abstract: The Milwaukee County Zoo's management of foot care for four female Asian and two female African elephants evolved over the last twenty years.  During this time, we went from virtually no foot care, through a period of extensive foot care, and finally to the moderate amount of foot care we currently perform.  Problems with overgrown nails and cuticles, minor to serious nail and pad necroses, and a recurring open tract in the foot of one of our elephants were treated in a variety of ways.  Methods used included traditional trimming and soaking of the feet, freezing necrotic tissue, minor surgery, and the wearing of a protective boot.  We are currently experimenting with a polymer-based floor covering.  This chapter presents a brief history of elephant foot problems seen at the Milwaukee County Zoo and the treatment of those problems.  Examples are given from foot care for only three of our Asian Elephants.  While these elephants shared many of the foot problems described, each had her own type of problem that is best illustrated by her particular case.  Information was collected principally from medical records and supplemented with information from keepers' daily report sheets and my memory of events.

Stahl, S., Doyle, C., 2001. Siri's dilemma: management of a chronic foot problem. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 99-102.

West, G., 2001. Occurrence and treatment of nail/foot abscesses, nail cracks, and sole abscesses in captive elephants. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 93-97.

Woodle, K., Kepes, T., Doyle, C., 2001. Making a protective boot for an Asian elephant. In: Csuti, B., Sargent, E.L., Bechert, U.S. (Eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press,  Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 103-106.

Fleming, G.J., Isaza, R. Thermography evaluation of trunk paralysis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using digital thermography. Proc. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conf.  502-503. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Fowler, M.E., Steffey, E.P., Galuppo, L., Pascoe, J.R., 2000. Facilitation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) standing immobilization and anesthesia with a sling. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31, 118-123.
Abstract: An Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) required general anesthesia for orthopedic foot surgery. The elephant was unable to lie down, so it was placed in a custom-made sling, administered i.m. etorphine hydrochloride in the standing position, and lowered to lateral recumbency. General anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane administered through an endotracheal tube. After surgery, the isoflurane anesthesia was terminated, with immobilization maintained with additional i.v. etorphine. The elephant was lifted to the vertical position, and the immobilizing effects of etorphine were reversed with naltrexone. The suspension system and hoist for the sling were designed specifically for the elephant house.

Gage, L.J., Blasko, D. Husbandry and Medical Considerations for Geriatric Elephants. Elephants: Cultural, Behavioral, and Ecological Perspectives; Program and Abstracts of the Workshop.  9-10. 2000. Davis, CA. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hittmair, K.M., Vielgrader, H.D., 2000. Radiographic diagnosis of lameness in African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 41, 511-515.
Abstract: Lameness in captive elephants is most commonly caused by pododermatitis or degenerative joint disease. Hard surfaces such as concrete, which produce a damp and cold environment, wet and muddy conditions, as well as restricted movement are the major causes of these problems. Radiography was performed in two African elephants at the Schoenbrunn Zoo in Vienna to determine the cause and extent of lameness. Various radiographic techniques are described for use in trained elephants. Low time settings were used to avoid loss of detail through movement and to minimize exposure while observing radiation safety. A 37-year-old elephant had front limb lameness due to an interdigital abscess. In radiographs of the foot an inhomogenous soft-tissue swelling without involvement of the phalanges was seen. Ultrasonography was helpful in visualizing the fluid-filled abscess. In additional joint radiographs severe degenerative joint disease was identified. A 13-year-old elephant had lameness of the hind limb. Radiographs of the hind limb from the foot to the stifle were made. Open physes and early signs of degenerative joint disease were identified on the radiographs.

Luikart, K. Anatomy of the Elephant Forefoot. Elephants: Cultural, Behavioral, and Ecological Perspectives; Program and Abstracts of the Workshop.  14-15. 2000. Davis, CA. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Pandey, S.K., 2000. Management of sinus due to necrosis of right transverse process of second lumbar vertebra in an elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 15, 328.

Spelman, L., Yates, R., Anikis, P., Galuppo, L. Regional Digital Intravenous Perfusion in an African Elephant (Loxodonta africana). 2000 Proceedings AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conference.  388-389. 2000. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

 1999. Equine Medicine and Surgery. Mosby, St. Louis MO USA.

Gage, L.J., 1999. Radiographic techniques for the elephant foot and carpus. In: Fowler, M.E., Miller, R.E. (Eds.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia,PA,USA, pp. 517-520.

Godagama, W.K., Wemmer, C., Rathnasooriya, W.D., 1999. Prevalence and distribution of body injuries of domesticated Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus). Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Sciences 27, 47-59.
Abstract: The prevalence and distribution of injuries was studied in 140 domesticated Sri Lankan elephants between April 1993 and April 1994. Five types of injuries were recorded including abscesses, punctures, wounds, spilt toe nails and ulcerated feet. The prevalence (%), number of injuries, range and site with highest frequency were as follows: abscesses, 17%, 0.3±0.05, 0-4, temporal region of head; wounds, 49%, 3.0±0.4, 0-29, lower region of the hind limb; punctures, 54%, 4.6±0.5,0-28, upper region of the fore limb; split toe nails, 54%, 1.0±0.2, 0-8, both fore and hind limbs; and ulcerated feet, 69%, 2.0±0.1, 0-4, feet. Five types of minor injuries were also observed: callouses (36%; 1.0±0.1; 0-6; temporal region of the head and scapula region of the shoulder), skin growths (38%; lower distal region of the hind limbs), small lumps (41%; upper proximal region of the fore limb), broken ear edges (27% both ears) and twisted tails (22%). The number of abscesses and wounds was significantly higher in males than in females. The number of elephants with abscesses, wounds, punctures, callouses, skin growths and broken ear edges was significantly higher in older age group (41-75 years) than in younger elephants.

Green, E.M., 1999. Thermography. In: Colahan, P.T., Merritt, A.M., Moore, J.N., Mayhew, I.G. (Eds.), Equine Medicine and Surgery. Mosby, St. Louis MO USA, pp. 1333-1340.

Mikota, S.K., 1999. Diseases of the Elephant: A Review. Verh. ber. Erkrg. Zootiere 39, 1-15.

Riddle, H.S. Innovative treatment and study of a nail abscess on an Asian elephant. Fourth International Elephant Research Symposium.  50-51. 1999.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Godagama, W.K., Wemmer, C., Ratnasooriya, W.D., 1998. Spinal conformation of domesticated Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus). Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Sciences 26, 7-11.
Abstract: The study investigated whether the 5 spinal conformations previously described for the Burmese elephant (Elephas maximus birmanicus) are also present in the Sri Lankan elephant. 140 domesticated elephants were examined according to Gale's five-description system. The 5 spinal conformation types described for the Burmese elephant are also present in the Sri Lankan elephant. Out of the 140 elephants, 23 (16%) had Type 1, 48 (34%) had Type 2, 5 (4%) had Type 3, 50 (36%) had Type 4 and 14 (10%) had Type 5 spinal conformation. There was a significant variation in the spinal conformation of male and female elephants.

Honeyman, V.L., Cooper, R.M., Black, S.R. A protected contact approach to anesthesia and medical management of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).  Proceedings AAZV and AAWV Joint Conference.  338-341. 1998.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Patil, V.A., Bhamburkar, V.R., Dalvi, R.S., Banubakode, S.B., Kale, M.A., 1998. Morphometrical study of pelvis in some animals. Journal of Bombay Veterinary College 6, 45-46.
Abstract: The morphometric study of the pelvis in buffaloes, cattle, goats, horses, pigs, dogs, panthers, sambar and elephants was carried out. The pelvic index, obturator foramen index, greater sciatic notch index and lesser sciatic notch index were calculated. It is concluded that these indices are useful in species differentiation.

Gage, L.J., Fowler, M.E., Pascoe, J.R., Blasko, D., 1997. Surgical removal of infected phalanges from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28, 208-211.
Abstract:  A 40-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed cellulitis in her left front leg.  A draining tract behind the lateral nail of her left front foot was discovered.  This lesion was treated by aggressive irrigation using a variety of disinfectant solutions.  Radiographically, there was degeneration and fragmentation of the distal phalanx of the fifth digit and patterns suggestive of osteomyelitis of the second (middle) phalanx.  The fragments of the distal phalanx and the affected portion of the second phalanx were removed surgically.  Six months after surgery the incision had healed but  fistulous tract remained on the palmar surface of the foot.  The tract extended to the second phalanx, and there was radiographic evidence of osteomyelitis in the second phalanx and the distal portion of the proximal phalanx.  The remainder of the second phalanx and the distal potion of the proximal phalanx were surgically removed. Aggressive aftercare allowed complete wound closure by second intention.

Gage, L.J. Techniques for radiographing the elephant foot and carpus using a portable equine radiographic unit. Proc. Amer.Assoc. of Zoo Vet.  190. 1997.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Keet, D.F., Grobler, D.G., Raath, J.P., Gouws, J., Carstens, J., Nesbit, J.W., 1997. Ulcerative pododermatitis in free-ranging African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 64, 25-32.
Abstract: The occurrence of severe lameness in adult African elephant bulls in a shrub Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) ecosystem was investigated. Large ulcers in the soles of at least one front foot were seen in each of the recorded cases. Microscopically, the lesion can be described as a severe, chronic-active, ulcerative, bacterial pododermatitis (complicated by hypersensitivity/septic vasculitis). A variety of bacteria were isolated from these lesions as well as from regional lymph nodes. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most consistent isolate, while Dichelobacter nodosus, the only organism known to be involved with foot disease in domestic ruminants, was isolated from two cases. Contributory factors such as body mass, portal of entry and origin of potential pathogens may have predisposed to the development of the lesions.

Mircean, M., Giurgiu, G., Oros, A., Kadar, L., Ghergariu, S., 1997. Complex osteodystrophy in an orphan Indian elephant. Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara 7, 191-199.
Abstract: An Indian elephant calf, rejected by its mother, was fed at first with cow and buffalo milk, and subsequently with bread, bran, rice, barley and fruit. He was initially affected with rickets, leading to osteofibrosis. Forelegs and the mandible were curved, causing difficulty in mastication. Clinical pathology showed a fall in Ca:P ratio to 1.47, and radiology showed thinning of the bone cortex. Intensive treatment with vitamins (B, C, D3 and E), a testosterone compound and amoxicillin made it possible for the animal to stand and walk, but the deformities remained. The elephant was eventually killed.

Pribe, C., Grossberg, S., Cohen, M.A., 1997. Neural control of interlimb oscillations. II. Biped and quadruped gaits and bifurcations. Biol Cybern 77, 141-152.
Abstract: Behavioral data concerning animal and human gaits and gait transitions are simulated as emergent properties of a central pattern generator (CPG) model. The CPG model is a version of the Ellias-Grossberg oscillator. Its neurons obey Hodgkin-Huxley type equations whose excitatory signals operate on a faster time scale than their inhibitory signals in a recurrent on-center off-surround anatomy. A descending command or GO signal activates the gaits and triggers gait transitions as its amplitude increases. A single model CPG can generate both in-phase and anti-phase oscillations at different GO amplitudes. Phase transitions from either in-phase to anti-phase oscillations or from anti-phase to in-phase oscillations can occur in different parameter ranges, as the GO signal increases. Quadruped vertebrate gaits, including the amble, the walk, all three pairwise gaits (trot, pace, and gallop), and the pronk are simulated using this property. Rapid gait transitions are simulated in the order--walk, trot, pace, and gallop--that occurs in the cat, along with the observed increase in oscillation frequency. Precise control of quadruped gait switching uses GO-dependent modulation of inhibitory interactions, which generates a different functional anatomy at different arousal levels. The primary human gaits (the walk and the run) and elephant gaits (the amble and the walk) are simulated, without modulation, by oscillations with the same phase relationships but different waveform shapes at different GO signal levels, much as the duty cycles of the feet are longer in the walk than in the run. Relevant neural data from spinal cord, globus pallidus, and motor cortex, among other structures, are discussed.

Seidel, B., Wunsch, U., Knaus, B.U., Valentin, A., Schroder, H.D. Chemotherapy of chronic, suppurative pododermatitis using an antineoplastic agent in an Asian elephant - a case report. Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 38. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere von 7 bis 11 Mai 1997, in Zurich, Schweiz.  217-220. 1997. Institut fuer Zoo und Wildtierforschung im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin,Germany.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Bezuidenhout, A.J., Seegers, C.D., 1996. The osteology of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): vertebral column, ribs and sternum. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 63, 131-147.
Abstract: The vertebral column, sternum and ribs of the African elephant were studied and illustrated. In the cervical series, the vertebrae are characterized by very short (compressed) vertebral bodies and short spinous processes. There are 20-21 thoracic vertebrae that carry ribs, and three lumbar vertebrae. The neural arches of the five sacral vertebrae fuse with each other as well as with the wings of the ilium, while the intervertebral discs do not ossify and the vertebral bodies remain separate. There are 19-21 caudal vertebrae. In the latter, the neural arches of only the first five to six vertebrae fuse dorsally, the vertebral foramens of the other vertebrae as well as the vertebral canal remain open dorsally.The body of the first rib is greatly expanded while that of the last three to four ribs are reduced. The cartilages of the first six ribs articulate with the sternum, the last five to six ribs do not bear costal cartilages and are not attached to the costal arch.The sternum consists of five sternabrae that form three approximately equal, but separate, segments. The first segment is formed by the first sternabra, the second segment is formed by the second to fourth sternabrae and the last segment is formed by the fifth sternabra. The first and second sternabrae articulate with each other by means of a synovial joint, the second to fourth sternabrae are fused to each other and the fourth and fifth sternabrae are loosely attached to each other by connective tissue.

Foged, N.T., Delaisse, J.M., Hou, P., Lou, H., Sato, T., Winding, B., Bonde, M., 1996. Quantification of the collagenolytic activity of isolated osteoclasts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Bone Miner Res 11 , 226-237.
Abstract: Difficulties in the geometrical definition and measurement of resorption pits is a major problem for the quantitative analysis of bone resorption by isolated osteoclasts cultured on bone or dentin substrates. In this study we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of bone resorption in vitro, which specifically quantifies type I collagen fragments released into the culture medium by the resorptive action of bone cells cultured on slices of bone or dentin. A consistently high correlation between the formation of resorption pits and the release of antigenic collagen fragments was observed for isolated rabbit osteoclasts seeded at various densities and cultured for various periods on bovine, elephant, and human substrates. In a further support of the osteoclastic nature of the collagenolytic effects, a high consistency between pit formation and collagenolysis was also observed when the rabbit bone cells were cultured in the presence of very differently acting but typical inhibitors of pit formation, i.e., the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide, the cysteine proteinase inhibitor epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanodino)butane (E-64), the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, and the bisphosphonate ibandronate (BM 21.0955). In conclusion, the ELISA represents a simple, precise, and objective way to dynamically monitor bone resorption in vitro through quantification of the collagenolytic activity of isolated osteoclasts.

Kaufman, M.H., 1996. Observations on Barclay's elephant. J R Coll Surg Edinb 41, 75-81.
Abstract: This account attempts to trace the fate of the skeleton of an elephant that was gifted by George Ballingall to Dr John Barclay, one of the most important teachers of Anatomy in Edinburgh during the early 19th century. In his will, elephant, to the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh on two conditions, that a hall should be built to house the collection, and that it should be associated with his name in perpetuity. In the 1830s, the comparative collection, but particularly the skeleton of the elephant, was the pride of the College. Unfortunately, interest in the comparative material rapidly diminished, and, due to constraints on space, while the elephant's skull was retained the rest of the skeleton was disposed of. An unpublished poem written at the time of the Burke trial, in 1829, testifies to the fact that Barclay's elephant was closely associated in the minds of the public with the activities of Dr Robert Knox, the then Conservator of the College museum.

Schmitt, D.L., Bradford, J.P., Hardy, D.A. Foot care in Asian elephants using rotating elephant restraint device. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  52-53. 1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Foot care for elephants is an area that many veterinarians often become involved with only when individuals are not responsive to normal foot care provided by keepers or when intractable elephants require veterinary attention for sedation to enable access to the animal for treatment.  The use of a rotating elephant restraint is described and the methods for foot treatment that are useful in the normal care of elephants with or without the use of a rotating elephant restraint.

Zheng, X., Zheng, X.C., 1996. Diagnosis and preventative-therapeutic study of periarthritis in the shoulder of an Asian elephant. Chinese Journal of Zoology 31, 45-49.

Bisig, D.A., Di Iorio, E.E., Diederichs, K., 1995. Crystal structure of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) cyanometmyoglobin at 178-A resolution.  Phe29(B10) accounts for its unusual ligand binding properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 20752-20754.
Abstract: The crystal structure of Asian elephant cyano-metmyoglobin which has a glutamine instead of the usual distal site histidine has been determined to high resolution. In addition to this replacement, the substitution of a conserved leucine residue in position 29(B10) at the distal side by a phenylalanine was unambiguously identified based on the available electron density. The suspicion, that there were errors in the original sequence which has caused some confusion, is thus confirmed. Comparison with other myoglobin structures in various ligated forms reveals an essentially unchanged tertiary structure in elephant myoglobin despite the two amino acid substitutions in the heme pocket. Our current structural model shows that the N epsilon 2 atom of Gln64(E7) has moved with respect to the corresponding nitrogen position of His64(E7) in the CO complex of sperm whale myoglobin. The newly assigned residue Phe29(B10) penetrates into the distal side of the heme pocket approaching the ligand within van der Waals distance and causing a much more crowded heme pocket compared to other myoglobins. Kinetic properties of Asian elephant myoglobin, wild type, and recombinant sperm whale myoglobins are discussed in relation to the structural consequences of the two amino acid substitutions H64Q and L29F.

Chandrasekharan, K., Radhakrishnan, K., Cheeran, J.V., Nair, K.N.M., Prabhakaran, T., 1995. Review of the Incidence, Etiology and Control of Common Diseases of Asian Elephants with Special Reference to Kerala. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 439-449.
Abstract: Incidence, etiology, symptoms and control of specific and non-specific diseases of captive and wild elephants have been reviewed. Asian elephants have been observed to be susceptible to various parasitic diseases such as helminthiasis, trypanosomiasis and ectoparasitic infestations, bacterial diseases such as tetanus, tuberculosis, haemorrhagic septicemia, salmonellosis and anthrax, viral diseases such as foot and mouth disease, pox and rabies and non-specific diseases like impaction of colon, foot rot and corneal opacity. A detailed study extending over two decades on captive and wild elephants in Kerala, revealed high incidence of helminthiasis (285), ectoparasitic infestation (235), impaction of colon (169) and foot rot (125). Diseases such as trypanosomiasis (21), tetanus (8), tuberculosis (5) pox (2) and anthrax (1) were also encountered. The line of treatment against the diseases mentioned, have been discussed in detail.

Endo, H., Yamada, T.K., Suzuki, N., Suwa, G., Uetsuka, K., Hashimoto, O., Kurohmaru, M., Hayashi, Y., 1995. Ultrastructure of cardiac myocyte in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 57, 1035-1039.
Abstract: Cardiac myocytes of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Typical ultrastructural features of cardiac myocytes are exhibited in the musculature of both the left and right atria, and left ventricle of the heart. Myofibrils, mitochondria, T-system and sarcoplasmic reticulum are well-developed within the cytoplasm. Many mitochondria are characteristically concentrated is some myocytes. Cardiac musculature is also distributed in the root of the caudal vena cava. Many atrial granules are detected not only in atrial myocytes, but also in the myocytes of the caudal vena cava. Atrial natriuretic polypeptide may be secreted from the caval venous wall in the elephant.

Gage, L.J., Blasko, D., Fowler, M.E., Pascoe, J. Surgical removal of infected phalanges from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Proc Joint Conference AAZV / WDZ / AAWV.  English. 1995.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Prothero, J., 1995. Bone and fat as a function of body weight in adult mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 111, 633-639.
Abstract: Three independent data sets, for both bone and fat weight, in adult mammals, expressed as a function of body weight, were submitted to linear regression analysis of the log-log transformed data. For land mammals generally, weighing up to 6.6 metric tons, the slope of the best-fit regression line for skeletal weight is 1.073 +/- 0.021. This regression line underestimates skeletal weight in the elephant by about 40%. For cetaceans, varying in body weight from about 0.1 to over 100 metric tons, the slope of the best-fit regression line for skeletal weight is 1.133 +/- 0.044. Since the slopes for these two groups of mammals are not statistically different, and since cetaceans are normally shielded from gravity, due to buoyancy, it is suggested that the slope (1.073) in land mammals may not be an adaptation to gravity. After pooling the data from the three data sets for fat, the resultant regression has a slope of 1.146 +/- 0.026. It is argued, on theoretical grounds, that slopes greater than 1.2-1.3 will not be found for the log-log regression of any major tissue on body weight, taken over the whole mammalian weight range.

Van-der-Merwe, N.J., Bezuidenhout, A.J., Seegers, C.D., 1995. The skull and mandible of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 62, 245-260.
Abstract: In the present study the bones of the skull, excluding the hyoid apparatus, are described. All the bones are aerated by sinuses. In the occipital bone the squamous part is aerated from the sinus of the parietal bone, the lateral part is aerated from the tympanic bulla and the basal part from the sinus of the basisphenoid bone. Condylar foramens and hypoglossal canals are absent. A small interparietal bone is present at birth. At an early age it fuses with the surrounding cranial bones. The squamous part of the temporal bone lies sagittally in young animals, but moves progressively to a transverse plane as the animals age. A foramen lacerum is represented by jugular and oval foramens and the carotid canal. The body of the basisphenoid bone is excavated by the massive maxillary tuberosity. The latter extends to the oval foramen and contains the developing molar teeth. The ethmoturbinate, nasal and lacrimal bones are exceptionally small. In old bulls the palatine process of the incisive bones and their sinuses are gradually displaced by the palatine process of the maxillae.

Zhao, X., Vyas, K., Nguyen, B.D., Rajarathnam, K., La Mar, G.N., Li, T., Phillips, G.N., Jr., Eich, R.F., Olson, J.S., Ling, J., 1995. A double mutant of sperm whale myoglobin mimics the structure and function of elephant myoglobin. J Biol Chem 270, 20763-20764.
Abstract: The functional, spectral, and structural properties of elephant myoglobin and the L29F/H64Q mutant of sperm whale myoglobin have been compared in detail by conventional kinetic techniques, infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and x-ray crystallography. There is a striking correspondence between the properties of the naturally occurring elephant protein and those of the sperm whale double mutant, both of which are quite distinct from those of native sperm whale myoglobin and the single H64Q mutant. These results and the recent crystal structure determination by Bisig et al. (Bisig, D. A., Di Iorio, E. E., Diederichs, K., Winterhalter, K. H., and Piontek, K. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 20754-20762) confirm that a Phe residue is present at position 29 (B10) in elephant myoglobin, and not a Leu residue as is reported in the published amino acid sequence. The single Gln64(E7) substitution lowers oxygen affinity approximately 5-fold and increases the rate of autooxidation 3-fold. These unfavorable effects are reversed by the Phe29(B10) replacement in both elephant myoglobin and the sperm whale double mutant. The latter, genetically engineered protein was originally constructed to be a blood substitute prototype with moderately low O2 affinity, large rate constants, and increased resistance to autooxidation. Thus, the same distal pocket combination that we designed rationally on the basis of proposed mechanisms for ligand binding and autooxidation is also found in nature.

Ensley, P.K., Osborn, K., Bissonette, S., Deftos, L.J. Osteodystrophy in an orphan Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).  Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  142-143. 1994.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hagelberg, E., Thomas, M.G., Cook, C.E.Jr., Sher, A.V., Baryshnikov, G.F., Lister, A.M., 1994. DNA from ancient mammoth bones. Nature 370, 333-334.

Rothschild, B.M., Xiao, M.W., Shoshani, J., Xiaoming, W., 1994. Spondyloarthropathy in proboscideans. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25, 360-366.

Smuts, M.M.S., Bezuidenhout, A.J., 1994. Osteology of the pelvic limb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61, 51-66.
Abstract: The pelvic girdle was characterized by large, transversely-placed ilial wings. The femur was the longest bone of the skeleton and its fovea capitis was situated caudomedially between the epiphyseal line and the articular surface of the femoral head. A wedge-shaped patella articulated with the femoral trochlea. The bones of the crus were approximately half as long as the femur and consisted of the sturdy tibia and slender fibula. The condyles of the tibia were concave and the femoro-tibial joint was congruent with rudimentary menisci. The tarsus consisted of seven bones which were arranged in three rows. There were five metatarsal bones. Only four digits were present, the third and fourth consisted of three phalanges each while the second and fourth digits were smaller and consisted of two phalanges each. The first digit was represented by one proximal sesamoid bone only. A large, cartilagenous rod or pre-hallux was attached to the first tarsal and metatarsal bones. Proximal sesamoid bones were present on the plantar aspect of the trochleae of metatarsal bones 1-V. The pes was found to be digitigrade and the digits rested on a thick pad of elastic connective tissue and fat.

Bennet, D., 1993. Immune-based erosive inflammatory joint disease of the dog: canine rheumatoid arthritis.  2. Pathological investigations. Journal of Small Animal Practice 28, 909-928.
Abstract: The pathological features of 30 cases of canine rheumatoid arthritis are described.  The principle pathologic feature is a chronic symmetrical polysynovitis.  The pathological features of the joints varied in severity.  The synovial membrane generally showed villous hypertrophy with aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells.  Destruction of articular cartilage and bone occurred in association with a replacement granulation tissue which often produced a pannus over the articular surface. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated complexes of IgG or IgM with C3 in synovial lining cells, macrophages, blood vessel walls and free in the extracellular tissues.  IgG and IgM producing plasma cells were also common.  Fibrinogen deposites were extensive.  The immunofluorescence findings were non-specific but support the concept of an immune complex mediated inflammation within the joints.  Investigations for bacterial, mycoplasmal and viral infections of the joints were negative.

Cupane, A., Leone, M., Vitrano, E., Cordone, L., Hiltpold, U.R., Winterhalter, K.H., Yu, W., DiIorio, E.E., 1993. Structure-dynamics-function relationships in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)myoglobin. An optical spectroscopy and flash photolysis study on functionally important motions. Biophys J 65, 2461-2472.
Abstract: In this work we report the thermal behavior (10-300 K) of the Soret band lineshape of deoxy and carbonmonoxy derivatives of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and horse myoglobins together with their carbon monoxide recombination kinetics after flash photolysis; the results are compared to analogous data relative to sperm whale myoglobin. The Soret band profile is modeled as a Voigt function that accounts for the coupling with high and low frequency vibrational modes, while inhomogeneous broadening is taken into account with suitable distributions of purely electronic transition frequencies. This analysis makes it possible to isolate the various contributions to the overall lineshape that; in turn, give information on structural and dynamic properties of the systems studied. The optical spectroscopy data point out sizable differences between elephant myoglobin on one hand and horse and sperm whale myoglobins on the other. These differences, more pronounced in deoxy derivatives, involve both the structure and dynamics of the heme pocket; in particular, elephant myoglobin appears to be characterized by larger anharmonic contributions to soft modes than the other two proteins. Flash photolysis data are analyzed as sums of kinetic processes with temperature-dependent fractional amplitudes, characterized by discrete pre-exponentials and either discrete or distributed activation enthalpies. In the whole temperature range investigated the behavior of elephant myoglobin appears to be more complex than that of horse and sperm whale myoglobins, which is in agreement with the increased anharmonic contributions to soft modes found in the former protein. Thus, to satisfactorily fit the time courses for CO recombination to elephant myoglobin five distinct processes are needed, only one of which is populated over the whole temperature range investigated. The remarkable convergence and complementarity between optical spectroscopy and flash photolysis data confirms the utility of combining these two experimental techniques in order to gain new and deeper insights into the functional relevance of protein fluctuations.

Ermel, R.W., Kenny, T.P., Chen, P.P., Robbins, D.L., 1993. Molecular analysis of rheumatoid factors derived from rheumatoid synovium suggests an antigen-driven response in inflamed joints. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, 380-388.
Abstract: Objective.  Understanding the molecular genetic basis for rheumatoid factor (RF) production is necessary to a better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).  We sought to define the genetic basis for RF in RA.  Methods.  The heavy and light chain variable region genes encoding 4 human monoclonal RF were cloned and sequenced using the polymerase chain reaction and the dideoxynucleotide chain-termination method.  Results.  The heavy and light chains of the C6 RF and the light chain of the G9 RF were encoded by 3 new RF-related Ig V-region genes.  The heavy and light chains of D5 and G4 RF's were identical: most of their mutations caused amino acid substitutions.  Conclusions.  The RF-related Ig V-region gene repertoire is large and still expanding.  The data from D5 and G4 strongly suggest that these 2 RF's arise in an antigen-driven response in rheumatoid synovium.  The presumed germline V genes for C6 may represent disease-specific RF-related V genes.

Fowler, M.E., 1993. Foot care in elephants. In: Fowler, M.E. (Ed.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 3. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 448-453.

Fowler, M.E., 1993. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 3. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Harth, M., 1993. Gold in rheumatoid arthritis: standard, substitute or sham? Journal of Rheumatology 20, 771-773.

Houck, R., 1993. Veterinary care of performing elephants. In: Fowler, M.E. (Ed.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 3. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 453-454.

Rosin, E., Schultz-Darken, N., Perry, B., Teare, J.A., 1993. Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin administered orally in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 24, 515-518.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and to relate this information to the in vitro activity of ampicillin against two pathogens isolated from one elephant.  A single oral dose of ampicillin trihydrate (8 mg/kg) was given to three elephants; body weights were estimated. Capsules containing the drug were hidden in oranges that were offered to the elephants, and ingestion was complete.  The ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for a streptococcal and staphylococcal elephant isolate was 0.06 ug/ml. Mean peak serum ampicillin concentration (0.86 ug/ml) was reached 90 min after administration of the drug.  The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 208.6 ± 106.4 ug x min/ml.  The mean terminal half-life was 53.7 ± 8.9 min. Ampicillin concentrations in serum remained above MIC for longer than 8 hr.

Rubin, L.A., Hawker, G.A., 1993. Stress and the immune system: preliminary observations in rheumatoid arthritis using an in vivo marker of immune activity. Arthritis and Rheumatism 3, 204-207.

Smuts, M.M.S., Bezuidenhout, A.J., 1993. Osteology of the thoracic limb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 60, 1-14.
Abstract: The forelimb bones of 8 elephants (7 adults, 1 juvenile) were studied. In addition, the bones of the digits were dissected and studied in situ in a mature specimen. The scapula, humerus and bones of the antebrachium (particularly the ulna) are massive in comparison to the short, relatively small bones of the manus. There are 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones and 5 digits. Digits 2-4 consist of 3 phalanges each. The 5th digit consists of 2 phalanges, while the 1st is represented by a single phalanx which is tusk-like and pointed. The distal phalanges of digits 2-4 are very small and do not articulate with the middle phalanges. The proximal sesamoids are well developed and are present on the palmar aspect of all 5 metacarpophalangeal joints. All the bones are illustrated from at least 2 aspects.

van Schaardenburg, D., Hazes, J.M.W., de Boar, A., Zwinderman, A.H., Meijers, K.A.E., Breedveld, F.C., 1993. Outcome of rheumatoid arthritis in relation to age and rheumatoid factor at diagnosis. Journal of Rheumatology 20, 45-52.
Abstract: Our retrospective followup study reports the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to age (under 60 vs 60 years and over) and rheumatoid factor status at diagnosis.  A sample of 130 adult patients with RA was assessed at a mean of 5.6 years after diagnosis.  At final evaluation disease activity and radiographic damage in seropositive patients were similar in both age groups, but functional capacity was markedly lower in the older onset group, indicating lower functional reserves in this group.  In seronegative patients the outcome was favorable in both age groups, especially in the older patients. Seropositive patients in both age groups had more disease activity, a lower functional capacity and more radiographic damage than seronegative patients; these differences were greater in the older onset patients.  The mortality in patients with RA compared to the general population (standardized mortality ratio, SMR) was higher in seropositive patients (SMR 2.78, 98% CI 1.70-4.13) but not in seronegative patients (SMR 0.45, 95% CI 0.08-1.13).  The relative risk of dying was 6 times higher in seropositive patients than in seronegative patients (95% CI 1.7-20.9).

Vaughan, J.H., 1993. Pathogenetic concepts and origins of rheumatoid factor in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36, 1-6.

Vyas, K., Rajarathnam, K., Yu, L.P., Emerson, S.D., La Mar, G.N., Krishnamoorthi, R., Mizukami, H., 1993. 1H NMR investigation of the heme cavity of elephant (E7 Gln)met-cyano-myoglobin. Evidence for a B-helix phenylalanine interaction with bound
ligand. J Biol Chem 268, 14826-14835.
Abstract: A combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments has been used to identify and spatially locate the heme pocket residues in the paramagnetic, low spin, met-cyano complex of elephant myoglobin. In addition to assigning resonances of the conserved residues, we have also assigned Gln64 (E7) and an aromatic ring designated PheA whose side chain is inserted into the heme pocket, as found earlier for elephant carbonmonoxy-myoglobin and oxy-myoglobin (Yu, L. P., La Mar, G. N., and Mizukami, H. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 2578-2585). The assigned conserved proximal side residues (Leu89(F4), Ala90(F5), His93(F8), His97(FG3), Ile99(FG5), Leu104(G5), Phe138(H15), and Tyr146(H23)) and conserved distal side residues (Phe43(CD1), Thr67(E10), Val68(E11), and Ala71(E14)) in elephant met-cyano-myoglobin are found to have orientations similar to those in sperm whale met-cyano-myoglobin. The observed dipolar connectivities and dipolar shift pattern for the substituted Gln64(E7) place the Gln in the heme pocket oriented toward the iron, as found for His64(E7). The conserved structural  elements demand that the inserted PheA originate from the B-helix (i.e. Phe27 or Phe33). Dipolar contacts between the inserted PheA and the conserved residues Phe43(CD1), Val68(E11), Ile107(G8), and Gln64(E7), place PheA in the position occupied by the B10 residue in sperm whale myoglobin (Mb), with the larger size of the PheA side chain as compared to the replaced Leu being accommodated by the vacancy that occurs in sperm whale Mb. The paramagnetic induced relaxation places PheA in van der Waals contact with the bound ligand. Hence we conclude that the B10 position of elephant Mb is occupied by a Phe, and this substitution relative to sperm whale Mb is responsible for the low autoxidation rate and low reduction potential of elephant Mb. A reduced autoxidation rate has been reported for a sperm whale synthetic point mutant Leu29(B10) --> Phe (Carver, T. E., Brantley, R. E., Jr., Singleton, E. W., Arduini, R. M., Quillin, M. L., Phillips, G. N., and Olson, J. S. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14443-14450). The published sequence of elephant Mb places B-helix Phe residues at position 27(B8) and 33(B14), but a Phe at neither of these positions can account for the observed NMR properties. Since a large proportion of the substitutions in elephant relative to sperm whale Mb, and some of the least conservative, occur in the B-helix, neither a structurally perturbed B-helix nor an error in the sequence can be discounted.

Cedillo, L., Gil, C., Mayagoitia, G., Giono, S., Cuellar, Y., Yanez, A., 1992. Experimental arthritis induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in rabbits. Journal of Rheumatology 19, 344-347.
Abstract: Experimental arthritis in rabbits was induced by M. pneumoniae.  We compared it with the arthritis produced by well known animal arthritogenic agents (M. pulmonis and M. arthritidis).  Mycoplasmas were detected in the knee joint by different techniques.  M. pneumoniae and M. pulmonis produced a chronic arthritis.  Live M. pneumoniae and M. pulmonis were recovered from the joint during all experiments. No live M. arthritidis was detected.  Live mycoplasmas play an important role in acute arthritis.  A similar pattern was shown by M. pneumoniae and M. pulmonis.  This animal model could be helpful in the study of arthritis induced by a human pathogen mycoplasma.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B., Rahman, H., Hussain, A., Baruah, M.C., 1992. Intussusception and gangrene in elephants. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 164-165.

Chungath, J.J., Paily, L., Ommer, P.A., 1992. Anatomy of the vertebral column of the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus). In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 43-45.

Harris, E.D., Jr., 1992. Excitement in synovium: the rapid evolution of understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and expectations for therapy. Journal of Rheumatology 19, 3-5.
Abstract: Multiple events give rise to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and many different elements create an overall pathological effect.  It is highly unlikely that a single cause for RA will be identified.  A greater appreciation of the multiple events that lead to the development of RA is opening up a number of promising points of intervention with may serve as potential alternatives to the broader-based and often toxic drugs used in RA therapy today.

Kushner, I., Dawson, N.V., 1992. Changing perspecitves in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 19, 1831-1833.

Panayi, G.S., Lanchrury, J.S., Kingsley, G.H., 1992. The importance of the T cell in initiating and maintaining the chronic synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 35, 729-735.

Pandey, S.K., Bandopaphyay, A.C., 1992. A fibroma in the trunk of an Indian elephant. Indian Veterinary Journal 69, 847.

Pruzanski, W., Vadas, P., 1992. Should tetracyclines be used in arthritis? Journal of Rheumatology 19, 1495-1497.

Radhakrishnan, K., 1992. Non-specific disease of Asian elephant with particular reference to their prevalence in Kerala. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 168-170.

Ramos-Remus, C., Sibley, J., Russell, A.S., 1992. Steroids in rheumatoid arthritis: the honeymoon revisited. Journal of Rheumatology 19, 667-670.

Wither, J., 1992. Molecular aspects of the rheumatic diseases. Journal of Rheumatology 19, 649-650.

Anderson, S.T., Schiller, C.A., 1991. Rheumatoid-like arthritis in a lion tailed macaque. Journal of Rheumatology 18, 1247-1250.
Abstract: Abstract.  Very few satisfactory models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exist in nonhuman species.  It is particularly striking that nonhuman primates have only rarely been described to have disease processes resembling classic RA seen in humans.  We describe the case of a lion tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), housed at the National Zoological Park in Washington DC, that had a polyarticular inflammatory arthropathy resembling RA. Gross and histopathological examination of necropsy tissues and radiographic findings strongly suggest a rheumatoid-like disease never before described in this species.

Barile, M.F., Yoshida, H., Roth, H., 1991. Rheumatoid arthritis: New findings on the failure to isolate or detect mycoplasmas by multiple cultivation or serologic procedures and a review of the literature. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 13, 571-582.
Abstract: Using different and elaborate broth, agar, and cell culture procedures, we failed to isolate mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, spiroplasmas, or chlamydiae from the synovial fluid of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and from six patients with non-rheumatoid arthritis (NRA).  In addition, sera from 35 patients with NRA also were examined.  Although some of the sera had moderately high titers of metabolism-inhibiting antibody to some of the 10 human Mycoplasma species, especially to the common respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and to some of the eight Ureaplasma urealyticum serovars, especially serovars V and VII, there were no significant differences between titers of these antibodies in the two groups of patients.  Among RA patients serum antibody titers to M. pneumoniae were 1:32 in five and 1:16 in eight; two patients had higher synovial fluid titers (1:16) than serum titers (1:4).  The geometric mean titer (GMT) of antibody to serovar V in synovial fluid was higher in RA patients than in NRA patients, but the difference did not reach significance (P=.056).  Reports on the possible role of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed.

Clark, H.W., 1991. The potential role of mycoplasmas as autoantigens and immune complexes in chronic vascular pathogenesis. American Journal of Primatology 24, 235-243.

Gorina, L.G., Goncharova, S.A., Igumnov, A.V., 1991. Laboratory diagnosis of human mycoplasmoses. Vestnik Adademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR 1991, 44-47.

Healey, L.A., Wilske, K.R., 1991. Evaluating combination drug therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 18, 641-642.

Hoque, M.M., Das, A.K., Wahab, M.a., Rahman, M.L., 1991. Note on the management of traumatic injuries in an elephant. Bangladesh Veterinarian 8, 82-83.

Jarjour, W.N., Jeffries, B.D., Davis, J.S., Welch, W.J., Mimura, T., Winfield, J.B., 1991. Autoantibodies to human stress proteins. Arthritis and Rheumatism 34, 1133-1138.
Abstract: Unselected sera from patients with various rheumatic, inflammatory bowel, and autoimmune skin diseases (n=268) were examined against human cell lysate by immunoblotting procedures, to determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to stress proteins (heat-shock proteins) hsp60 (homolog of Escherichia coli groEL and Mycobacterial 65K antigens), hsp73, and hsp90.  Using standard, sensitive and specific assay conditions, IgG and IgM autoantibodies to these stress proteins were not demonstrable, or were detected infrequently, in sera from control subjects (n=36) and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, systemic lupis erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis.  Autoantibodies to hsp60 were relatively more common (>= 20% of sera) in patients with mixed connective tissue disease, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, epidermolysis bullosa acquista, and bullous pemphigoid.  Anti-hsp73 autoantibodies were detected in 20% or more of the sera from patients were Lyme disease and ulcerative colitis.  Taken together, these data extend the spectrum of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in which humoral anti-stress protein reactivity develops.  However, the paucity of humoral autoreactivity to stress proteins in patients with systemic lupis erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis argues against a direct role of anti-stress protein autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of these disorders.

Nanjappa, K.A., 1991. Anaesthesia and treatment of a wounded wild Makana elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Veterinary Journal 68, 360.

Vulfovich, Yu.V., 1991. Mycoplasm arthritogenicity and human mycoplasma-induced arthritis. Vestnik Adademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR 1991, 6-9.

Wilson, J.F., Mahajan, U., Wainwright, S.A., Croner, L.J., 1991. A continuum model of elephant trunks. J Biomech Eng 113,  79-84.
Abstract: A continuum model is presented that relates the trunk parameters of loading, geometry, and muscle structure to the necessary conditions of static equilibrium. Linear theory for stress-strain behavior is used to describe an elephant trunk for an incremental displacement as the animal slowly lifts a weight at the trunk tip. With this analysis and experimental values for the trunk parameters, the apparent trunk stiffness Ea is estimated for the living animal. For an Asian elephant with a maximum compression strain of 33 percent, Ea is of the order of 10(6) N/m2. The continuum model is quite general and may be applied to similar nonskeletal appendages and bodies of other animals.

Wolfe, R., Cathey, M.A., Roberts, F.K., 1991. The latex test revisited. Arthritis and Rheumatism 34, 951-959.
Abstract: Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing by latex fixation in 8,287 outpatients yielded a sensitivity of 81.6% and 78.0% at titers of 1:20 and 1:80, respectively, and a specificity against noninflammatory rheumatic disorders (NIRD) of 96.6%  and 97.7% and against NIRD plus inflammatory disorders of 95.2% and 96.8%, respectively.  The predictive value of a positive test result at the clinic prevalence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (16.4%) was approximately 80%, and was 70% at 10% prevalence and 10% at 1% prevalence.  No associations of RA with age or sex were found in non-RA patients.  RF titers increased minimally with age in RA patients and were higher in men than in women.  This study suggests that latex testing is far more specific than has been believed and that the titer is not spuriously increased with age.

Breedveld, F.C., Dukmans, B.A.C., Mattie, H., 1990. Minocycline treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: An open dose finding study. Journal of Rheumatology 17, 43-46.

George, P.O., Rajan, A., Varkey, C.A., Balagopalan, T.P., Rajankutty, K., 1990. Osteo-arthritis in an elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 21, 157-159.

Koshy Varghese, Mammen Abraham, Valsala, K.V., Rajan, A., 1990. Osteoarthritis in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). Cheiron 19, 185-186.

Myszkowski, J. Bandaging a toe abscess on an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Proc Ann Elephant workshop  11.  1990. 
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Pathak, S.C., Saikia, J., Lahon, D.K., Deka, K.N., Barua, S.K., Dewan, J.N., Vety, A.H., 1990. Attempted ventral herniorrhaphy in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using xylazine sedation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21, 234-235.
Abstract: Ventral herniorrhaphy in a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) under xylazine hydrochloride sedation was attempted.  A dose of 0.16 mg/kg body weight was adequate to produce sedation, analgesia, and muscle relaxation for the procedure.  The postoperative management of the surgical wound was difficult and resulted in the failure of the surgery.

Paulus, H.E., 1990. The use of combinations of disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 33, 113-120.

Rasmussen, D.T., Gagnon, M., Simons, E.L., 1990. Taxeopody in the carpus and tarsus of Oligocene Pliohyracidae (Mammalia:Hyracoidea) and the phyletic position of hyraxes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87, 4688-4691.
Abstract: Recent hyracoids and elephants share a taxeopode arrangement of tarsal and carpal bones, a condition in which bones are aligned with minimal interlocking between adjacent elements. Taxeopody has often been interpreted as a synapomorphy reflecting a close phyletic link between Hyracoidea and Proboscidea, but recently it has been suggested [Fischer, M. S. (1986) Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenberg 84, 1-132] that hyracoid taxeopody is an independent acquisition resulting from selection favoring increased midcarpal and midtarsal rotation and that Hyracoidea is actually allied with Perissodactyla. As a test of this hypothesis, isolated carpal and tarsal bones of primitive Oligocene hyracoids from the Fayum, Egypt, have been examined to determine whether these indicate a taxeopode or diplarthral carpus and tarsus. Four complete astragali from the Fayum, representing at least three taxa, show a single, slightly convex articular surface on the head for articulation with the navicular and lack a facet for the cuboid. Two complete magna representing two species have a single proximal facet for articulation with the lunar, and they lack a facet for the scaphoid. Thus, both the carpus and tarsus of Fayum hyracoids are taxeopode. Taxeopody in hyracoids cannot be attributed to selection for carpal and tarsal rotation in climbers because the Oligocene, Miocene, and Recent species show great diversity in body size and probably locomotor specializations, despite relative uniformity of structure in the carpus and tarsus. The shared taxeopody of hyracoids and proboscideans, along with other osteological characters and similarities in hemoglobin, eye lens proteins, and other molecules, all suggest that Hyracoidea belongs within Paenungulata.

Roskosz, T., Kobrynczuk, F., 1990. Some reflexions on the shape of foramen magnum in Proboscidea. Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University SGGW AR, Veterinary-Medicine 15, 3-6.

Schanberger, A., Carlson, T., Brown, J., 1990. Successful treatment of chronic toenail cracks in an Asian elephant. Animal Keepers' Forum 17, 243-247.

Schwartz, B.D., 1990. Infectious agents, immunity, and rheumatic diseases. Arthritis and Rheumatism 33, 457-465.

Spala, P., Vahala, J., Kralove, D., Hradecky, P., 1990. Lameness in young African elephants (Loxodonta africana) caused by inadequate nutrition. Zoologische Garten 60, 244-247.
Abstract: Lameness was observed in a group of 4 African elephants 2-3 years old within 1 year after arrival at a zoo in Czechoslovakia. The elephants developed leg disorders in the tarsal, stifle, carpal and elbow joints. The joint ligaments became loose and occasional crepitation from slipping of the joint surfaces was noted during walking. Although the elephants frequently shifted weight, there was no visible swelling or pain in the affected joints. Analysis of the feed intake and nutrient utilization showed excessive intake of digestible protein and energy and low intake of crude fibre. Appropriate adjustments in the feed led to a rapid improvement of the clinical status in all 4 elephants.

Yu, L.P., La Mar, G.N., Mizukami, H., 1990. Rearrangement of the distal pocket accompanying E7 His----Gln substitution in elephant carbonmonoxy- and oxymyoglobin: 1H NMR identification of a new aromatic residue in the heme pocket. Biochemistry 29, 2578-2585.
Abstract: Two-dimensional 1H NMR methods have been used to assign side- chain resonances for the residues in the distal heme pocket of elephant carbonmonoxymyoglobin (MbCO) and oxymyoglobin (MbO2). It is shown that, while the other residues in the heme pocket are minimally perturbed, the Phe CD4 residue in elephant MbCO and MbO2 resonates considerably upfield compared to the corresponding residue in sperm whale MbCO. The new NOE connectivities to Val E11 and heme-induced ring current calculations indicate that Phe CD4 has been inserted into the distal heme pocket by reorienting the aromatic side chain and moving the CD corner closer to the heme. The C zeta H proton of the Phe CD4 was found to move toward the iron of the heme by approximately 4 A relative to the position of sperm whale MbCO, requiring minimally a 3-A movement of the CD helical backbone. The significantly altered distal conformation in elephant myoglobin, rather than the single distal E7 substitution, forms a plausible basis for its altered functional properties of lower autoxidation rate, higher redox potential, and increased affinity for CO ligand. These results demonstrate that one-to-one interpretation of amino acid residue substitution (E7 His----Gln) is oversimplified and that conformational changes of substituted proteins which are not readily predicted have to be considered for interpretation of their functional properties

Caffee, H.H., 1989. Reconstruction of the distal trunk of an African elephant. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 83, 1049-1051.
Abstract: A 5-year-old African elephant was treated for an amputation injury of the distal trunk.  It was determined that replantation was impractical and, therefore, an operation was designed and performed with the intention of recreating the prehensile tip.

Elze, K., Selbitz, H.J., Seifert, S., Eulenberger, K. Stiff leg lameness in elephants. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.  189-194. 1989. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Fong, T. Alling elephant is put to sleep at Denver Zoo. The Rocky Mountain News Feb. 12. 1989.
Ref Type: Newspaper
Abstract: Full text: Vicky the elephant is dead.  The Denver Zoo's only African elephant was given a lethal injection yesterday, 24 hours after she suddenly sat down, let out a cry, rolled onto her left side and never got up again.  "She made several feeble attempts to move," said Richard Cambre, the zoo's veterinarian.  "We made her peaceful and comfortable but she did not get up." Vicky collapsed once before, on Jan. 17, but with the help of Mimi, a 32-year-old Asian elephant, she got on her feet again. At the time, veterinarians thought Vicky had suffered a bad reaction to a tranquilizer and was suffering a liver ailment. However, Cambre said that subsequent blood test showed that she had a severe vitamin E deficiency that contributed to muscle degeneration in her hind legs and she was given a new alcohol form of the vitamin as a supplement with her grain.  After she collapsed yesterday, more blood tests showed that Vicky had no vitamin E, despite the supplement.  Although zoo officials decided to let her have the night to try to get up again, they reluctantly decided to put her to sleep.  In the meantime, Vicky's death may do some good.  Her skeleton has been donated to the Denver Museum of Natural History.  The skeleton won't be put on display but will be used for muscle and bone research and classes on comparative anatomy of animals.  The zoo also would have it for classes.  Vicky's organs will be sent to research labs and zoos around the country that have need of them.  Tissue samples from her body will also remain with the Denver Zoo for analysis and research on the strange vitamin E deficiency that has already killed three other elephants in Canada and the U.S. in the past year.

Franz, W., Seidel, B., Jacob, A. Surgical treatment of purulent pododermatitis in an Indian elephant. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.  195-199. 1989. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Gorina, L.G., Vulfovich, Yu.V., Zifyan, A.V., Bakovskaya, I.V., Pronin, A.V., Zheverzheeva, I.V., 1989. Human mycoplasmic arthritis and its pathogenetic mechanisms. Vestnik Adademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR 1989, 84-87.

Hegel, G.V., Hanichen, T., Mahnel, H., Wiesner, H., 1989. Warts (papilloma/sarcoid) in elephant. Erkrankungen der Zootiere 31, 201-205.
Abstract: Warts ( Papilloma, Sarcoid) in  Elephants  ( Hegel,G.)1989; translated from German by Gerda Martin. Papilloma virus - from the group Papova virus - is considered  an etiological agents of wart- like skin changes in cattle, sheep, mountain goat, and rabbit. (ROSENBERGER,1970; ROLLE and MAYR, 1984). Equine sarcoid (PALMER. 1985) found in horses is most likely caused by bovine papilloma virus. The alternate name is based on clinical and morphological differences in the actual papilloma. In the initial stage, the sarcoid is similar to that of the papilloma; however in later stages, tumorous decay on the surface of the epidermis, and proliferation of the mesenchymal part of the tumor in the subcutis dominate (DIET and WIESNER, 1982). Wart- like changes in the skin of elephants as described by PILASKI et al (1987, 1988), proved to be caused by Herpes virus.  Such skin changes in elephants are not rare and require treatment since size and volume of the excrescences  may cause functional disturbances in the patient. Even if the animal's  general   well being  is not impaired, the importance of esthetics and hygiene should not be disregarded in a place where there are spectators and visitors (zoo, circus). The following paper reports findings of wart- like skin changes in elephants. Observations and Therapy In the elephants  kept in the Hellabrunn  Zoo, no case of papilloma or similar skin tumors had occurred since 1972. First case: In 5-28 - 1987, a ca. 18 month old female L.a. named " Sabi" arrived In Hellabrunn. This animal had a wart- like thickening of 1 cm at the dorsal end of the trunk. After 8 weeks, more of those such skin changes appeared on trunk and lower lip without  impairment in general well being. Treatment consisted of  one daily, subcutaneous injection of 1 amp. Chelidonium D7 (DHU Chelidonium majus L.), and application of fresh ??Schoellkraut  juice dabbed onto the warts but was unsuccessful.  After a change of treatment was made: 10 drops of Thuja D4 (DHU Thuja occidentalis L) and 20 drops Acidum nitricum D12 (DHU Acidum nitricum), orally, once a day, at separate times of the day, there remained, after 2 weeks, a wart on the lower lip the size of a cherry pit, and the before mentioned  wart on the dorsal end of  the trunk had now grown to the size of a cherry. Even the strength of Thuja LM 6 (DHU Thuja occidentalis L.)  20 drops, oral, the growth of the wart on the dorsal end of the trunk, now with a diameter of 5 cm, could not be stopped: Exstirpation had to be performed. Frequent  sucking had promoted strong ulceration.  A secondary infection  had set in,  the surface showed granular  tissue exuding blood and pus.

On 10 -  6 -  1987 the growth was exstirpated and tissue was sent for virolog. and histolog. examination. In addition, tissue was removed from a fresh small wart for vaccine. During the operation the animal was immobilized (anesthetic: 0.3 ml Immobilon* (large animal Immobilon Rc* - Vet. Ltd.),  10mg Xylacin, 150 IE Hyaluronidase i. m.). There were no complications during recovery. Two  weeks post op., the first vaccination was given, followed by a second vacc. four weeks there after, of 5.0 ml, subcut.., of an auto vaccine developed by the Institute for Medical Microbiology, Dept. of Infectious and Epidemic Medicine. In February 1988, there occurred another bout with wart- like growth on the ventral part of the trunk, lower jaw, shoulders and feet, some with a diameter of 15 mm.  From the sedated young animal tissue was taken from several newly grown warts for the manufacture of auto vaccine (sedation: "Hellabrunner Mischung" / 150 IE Hyaluronidase). After 10 days, the first vaccination was given, and by the time of the second vacc." Sabi" was free of externally visible skin changes.

On 6. 6. 1988, "Sabi" fell ill again. Over night she was covered with 48 warts,  with  diameters from 2mm - 15 mm on trunk and head, and 10 more on the chest.The attempt to "ice"  the warts with liquid nitrogen was not successful. Instead, coagulation of ca. 20 of the larger warts was used. The monopolar coagulation electrode of the Erbotom F 2 (Erbe Elektromedizin) coagulates reaching deeply  into the healthy zone of the surrounding tissue. As before, tissue for the manufacture of the auto vaccine was taken, as well as  0.5 ml of blood from the ear vein for the manufacture of a "own- blood"  nosode. (Large animal, premedication: 20 mg Xylazin i.m., 20 minutes later : 0.5 ml Immobilon R (large animal Immobilon R c - Vet Ltd.) and 150 IE Hyaluronidase i.m. The following day, "Sabi" was given the "own- blood" nosode at a strength of C5 (20 drops daily).In addition, she was vacc. once again. Since "Sabi" was free of warts at the time of the second vaccination -   given 4 weeks after the first - the "own- blood" treatment was discontinued. Shortly there after, however, several new warts cropped up (diameter ca. 1 cm), so that the "own- blood"  treatments were continued. Since that time "Sabi" has had no recurrences.Second case : The Indian elephant cow (E. maximus) , named "Dirndl" , age ca. 22 years, had been kept in the box next to "Sabi" since "Sabi's" arrival. They kept trunk contact. On 5-2-1988, "Dirndl" showed on the distal trunk a substantially increased raised area ca. 2 x 2 cm oozing blood. It seemed to be an injury from a metal rope used in off limiting. The wound was disinfected and treated twice a day with chloromycetin spray with Gentian violetR (Parke Davis).  After  one week  the growth had increased substantially  and on the surface,  it had a cauliflower-like ulcerated  appearance.Upon light touch or movement of the dorsal  trunk, blood appeard spontaneously.   Four days later, the growth was exstirpated, while the animal was standing. (Sedation: 2.2 ml Hellabrunn mixture / 150 Hyaluronidase i. m.) . The attempt to close the skin of the trunk over the wound failed because the tension in that area was too great.  The surface of the wound was cauterized and treated with ChloromycetinSpray with Gentian violet R (Parke Davis). Tissue for pathological and histological examination was sent out.  One week after the operation,  the area of the wound was  highly swollem and the wound was infected. Treatment: Several times a day, an  ablution with a 0.1 % Rivanol solutionnR (Asid - 2 Aethoxy-6.9-diamin  acridinlactat)  and application of Sulfonamid-Codliver oil salve (WDT = Sulfadimidin- Sodium- cod liver oil).  In addition, analogous to "Sabi" , once daily 20 drops of "own-blood" nosode,  potency C 5  given orally. Three weeks post. op., there could be clearly distinguished a limited relapse, an area of  6 x 9 cm rising  ca. 2 cm  above the healthy skin of the trunk. The surface looked like the first growth.  It was extirpated under general anesthetic  (Premed.:80 mg Xylazin i. m., 20 min. later: 1.8 ml ImmobilionR and 150 IE Hyaluronidase). In addition, the whole wound was coagulated  by monopolar coagulation electrode as above. Daily for 4 weeks, the wound  was brushed with a 1:5 wood tar -alcohol - solution.There were no complications during recovery. After 5 weeks , all that could be seen was a ca. 1.5 cm long small scar on the skin of the trunk.

Histomorphological Findings:  Fixation with formalin, embedding in paraffin; stain: Hemalaun-Eosin, connective tissue stain  in the manner of Masson. The histomorphological  findings based on the tissue samples of "Sabi" and "Dirndl"  are the  same, and agree  with the findings of 3 other skin tumor tissue taken from elephants of different origin (tab. 1). The tumors  consist mainly of fibroplastic cells  with more or less  abundant collagen fibers and blood vessels. The boundaries from the adjacent corium and lower skin is largely indistinct.  In all larger neoplasties , the covering epidermis has been preserved  at margins only due to superficial ulceration.  Here the P. acuta aseptica diffusa borders  are irregular and strongly profiled, the epithelium is acanthoid and hyperkeratotic. The nuclei of tumor cells  are considerably anisomorphic, some have gigantic nuclei. Mitosis is frequent. Due to the ulcerated epidermis , there is deep infiltration with infectious cells. Virological findings: From the extirpated tissue taken from the African Elephant "Sabi" ca. 3 g was homogenated, in addition, the cells were "opened" by defrosting and ultrasound, and the "cleared" tissue suspension was analyzed  for free virus particles after concentration and negative-contrasting with  electron microscopy .  At the same time, small tissue samples of 2 mm  from deeper epidermis layers  were fixed as usual for the ultrahistological exam , embedded in epoxy  resin, and ultra thin slices were scanned by the electron microscope. No papilloma virus was found  in the concentrated, cell free tissue extract or  the ultrathin slices of tissue samples .No virus particle of  any kind was found.

To  show papilloma by culturing cannot be done since  no species of this genus can  be propagated  in cell cultures  with the exception of its original host. The failed  attempt to prove their presence with the electronmicroscope does not exclude a papilloma virus etiology in tumors. When virus particles are viewed in higher concentrations, the electron microscopic  proof is successful. Using ultrahistologyical methods the particles in cell nuclei can only be found when the few cells  of specific skin cells  are in the virus propagation stage. In the case of virally induced papilloma however, a true virus propagation is not necessary. In the last few years, it was found that equine sarcoid  can be caused  by bovine papilloma virus. But it was only the genome of the virus which could be isolated by means of gene technology (ALTMANN, 1980; HAUSEN, 1980); the virus itself could not.  The oncogenetic potency of the virus in heterologic hosts , without true virus production, has been established.  A broader spectrum of hosts  for , at least , the papilloma virus in cattle seems to be the case.  And a bovine papilloma induced skin fibromatose in  (a) horse has been reported (LANCASTER, 1979). This virus can also appear in wild 'cud chewers, perhaps even carnivores. It is in part also related to the human papilloma virus. The possibility of transfer to humans (LANCASTER 1982) as well as other mammals such as elephants  has not been proved but is probable. In comparing the histological findings of the 5 skin growths with those of the viral fibropapilloma in cattle and horse (called equine sarcoid here), the relative immaturity of the tumorous tissue is evident. It compares to the so- called sarcoid in horses. The sarcoid-like structure and the indistinct  separation from healthy tissue  speaks for a virus etiology and  morphologically a relapse can be expected. This occurred in both of the clinically described cases.

A differential diagnosis excludes a Herpes virus infection, as described by PILASKI et al. (1987, 1988) in elephants on the basis of different histological findings. Inclusions could not be found in any of the cases. The warts on the elephants were clinically similar to the well known sarcoids in horses (DIETZ and WIESNER, 1982). The two sick animals were in "trunk contact" occupying adjacent boxes. Almost one year after the arrival of  "Sabi" who had warts, "Dirndl" fell sick. That points to the infectious nature of warts. The relapse after the first operation on "Dirndl" suggests that the extirpation of the growths was not complete. This may be related to the fact that the animal was standing  and only sedated. In contrast , the extirpation of the "relapse" was carried out on a fully immobilized animal and with the use of the Erbotom F 2  for coagulation including the adjacent tissue.  We know of various 'wart therapies' in human medicine with differing success. The various treatments employed in the one and one half years of "Sabi's" illness can be labled neither successful, nor unsuccessful. The use of auto vaccine which is analogous  to a "stable specific " vaccine in the treatment of papilloma in cattle, could  perhaps have triggered the recurrence of warts at the  conclusion of the vaccination treatments. That would favor the etiology of a virus 'picture.' The influence of the 'burn' or extirpation of a single or more growths which returned, in the surrounding growths cannot be determined. It remains inconclusive if the use of the "own- blood" nosode C 5 aided the successful therapy , since the necessity  to fight a recurrence had not yet occurred.

Kuntze, A. Disorders of performing elephants: perineal hernia, prepatellar bursitis and olecranal tyloma. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.  185-187. 1989. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Kuntze, A., 1989. Dermatopathies in elephants and their treatment. Kleintierpraxis 34, 405-415.

Muller, M., Rytz, U. Dermatomycosis in two African elephants. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.  207-209. 1989. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Cases of dermatomycosis are reported in 2 adult African elephants in the Zoological Garden in Basle. Trichothecium, Scopulariopsis and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from skin biopsies.

Tripathy, S.B., Das, P.K., Acharjya, L.N., 1989. Treatment of microfilarial dermatitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): a case report. Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicines 31-33.
Abstract: Clinical and laboratory findings are presented for a case of chronic dermatitis in a 32-year-old female Asian elephant in Nandan Biological Park, Barang. Lesions were observed on the toes and heels of the hind feet and right abdominal wall, and microfilariae resembling Stephanofilaria were present in skin scrapings and blood from the lesions. Application of 8% metrifonate [trichlorfon] ointment in Himax (right food and abdomen) or vaseline (left foot) daily resulted in clinical cure after 15 days in lesions treated with Himax-based metrifonate and 22 days with vaseline-based metrifonate.

Vulfovich, Yu.V., Gorina, L.G., Mitchenko, A.F., Goncharova, S.A., Gamova, N.A., Neustroeva, V.V., 1989. Mycoplasma and rheumatoid arthritis in children. Vestnik Adademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR 1989, 82-84.

Arnett, F.C., Edworthy, S.M., Bloch, D.A., McShane, D.J., Fries, J.F., Cooper, N.S., Healey, L.A., Kaplan, S.R., Liang, M.H., Luthra, H.S., Medsger, T.A., Jr., Mitchell, D.M., Neustadt, D.H., Pinals, R.S., Schalller, J.G., Sharp, J.T., Wilder, R.L., Hunder, G.O., 1988. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 31, 315-324.
Abstract: The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA). The new criteria are as follows: 1) morning stiffness in and around joints lasting at least 1 hour before maximal improvement; 2) soft tissue swelling (arthritis) of 3 or more joint areas observed by a physician; 3) swelling (arthritis) of the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, or wrist joints; 4) symmetric swelling (arthritis); 5) rheumatoid nodules; 6) the presence of rheumatoid factor; and 7) radiographic erosions and/or periarticular osteopenia in hand and/or wrist joints.  Criteria 1 and 4 must have been present for at least 6 weeks.  Rheumatoid arthritis is defined by the presence of 4 or more criteria, and no further qualifications (classic, definite or probable) or list of exclusions is required.  In addition, a "classification tree" schema is presented which performs equally well as the traditional (4 of 7) format.  The new criteria demonstrated 91-94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for RA when compared with non-RA rheumatic disease control subjects.

Bettenbender, R. Foot care and skin care: Vital components of the elephant management program at Lincoln Park Zoo. AAZPA Reg.Conf.Proc.  545-549. 1988.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Clark, H.W., Coker-Vann, M.R., Bailey, J.S., Brown, T.M., 1988. Detection of mycoplasmal antigens in immune complexes from rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluids. Annals of Allergy 60, 394-398.
Abstract: This study was directed towards the detection of suspected antigenic microbial fragments in the immune complex (IC) fraction from chronic inflammatory disorders of the delayed type allergy. Mycoplasmas as the microbial prototype and joint fluid from the rheumatoid host were investigated. Protein-A affinity chromatography was used to isolate the immunoglobulin complex (IgG-IC) in six synovial fluids obtained from rheumatoid arthritis patients. The IgG-IC was digested with pepsin to further purify and obtain F(ab)2 complexes with greater specificity. The F(ab)2 complexes were dissociated and electrophoresed by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity purified rabbit antisera to six reference strains of human mycoplasmas. The presence of trace amount of mycoplasma antigens in the immune complex fractions was indicated by specific banding with antisera to M. pneumoniae, M. arthritidis, M. hominis, M. fermantans, and M. salivarium in one or more of the six synovial fluid fractions. The ELISA and immunoblot assays of seroconversion in rabbits immunized with the synovial fluid fractions also indicated the presence of mycoplasmal antigens.

Crelin, E.S., 1988. Ligament of the head of the femur in the orangutan and Indian elephant. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 61, 383-389.
Abstract: A literature search revealed that for over 100 years there has been a consensus that the ligament of the head of the femur (LHF) is absent in the orangutan and elephant. A dissection of the hip joints of an adult orangutan and an adult Indian elephant exposed, in each joint, a robust LHF that is functionally important. These LHFs are easily overlooked during a cursory examination of the hip joints because of the way they differ from the human LHF.

Henry, R.W., Orosz, S.E., 1988. The muscles of the crus of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 17, 370.

Mihm, F.G., Machado, C., Snyder, R., 1988. Pulse oximetry and end-tidal CO2 monitoring of an adult Asian elephant. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 19, 106-109.
Abstract: The adequacy of ventilation during etorphine anesthesia of a 20-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) was monitored with a pulse oximeter to measure arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) and a CO2 analyzer to measure end-tidal CO2 concentrations (PetCO2).  Immediately after the first anesthetic induction, SaO2 values of 45% were noted while the animal was breathing room air at a rate of 6/min.  The SaO2 readings increased to 93% 15 min after administration of 5 liters/min of oxygen via the trunk.  Seven arterial blood gas samples obtained during two anesthetics, and once while unanesthetized, provided PaO2 and PaCO2 values which compared favorably with SaO2 and PetCO2.  In the anesthetized animal, PaO2 ranged between 31 and 70 mmHg while SaO2 values were 70-95%.  At the same time, measurements of PaCO2 ranged from 42 to 57 mmHg while values of PetCO2 ranged from 35 to 57 mmHg.  Pulse oximetry and end-tidal CO2 monitoring are easy to apply and should increase the safety of anesthesia for these animals.

Bennet, D., 1987. Immune-based erosive inflammatory joint disease of the dog: canine rheumatoid arthritis. I. Clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations. Journal of Small Animal Practice 28, 779-797.
Abstract: The features of 30 cases of canine rheumatoid arthritis are described.  The disease is a chronic symmetrical polyarthritis characterized by erosive, destructive changes within the joint.  The latter can be identified on radiographs by loss of mineral, the presence of discrete erosions or an irregular joint margin.  Increased periarticular soft tissue is common and periosteal new bone is not unusual.  The most obvious clinical feature is generalized stiffness particularly after rest.  Joints are often thickened and painful on manipulation. a third of cases present with pyrexia, lethargy and inappetence in addition to lameness.  Synovial fluid evaluation shows an increased number of white cells, most of which are polymorphs; the mucin clot is poor.  The ESR is generally increased and rheumatoid factor (an antiglobulin auto-antibody) is present in 73 per cent of cases.  Treatment is often unrewarding, although many dogs can cope for considerable periods of time.

Fischer, M.S., 1987. The trunk of elephants. Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 52, 262-263.

Morris, P.J., Held, J.P., Jensen, J.M. Clinical pathologic features of chronic renal failure in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Proc.1st.Intl.Conf.Zool.Avian Med.  468-472. 1987.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Rogers, P. Unhealed pressure sores in an Asian cow. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop. 8, 35-38. 1987.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Taylor-Robinson, D., Furr, P.M., Tully, J.G., Barile, M.F., Moller, B.R., 1987. Animal models of Mycoplasma genitalium urogenital infections. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 23, 561-564.
Abstract: Male and female animals were inoculated urogenitally with Mycoplasma genitalium, recovered originally from men with nongonococcal urethritis.  Mice, hamsters and male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were resistant.  Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were not as sensitive as male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): 9 of 11 developed an obvious genital tract infection, some shedding organisms for more than 18 weeks.  M. genitalium was recovered from the blood of two of them when large numbers of organisms were in the urethra. Most of the chimpanzees colonized with the organisms had increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the genital tract and developed a fourfold or greater antibody response. Female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and female tamarins (Saguinus mystar) exhibited low-level genital tract infections following intravaginal inoculation, whereas marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and chimpanzees developed prolonged infections after similar inoculation: thus, female chimpanzees shed organisms for 12 to 15 weeks.  Marmosets and grivet monkeys (Ceropithecus aethiops) developed salpingitis with antibody responses after intraoviduct inoculation, and baboons (Papio anubis) developed parametritis after intracervical inoculation.  The results offer substantial evidence for the pathogenicity of M. genitalium for the urogenital tract of subhuman primates, and suggest that the microorganism may have a role in human genital tract infections.

 1986. Briefly...Death of a desert elephant. Oryx 20, 49.
Abstract: Complete text:  An elephant calf died in Western Damaraland when its herd was being driven towards a US television crew by a helicopter.  It was shot after it fell and broke its leg in rough terrain.  Damaraland conservationist Garth Owen-Smith said that the permit issued to Mr. Jan Oelofse, a game-capture expert, for the exercise should have stipulated that a nature conservator be present.  He also said it was particularly tragic that one of Damaraland's elephants should die in this way because the population had begun to increase for the first time in 15 years after a successful anti-poaching campaign. Windhoek Advertiser, 12/13 August 1985.

Jensen, J. Paralumbar kidney biopsy in a juvenile African elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet.  17. 1986.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Same case as Ref # 305.

Jongeward, K.A., Marsters, J.C., Mitchell, M.J., Magde, D., Sharma, V.S., 1986. Picosecond geminate recombination of nitrosylmyoglobins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 140, 962-966.
Abstract: The kinetics of NO geminate recombination to sperm whale and elephant myoglobins has been studied on the picosecond time scale using an amplified colliding-pulse mode-locked ring dye laser. The dynamics of ligand rebinding are shown to be affected by the distal structure of the protein surrounding the heme pocket.

Mizukami, H., Bartnicki, D.E., 1986. Unusual myoglobin of elephant. Elephant 2, 80-81.
Abstract: Myoglobins are proteins found in muscle fibers and they store and carry oxygen.  They also bind carbon monoxide (CO).  Myoglobins of Loxodonta africana  and Elephas maximus are different from myoglobins of most other animals.  Most significantly, elephant myoglobins react with CO nearly eight times more strongly than other myoglobins.  This means that elephants housed close to expressways (where emission of CO from motor vehicles is greatest) would be affected by the toxic gas more than other animals would.  On the other hand, elephant myoglobin resists oxidation to a greater extent and, thus, is more stable to the actions of certain toxins.

Phillips, P.E., 1986. Infectious agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 16, 1-10.

Ritchie, B.W., Thomas-Baker, B., Latimer, K.S., 1986. Dermoid cyst in an African elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189, 1192.

 1985. Society highlights: Snared baby elephant. Swara 8, 18.
Abstract: See also Jones,D.K. (1985).

Alexander, R.M., 1985. The maximum forces exerted by animals. J Exp Biol 115, 231-238.
Abstract: This paper reviews the maximum forces exerted by animals in a wide range of activities including running, jumping, swimming and biting. Most of the data refer to vertebrates and arthropods, ranging in size from 0.5-mg fleas to 3-tonne elephants. Maximum forces exerted on the environment give values of (force/body weight) which lie, in most cases, between 0.5 body mass-1/3 (kg) and 20 body mass-1/3. Maximum forces exerted by major muscle groups give values of (force/body weight) in most cases between 10 body mass-1/3 and 50 body mass-1/3.

Barile, M.F., Kapatais-Zoumbos, K., Grabowski, M.W., Snoy, P., Sneller, M., Plotz, P., Gill, V., Chandler, D.K.F. Mycoplasma hominis septic arthritis: Naturally occurring in humans and experimentally induced in chimpanzees. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology , 95. 1985.
Ref Type: Abstract
Abstract: A recurrent septic arthritis developed in the wrist and prosthetic knee of a patient and continues to persist after ten months.  Aspirations were negative for bacteria and viruses but consistently grew out pure cultures of M. hominis.  The first positive culture was obtained 35 days after admission and four additional aspirations contained 104 to 107 CCU/ml of M. hominis.  Oxytetracycline was initiated on Day 41 and by Day 65 the aspiration was negative.  Treatment was continued for 6 months and terminated because of severe adverse gastrointestinal disturbances.  After treatment was discontinued the patient suffered a relapse, and M. hominis was isolated again. Experimental arthritis was induced by inoculating synovial fluids containing 10^4 CCU/ml of M. hominis into the knee of a chimpanzee.  Two additional chimpanzees inoculated with a pure culture of M. hominis containing 10^6 and 10^7 CCU/ml also developed arthritis.  Sera and synovial fluids from the patient and chimpanzee contained MI specific antibody to M. hominis. The septic arthritis induced in the chimpanzee was remarkably similar to disease in the patient.

Cole, B.C., Washburn, L.R., Taylor-Robinson, D., 1985. Mycoplasma-induced arthritis. In: Razin, S., Barile, M.F. (Eds.), The Mycoplasmas. Volume IV. Mycoplasma pathogenicity. Academic Press, New York, pp. 107-160.

Croner, L.J., Wainwright, S.A. Elephant trunks: morphology and motion. American Zoologist 25[4], 12A. 1985.
Ref Type: Abstract
Abstract: Full Text.  Soft tissue appendages are biomechanically interesting because they utilize mechanical principles different from those used in appendages with bony frameworks, and because they are versatile.  An elephant's trunk is a long tapering structure, nearly circular in cross-section, pierced by two nostrils running up its center, and consisting entirely of soft tissue.  Investigation of an embalmed trunk of an Asian elephant confirms that it has four distinct muscle masses -- a radial, a longitudinal, and two oblique layers.  Analysis of films taken of an elephant as it lifted a payload with the tip of its trunk indicates that the trunk is capable of shortening at least 30% of its maximum length, and that it has three sections, each of which shortens at a predictable time during a lift.  Work in progress analyzes the sequential strain patterns at different parts of a trunk during the performance of other tasks.

Hildebrand, M., Hurley, J.P., 1985. Energy of the oscillating legs of a fast-moving cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant. J. Morphol. 184, 23-31.
Abstract: Lifelike models of the oscillating legs treated as three-segment systems show the course of kinetic and potential energy over the locomotor cycle for a cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant running at speeds approaching their maxima. The models can be adjusted to eliminate differences among the animals in time intervals, mass or length of limb, and joint angles. This facilitates analysis of the influence on total energy of each of these variables and of the distribution of mass among leg segments. Fast-cycling legs of the carnivore type have significantly more energy than those of the hoofed type. This may contribute to the lesser endurance that is usual for carnivores that hunt using a high-speed dash

Jones, D.K., 1985. Horizons: Kenya: Samburu/Buffalo Springs National Reserve. Swara 8, 19.

Kerr, E.A., Yu, N.T., Bartnicki, D.E., Mizukami, H., 1985. Resonance raman studies of CO and O2 binding to elephant myoglobin (distal His(E7)----Gln). Journal of Biological Chemistry 260, 8360-8365.
Abstract: Carbon monoxide and dioxygen were employed as resonance Raman- visible ligands for probing the nature of the heme-binding site in elephant myoglobin, which has glutamine in the distal position (E7) instead of the usual histidine. The distal histidine (E7) residue has been thought to be responsible for weakening carbon monoxide binding to hemoproteins. It is of interest to see how the His(E7)----Gln replacement affects such parameters as nu(Fe-N epsilon), nu(Fe-CO), delta(Fe-C-O), nu(C-O), delta(Fe-O-O), and nu(O-O) vibrational frequencies and relative intensities. Elephant myoglobin has a CO affinity approximately 6 times higher than that for human/sperm whale myoglobin (Mb). If this enhanced affinity were solely due to the removal of some of the steric hindrance that normally tilts the CO off the heme axis, one would expect the nu(Fe-CO) frequency to decrease and the nu(C-O) frequency to increase relative to the corresponding values in sperm whale Mb. However, the opposite was found. In addition, strong enhancement of the Fe-C-O bending mode was observed. These results suggest that the Fe-C-O linkage remains distorted. In elephant Mb, new interactions resulting from the conformational change accompanying ligand binding may be responsible for the increased CO binding. Similar spectra were obtained for elephant and sperm whale oxymyoglobin. This suggests that the interactions of bound O2 are not markedly affected by the glutamine replacement

Snoy, P.J., Kapatais-Zoumbos, K., Grabowski, M.W., Chandler, D.K., Barile, M.F. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) as a model for a human Mycoplasma arthritis. Laboratory Animal Science 35, 533. 1985.
Ref Type: Abstract
Abstract: Various Mycoplasma species have been shown to cause arthritis in animals and have been isolated from patients with septic arthritis and Reiter's syndrome.  In this study, Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from synovial fluid of a patient with septic arthritis and then inoculated into the knee joints of several chimpanzees.  The resulting arthritis in the chimpanzees was similar clinically to the arthritis in the patient.  The course of disease in the chimpanzee was monitored by sequential biopsies of the joint capsule, clinical signs, and analysis of synovial fluid for volume, leukocyte count, M. hominis titer and antibody response.  Different titers of Mycoplasma were inoculated in chimpanzees and a dose response was established.  Sequential biopsies revealed and acute progressive but transient synovitis with a corresponding elevation in the amount of synovial fluids, synovial leukocyte counts, colonization by M. hominis and an increased antibody response.  These data demonstrate that the chimpanzee provides an excellent model for the study of Mycoplasma induced arthritis in man.

Velez, H., Diaz, F., 1985. Onychomycosis due to saprophytic fungi (human). Mycopathologia 91, 87-92.

Chatterjee, A., 1984. Association of a Stephanofilaria indistinguishable form S. assamensis with lesions on the feet of Indian elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Journal of Animal Health 23, 29-35.

Hildebrand, M., 1984. Rotations of the leg segments of three fast-running cursors and an elephant. Journal of Mammalogy 65, 718-720.

Krishnamoorthi, R., La Mar, G.N., Mizukami, H., Romero, A., 1984. A proton NMR investigation of the influence of distal glutamine on structural and dynamic properties of elephant metmyoglobin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 259, 265-270.
Abstract: The proton NMR spectra of metmyoglobin from the Asian elephant, which has the replacement of glutamine for the usual distal histidine, are reported and analyzed. In the low pH region, we detect two interconvertible forms of the met-aquo-protein whose relative stabilities are independent of pH, but depend strongly on both temperature and solvent isotope composition. As the pH is raised, both species convert to the met-hydroxy form, as found for other myoglobins. The temperature dependence of the heme methyl shifts for both acidic protein forms indicates essentially high spin character for the iron, and the mean heme methyl shifts are interpreted as indicating one form with a very slightly weaker, and the other with a significantly stronger, axial ligand field than for the unique sperm whale met-aquo-myoglobin. The thermodynamic data for the equilibrium between the two species are consistent with differences of one hydrogen bond between coordinated water and the distal glutamine. Models are proposed where one form of the protein has not only the glutamine carboxyl oxygen acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor, but also the amine group. We conclude that a distal glutamine can act both as a stronger and as a weaker hydrogen-bond acceptor towards coordinated water than the usual distal histidine. The relative rates of conversion of the two met-aquo-myoglobin forms to MetMbOH is found to be consistent with the proposed structures for the two forms.

Krishnamoorthi, R., La Mar, G.N., 1984. Identification of the titrating group in the heme cavity of myoglobin. Evidence for the heme-protein pi-pi interaction. Eur. J Biochem. 138, 135-140.
Abstract: The pH dependence of the proton NMR chemical shifts of met-cyano and deoxy forms of native and reconstituted myoglobins reflects a structural transition in the heme pocket modulated by a single proton with pK 5.1-5.6. Comparison of this pH dependence of sperm whale and elephant myoglobin and that of the former protein reconstituted with esterified hemin eliminates both the distal histidine as well as the heme propionates as the titrating residue. Reconstitution of sperm whale met-cyano myoglobin with hemin modified at the 2,4-positions leads to a systematic variation in the pK for the structural transition, thus indicating the presence of a coupling between the titrating group and the heme pi system. The results are consistent with histidine FG3 (His-FG3) being the titrating group, and a donor-acceptor pi- pi interaction between its imidazole and the heme is proposed.

Krishnamoorthi, R., La Mar, G.N., Mizukami, H., Romero, A., 1984. A 1H NMR comparison of the met-cyano complexes of elephant and sperm whale myoglobin. Assignment of labile proton resonances in the heme cavity and determination of the distal glutamine orientation from relaxation data. Journal of Biological Chemistry 259, 8826-8831.
Abstract: The met-cyano complex of elephant myoglobin has been investigated by high field 1H NMR spectroscopy, with special emphasis on the use of exchangeable proton resonances in the heme cavity to obtain structural information on the distal glutamine. Analysis of the distance dependence of relaxation rates and the exchange behavior of the four hyperfine shifted labile proton resonances has led to the assignment of the proximal His-F8 ring and peptide NHs and the His-FG3 ring NH and the distal Gln-E7 amide NH. The similar hyperfine shift patterns for both the apparent heme resonances as well as the labile proton peaks of conserved resonances in elephant and sperm whale met-cyano myoglobins support very similar electronic/molecular structures for their heme cavities. The essentially identical dipolar shifts and dipolar relaxation times for the distal Gln-E7 side chain NH and the distal His-E7 ring NH in sperm whale myoglobin indicate that those labile protons occupy the same geometrical position relative to the iron and heme plane. This geometry is consistent with the distal residue hydrogen bonding to the coordinated ligand. The similar rates and identical mechanisms of exchange with bulk water of the labile protons for the three conserved residues in the elephant and sperm whale heme cavity indicate that the dynamic stability of the proximal side of the heme pocket is unaltered upon the substitution (His----Gln). The much slower exchange rate (by greater than 10(4] of the distal NH in elephant relative to sperm whale myoglobin supports the assignment of the resonance to the intrinsically less labile amide side chain

Rubin, C.T., Lanyon, L.E., 1984. Dynamic strain similarity in vertebrates; an alternative to allometric limb bone scaling. Journal of Theoretical Biology 107, 321-327.
Abstract: Galileo (1638) observed that "nature cannot grow a tree nor construct an animal beyond a certain size, while retaining the proportions which suffice in the case of a smaller structure". However, subsequent measurement has shown that limb bone dimensions are scaled geometrically with body size (Alexander et al., 1979a), and that the material properties of their constituent bone tissue are similar in animals over a wide range of body weight (Sedlin & Hirsch, 1966; Yamada, 1970; Burstein et al., 1972; Biewener, 1982). If, as suggested in previous scaling arguments (McMahon, 1973; Biewener, 1982), vigorous locomotion involved the same proportional forces over a wide range of animal size, this would create a paradox since large animals would be in far greater danger of skeletal failure than small ones. However, in vivo strain gauge implantations have shown that, during high speed running, axial force as a proportion of body weight (G) in the limb bones of animals decreases as a function of body size from 6.9 G in a 7 kg turkey to 2.8 G in a small (130 kg) horse. Estimates of axial force in larger animals suggest that this is further reduced to 0.8 G in a 2500 kg elephant. Nevertheless, it appears that, regardless of animal size or locomotory style, the peak stresses in the bones of these animals are remarkably similar. Therefore, throughout the range of animals considered (350 times differences in mass), we suggest that similar safety factors to failure are maintained, not by allometrically scaling bone dimensions, but rather by allometrically scaling the magnitude of the peak forces applied to them during vigorous locomotion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bartnicki, D.E., Mizukami, H., Romero-Herrera, A.E., 1983. Interaction of ligands with the distal glutamine in elephant myoglobin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 258, 1599-1602.
Abstract: The effects of distal glutamine (E7) replacement in elephant myoglobin were studied by comparing the temperature-dependent nitrosyl electron spin resonance spectra, redox potentials, and the acid-alkaline equilibria of elephant and human myoglobins. For myoglobins containing a distal histidine, the nitrosyl ESR spectra do not exhibit superhyperfine splitting until near liquid helium temperatures (Yoshimura, T., Ozaki, T., Shintani, Y., and Watanabe, H. (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 193, 301-313). Studies presented here show that the ESR spectra of nitrosyl elephant myoglobin exhibit 9-line superhyperfine splitting well above liquid nitrogen temperatures, similar to the temperature profiles of isolated heme complexes (Morse, R.H. (1980) Fed. Proc. 39, 2006). It is concluded that the shift in the spectral equilibrium to higher temperature indicates a diminished interaction between NO and the distal position in elephant myoglobin. In addition, the redox potential of elephant myoglobin was found to be nearly 100 mV greater than that of human myoglobin, and the pKa of the acid-alkaline equilibrium (oxidized myoglobin) was 8.5, being 0.4 unit less than that of other vertebrate myoglobins. These different reactivities between elephant and human myoglobins are discussed based on the nature of charge interactions between polar ligands and distal glutamine and histidine

Dmytriw, R. Further discussion of an ankle deformity in a young African elephant at the Indianapolis Zoo. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings. AAZPA Annual Conference Proceedings , 455-458. 1983.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Dmytriw, R., Olson, D., 1983. A discussion of an ankle abnormality in a young African elephant at the Indianapolis Zoo. Animal Keepers' Forum 10, 20-22.

Schmidt, M.J., 1983. Antagonism of xylazine sedation by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in an adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 14, 94-97.
Abstract: Heavy xylazine sedation was successfully antagonized by intravenous injection of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in an adult female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) prior to euthanasia.  A total xylazine dose of 1,200 mg intramuscularly plus 600 mg intravenously (approximately 0.33 mg/kg body weight) was given resulting in heavy sedation.  After 50 minutes of deep recumbent sedation, 425 mg yohimbine and 1,000 mg of 4-AP were administered intravenously.  Xylazine sedation was antagonized and the elephant was up and walking around within 5 minutes of antagonist administration.  The elephant remained standing for other 3 hours; at which point euthanasia was performed. Comment: Report concerns animal with arthritis and chronic foot problems.

Brown, T.M., Bailey, J.S., Iden, K.I., Clark, H.W., 1982. Antimycoplasma approach to the mechanism and the control of rheumatoid disease. In: Sorenson, J.R.J. (Ed.), Inflammatory diseases and copper. Humana Press, pp. 391-407.

Clark, H.W., Laughlin, D.C., Brown, T.M., 1981. Rheumatoid arthritis in elephants -- a review to date. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 95-99.

Haight, J., Henneous, R., Groves, D., 1981. Specialized tools for elephant foot care. In: Mellen, J., Littlewood, A. (Eds.), Recent developments in research and husbandry at the Washington Park Zoo. Washington Park Zoo, Portland, Oregon, pp. 71-73.

Jarofke, D., 1981. Use of halothane oxygen anesthesia in elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12, 93-95.
Abstract: Note: This anesthesia paper also briefly mentions a humeral fracture which was repaired with a medullary pin, and the removal of the pin.

Oosterhuis, J.E., Nelson, L.S. Management of a tibial fracture in an adult African bush elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet.  109. 1981.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Romero-Herrera, A.E., Goodman, M., Dene, H., Bartnicki, D.E., Mizukami, H., 1981. An exceptional amino acid replacement on the distal side of the iron atom in proboscidean myoglobin. Journal of Molecular Evolution 17, 140-147.
Abstract: Amino acid sequence determination of elephant myoglobin revealed the presence of the unusual substitution E7 His -- Gln.  Stereochemical analyses suggest that the most suitable residue which can functional substitute for His at this position in vertebrate globins in Gln.  Physiological studies imply that the slower rate of autooxidation of elephant is the result of this substitution which may confer some selective advantage on the species.  Comparative sequence data of paenungulate myoglobins suggest that the His -- Gln mutation probably occurred in an ancestor of Elephantinae.

 1980. Competent treatment of unusual patient earns good press for hospital -- and profession. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 177, 762-763.

Cumbersome cast. Macomb Daily . 1980.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Hobbled but alive. The Detroit News October 23, 4A. 1980.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Brown, T.M., Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., 1980. Rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla: A study of mycoplasma-host interaction in pathogenesis and treatment. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Comparative Pathology of Zoo Animals. Smithsonian Institution, Washington,D.C., pp. 259-265.
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis in a gorilla was first observed at the National Zoo in 1969.  As the result of our preliminary report, several other gorillas were recognized to have similar symptoms.  These true animal models have been observed for seven to nine years with highly successful therapeutic results based upon a pathogenetic concept developed over a 30-year period in a study of the disease in humans.  The seriousness of arthritis in the gorilla is reflected by the reports we have received in the past few years of a total of 26 additional captive gorillas variously affected.  The systemic aspects of rheumatoid arthritis, such as failure to gain weight and grow normally, hot and swollen joints, migratory arthritis, severe localized muscular atrophy, generalized weakness and depression, presented classical evidence of the rheumatoid disease pattern.  Remission occurred in one pregnant gorilla, and a flare reaction followed delivery, which is characteristic of the disease pattern in the human counterpart.      Laboratory studies were in support of rheumatoid disease. Immunoglobulin alterations were noted with reversed A/G ratios and elevations of IgC and IgM.  Positive bentonite flocculation rheumatoid factor tests were observed, and a positive lupus erythematosus (LE) test was noted in one animal.  Abnormal hematologic findings were frequent, with increased sedimentation rates and lymphocytosis.      Evidence of mycoplasma association was indicated by complement-fixing antibody response, positive cultures, and demonstration of the mycoplasma antigen in the tissue.  Of greatest significance were the induced rise and subsequent fall of mycoplasma antibodies resulting from the challenge to the host with antimycoplasma medication and the production of the Jarisch-Herxheimer flare response.  All these mycoplasma relationships have been found in man with the additional demonstration of delayed-type skin reaction with mycoplasma antigen.      It has been stressed that in infectious hypersensitivity, the microbial source is obscured, yet it must be defined and the proper therapy planned on an individualized basis.  The medication must be given in relatively small, intermittent dosage to avoid the development of delayed hypersensitivity which negates the drug effect.  Until more effective medications are developed, the treatment must also be administered over an extended period of time to achieve permanent control of the disease.  The demonstration of the importance of the pathogenesis concept speaks for itself in the final analysis with the recovery of severely disabled gorillas.      In conclusion, it would appear that a study of rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla and man, approached from the point of view of comparative pathology and medicine, has opened a new direction for an understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.  From these studies, one can now visualize for the first time that rheumatoid arthritis in the gorilla and in man is a controllable and potentially curable disease.  It seems that new thinking in regard to further demonstrations of etiologic associations must be given to all species where tissue hypersensitivity to microbial agents is basic.  It is suggested that Koch's postulates were not designed to include this area of pathogenesis where the role of the host is as significant as that of the parasite--an omission which has delayed the development of new knowledge in this area for a half a century. Is not the time at hand to revise our concepts and move in a new direction?

Clark, H.W., Laughlin, D.C., Bailey, J.S., Brown, T.M., 1980. Mycoplasma species and arthritis in captive elephants. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 11, 3-15.
Abstract: Sixty-seven elephants (62 Elephas maximus and 5 Loxodonta africana) from three circus groups and five zoos were examined serologically and cultured for mycoplasma in a search for arthritogenic agents previously unrecognized in this animal species.  In two groups of elephants, 28 of the 35 female genital tracts cultured were found to be colonized by one or more strains of mycoplasma.  More than half of the elephants had complement fixing antibodies to one or more of the new mycoplasma isolates.  Lameness and other rheumatoid disorders were found associated with rheumatoid factor activity and changes in mycoplasma antibody titers.  In view of the arthritogenic activity of mycoplasma in other species, these new findings suggested the clinical significant of mycoplasma in elephants and the need for investigation, especially in relation to the high incidence of rheumatoid-type disorders observed in these captive elephants.

Fowler, M.E., 1980. Hoof, claw, and nail problems in nondomestic animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 177, 885-893.

Alexander, R.M., Jayes, A.S., Maloiy, G.M.O., Wathuta, E.M., 1979. Allometry of the limb bones of mammals from shrews (Sorex) to elephants (Loxodonta). Journal of Zoology (Lond) 189, 305-314.
Abstract: Measurements have been made of the principal leg bones of 37 species representing almost the full range of sizes of terrestrial mammals.  The lengths of corresponding bones tend to be proportional to (body mass)0.35 and the diameters to (body mass)0.36 except in the family Bovidae in which the exponents for length are much nearer the value of 0.25 predicted by McMahon's (1973) theory of elastic similarity.  Comparisons are made between mammals of similar size belonging to different orders.

Alexander, R.M., Maloiy, G.M.O., Hunter, B., Jayes, A.S., Nturibi, J., 1979. Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoology (Lond) 189, 135-144.
Abstract: Films of buffalo and elephant running, and detailed measurements on dissected legs, have been used to estimate the maximum stresses which occur in locomotion, in certain muscles, tendons and bones.  These stresses are similar to stresses previously determined for some other, smaller mammals.

Clark, H.W., Laughlin, D.C., Bailey, J.S., Brown, T.M., 1979. Isolation of mycoplasma from the genital tracts of elephants. Elephant 1(3), 9-10.

Cole, B.C., Cassell, G.H., 1979. Mycoplasma infections as models of chronic joint inflammation. Arthritis and Rheumatism 22, 1375-1381.

Hall-Martin, A.J., De Boom, H.P.A., 1979. Dislocation of the elbow and its social consequences for an African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 50, 19-22.
Abstract: A dislocated elbow of a male elephant calf (Loxodonta africana) in the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in it being harassed by other elephants and consequently leaving its maternal herd at the age of 6 years, rather than the more usual age of 9-10 years.  In the absence of large predators the elephant had survived for 9 years and had adapted its locomotion and intraspecific behavior to its injury.  The humeral joint of the affected forelimb was carried in partial extension with the cubital and carpal joints were permanently in partial flexion.  Substantial secondary oseoarthritic changes, extensive fusion and compensatory remodeling of the humerus, radius and ulna had taken place together with compensatory development in the musculature.  The planes of articulation of the limb bones had also be considerably rotated inward.

Vendan, C., 1979. The trunk, hand of the elephant. Study of its prehensile and tactile termination. Ann. Chir. Plast. 24,  392-396.

Whitehill, N., 1979. Suggested mechanical model of elephant trunk muscle tissue and its sheer conjecture. Elephant 1, 34-35.

Wilkes, E., Meek, E.S., 1979. Rheumatoid arthritis: Review of searches for an infectious cause. Part I. Infection 7, 125-128.
Abstract: No distinctive pattern has yet emerged from the acumulated mass of results that would provide a generally acceptable hypothesis of the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. A number of immunologic aberrations have been described, but there has been no identification of a key immunologic defect that might link together the various components of the immune response into an agreed pattern.  The possiblity of a persistent antigenic stimulus arising from an infection cannot be confirmed or refuted.  If a virus is involved, it would seem more likely to be a "slow" virus rather than a commonly recognized form, but there is no strong candidate of this type in view.  Despite the fact that mycoplasmas are undoubtedly arthritogenic in other species, their role as an atiologic agent in rheumatoid arthritis has not been proven.  The idea that bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan may provide a persistent stimulus has much to offer, but it is not possible at this stage to accept peptidoglycan as a recognized etiologic factor.  This suggestion will, however, undoubtedly stimulate much further investigation.

Wilkes, E., Meek, E.S., 1979. Rheumatoid arthritis: Review of searches for an infectious cause. Part II. Infection 7, 192-197.

Brown, T.M., Clark, H.W., 1978. Rheumatoid inflammation -- Part I. Inflo (Arthritis Institute) 11, 1-2.

Caple, I.W., Jainudeen, M.R., Buick, T.D., Song, C.Y., 1978. Some clinicopathologic findings in elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Fasciola jacksoni. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14, 110-115.
Abstract: Severe submandidular and ventral abdominal edema was observed in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in which liver flukes ( Fasciola jacksoni) were recovered from the bile ducts at post-mortem examination.  Clinico-pathologic examination of blood samples and serum from this elephant and another 8 elephants showed that most had anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal samples from 6 of the elephants contained from 6 to 83 eggs per gram.  Treatment of elephants with nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection produced severe local reactions at the injection site.  Feces collected 2 and 4 months after treatment were free of trematode eggs.  Hematologic values measured 4 months after treatment showed that the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and plasma protein concentration had increased to within the normal range.

Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., Laughlin, D.C., Brown, T.M., 1978. Isolation of mycoplasma from the genital tracts of elephants. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie,Parasitenkunde,Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene 1. Abt. Originale 241, 262.

Hass, G., 1978. Behavioural disorders in a female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus bengalensis) with bony structures on the intermediofacial and statoacoustic nerves. Zoologische Garten 48(4,S.), 297-298.

India's beloved elephant breaks leg, fights to live. The Detroit Free Press July 3, 9C. 1977.
Ref Type: Newspaper

Miller, R.M., 1977. Segmental gangrene and sloughing of elephants' ears after intravenous injection of phenylbutazone. Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Clinician 72, 633-637.

Wallach, J.D., Silberman, M.S., 1977. Foot care for captive elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 171, 906-907.

Alexander, J.W., Begg, S., Dueland, R., Schultz, R.D., 1976. Rheumatoid arthritis in the dog: clinical diagnosis and management. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 12, 727-734.

Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., Brown, T.M. Mycoplasma hypersensitivity reactions. Proceedings of the Society for General Microbiology 111, 171. 1976.
Ref Type: Abstract
Abstract: Many immunological disorders that apparently are cell-mediated have no known aetiologic antigens other than tissue-related autoantibodies.  The human host is challenged continually by many microbial antigens including several types of mycoplasmas.  The immunologic response to mycoplasma antigens is dependent upon several factors other than colonizability and cytopathogenicity.  Mixed microbial infections can have an augmentive or suppressive effect on the human host cell-mediated immunity (CMI).  Mycoplasma can stimulate the thymus-derived 'T' cells and the bone marrow 'B' cell systems as indicated by various CMI responses such as the migratory inhibitory factor, delayed-type skin reactions, lymphocyte transformations, and humoral antibody reactions in the human host.      Investigations of the mycoplasma hypersensitivity reactions in chronic rheumatoid disorders have included several factors such as long-term monitoring of CMI responses and obscured foci of mycoplasma antigens that would distinguish them from the acute-convalescent responses.  In addition to the effects of therapeutic agents (immunosuppressants), physiological changes (hormonal), and environmental factors (trauma) on CMI, the 'T' cell derived anti-IgG rheumatoid factor can neutralize the humoral mycoplasma antibodies.  Recent studies indicate that the frequent and variable anergic responses observed in rheumatoid disorders are dependent upon both the test mitogen and the mycoplasma antigen as well as the host lymphocytes. Tissue inflammation resulting from antigen-antibody hypersensitivity reactions, apparently occurs when the CMI responsive host is challenged by mycoplasma reinfection or antigen released from a tissue focus.  The incorporation of specific tissue antigens by mycoplasma is another factor influencing their reactions in systemic "autoimmune" disorders and may require the challenging antigenic precursors to be cultured in specific human tissue media.  The identification of the sensitizing and challenging antigens also includes the appraisal of mycoplasma exoantigens and exoenzymes, such as DNase, released into the tissues as well as the physiologically optimum fractions.

Newton, C.D., Lipowitz, A.J., Halliwell, R.E., Allen, H.L., Biery, D.N., Schumacher, H.R., 1976. Rheumatoid arthritis in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 168, 113-121.

Pedersen, N.C., Pool, R.C., Castles, J.J., Weisner, K., 1976. Noninfectious canine arthritis: rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 169, 295-303.
Abstract: Chronic unremitting, generally symmetric, erosive arthritis was studied in 8 dogs.  The disease had clinical, serologic, radiographic, and pathologic changes similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis of man.  The condition occurred mainly in smaller breeds of dogs, with time of onset from 8 months to 8 years of age.  Characteristic radiographic changes were seen in the first several weeks to several months after the appearance of the initial lameness.  Synovial fluid contained an increased number of neutrophils, and synovial fluid and synovial tissues were sterile for anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, mycoplasma, chlamydia, and viruses.  Corticosteroids were therapeutically ineffective in all of the cases; however, corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and azathioprine were effective when used in combination in several dogs.

Takino, Y., Arai, S., 1976. Foreleg fracture in an Indian elephant at Yatsu-Yuen Zoo. Journal of the Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums 18, 1-4.

Windsor, R.S., Scott, W.A., 1976. Fascioliasis and salmonellosis in African elephants in captivity. British Veterinary Journal 132, 313-317.

Burke, T.J., 1975. Probable tetanus in an Asian elephant. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 6, 22-24.

Newton, C.D., Lipowitz, A.J., 1975. Canine rheumatoid arthritis: A brief review. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 11, 595-599.

Brown, T.M., Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., 1974. Natural occurance of rheumatoid arthritis in great apes -- a new animal model. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of the Philadelphia Centennial Symposium on Science and Research 43-79.

Brown, R.J., Kupper, J.L., Trevethan, W.P., Johnson, N.L., 1973. Fibrosarcoma in an African elephant. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 9, 227-228.
Abstract:  A 4 year old female African elephant developed a slow-growing mass of 6 months' duration on the medial aspect of the carpal area of the right front leg.  Histopathological examination revealed a low grade fibrosarcoma.

Gainer, B., 1973. A joint injury in an elephant. East African Wildlife Journal 11, 209.

Howell, P.G., Young, E., Hedger, R.S., 1973. Foot-and-mouth disease in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 40, 41-52.
Abstract: A strain of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus which was experimentally inoculated into the epidermis of the tongues of captive African elephants produced vesicular lesions at the site of inoculation.  After a short period of viraemia, secondary lesions developed in the mouth and on the feet giving rise to extensive tissue damage and the separation of the soles.  In spite of close contact there was no spread of the disease to other elephants and by conventional sampling techniques no carrier virus could be demonstrated.  The neutralizing antibody response was of a low order and this finding together with the observations made during the course of the experimental disease are discussed in relation to the possible role of the elephant in the epizootiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Africa.

Siegel, I.M., 1973. Orthotic treatment of tibiotarsal deformity in an elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 163, 544-545.

Sokoloff, L., 1973. Animal model of human disease: rheumatoid arthritis.  Animal model: arthritis due to Mycoplasma in rats and swine. American Journal of Pathology 73, 261-264.

Sokoloff, J., 1972. The pathology of rhematoid arthritis and allied disoders. In: Hollander, J.L., McCarty, D.J. (Eds.), Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia,PA, pp. 309-332.

Vaughan, J.H., 1972. The rheumatoid factors. In: Hollander, J.L., McCarty, D.J. (Eds.), Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia,PA, pp. 153-171.

Weissmann, G., 1972. Lysosomal mechanisms of tissue injury in arthritis. Seminars in Medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston 286, 141-146.

Albl, P., 1971. Studies on assessment of physical condition in African elephants. Biological Conservation 3, 134-140.
Abstract: Series of external measurements were taken from 240 carcasses of African Elephants during the dry season of 1967 in Zambia, in order to investigate fluctuations of subcutaneous fat and muscles.  In addition, the ratio of the weight of the kidneys to kidney-fat, and the contents of fat in the bone-marrow, were determined.  From these investigations are deduced and described simple criteria for assessment of the physical condition of African Elephants, which criteria allow objective classification of representative population samples. Extensive individual variations of external anatomical features complicate assessment of the condition.  Most of the investigated external physical features are more age- than nutrition-dependent.  Only the shape of the lumbar region and the kidney-fat index give a fairly reliable indication of the physical condition of the African elephant.

Seetharam, S.B., 1971. Umbilical hernia in an elephant calf. Ceylon Veterinary Journal 48, 533-536.

Singh, B.S., 1971. Umbilical hernia in an elephant calf. Indian Veterinary Journal 48, 533-536.

Brown, T.M., Clark, H.W., Bailey, J.S., Gray, C.W., 1970. A mechanistic approach to treatment of rheumatoid type arthritis naturally occuring in a gorilla. Trans. Am. Clin. and Climat. Assoc. 82, 227-247.

Fowler, M.E., Mottram, W., 1970. Amputation of the tail in an Asian elephant. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1, 22-25.

Ruddy, S., Austen, K.F., 1970. The complement system in rheumatoid synovitis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 13, 713-723.
Abstract: Stoichiometric hemolytic assays were used to measure the activities of the first four reacting components of the complement sequence in synovial fluids from patients with seropositive or seronegative rheumatoid arthritis or degenerative joint disease.  The pattern of component reductions in the seropositive rheumatoid arthritis fluids was consistent with activation of the complement system by an intra-articular immunologic process.

Taylor, G.A., 1970. Treating elephants with short-wave diathermy. Physiotherapy 56, 62-64.

Bartfield, H., 1969. Distribution of rheumatoid factor in non-rheumatoid states. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 168, 30-40.

Mongan, E.S., Atwater, E.C., 1968. A comparison of patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Medical Clinics of North American 52, 533-538.

Kunzel, E., Luckhaus, G., 1967. Comparative anatomical studies of the soft palate of mammals: the palatal cartilage and the "M. uvulae" of the India elephant (Elephas maximus). Anatomischer Anzeiger 120, 318-322.

Ratnesar, P., 1966. Can elephants transmit disease to man? Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 215-216.

Holm, N.E., 1965. The musculature of the forelimbs of the Elephas indicus. Anatomischer Anzeiger 117, 171-192.

Evans, G.H., 1961. Elephants and Their Diseases: A Treatise on Elephants. Government Printing, Rangoon, Burma.

Mellors, R.C., Nowoslowski, A., Korngold, L., Sengson, B.L., 1961. Rheumatoid factor and the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 113, 475-483.

Mellors, R.C., Nowoslowski, A., Korngold, L., 1961. Rheumatoid arthritis and the cellular origin of rheumatoid factors. American Journal of Pathology 39, 533-546.

Ropes, M.W., 1959. Diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: 1958 revision. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 18, 49-53.

Shindo, T., Mori, M., 1956. Musculature of the Indian elephant.  Part II.  Musculature of the hindlimb. Okajimas Folia Anat. Japonica 28, 114-147.

Shindo, T., Mori, M., 1956. Musculature of the Indian elephant.  Part I.  Musculature of the forelimb. Okajimas Folia Anat. Japonica 28, 89-113.

Shindo, T., Mori, M., 1956. Musculature of the Indian elephant.  Part III.  Musculature of the trunk, neck, and head. Okajimas Folia Anat. Japonica 29, 17-40.

Attwell, R.I.G., 1954. A note on wounds in elephants. African Wild Life 8, 204-205.

Heyman, A., Sheldon, W.H., Evans, L.D., 1953. Pathogenesis of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. British Journal of Venereal Diseases 28 , 50.

Ayer, A.A., Mariappa, D., 1952. A radiographic study of ossification in the Indian elephant fetus. Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 1, 3-10.

Garutt, V.E., 1951. [Modification of the structure of carpal bones of Proboscidea in relation to conditions of environment.]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 77, 513-515.

Brown, T.M., Wichelhausen, R.H., Robinson, L.B., Merchout, W.R., 1949. The in vivo action of aureomycin on pleuropneumonia-like organisms associated with various rheumatic diseases. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 34, 1404-1410.

Goss, L.J., 1942. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of wild animals in captivity. The Cornell Veterinarian 32, 155-161.

Goss, L.J., 1942. Tetanus in an elephant (Elephas maximus). Zoologica 27, 5-6.

Ramiah, B., 1942. An obscure abscess in an elephant. Indian Veterinary Journal 29, 200.

Sabin, A.B., Warren, J., 1940. The curative effect of certain gold compounds on experimental proliferative chronic arthritis in mice. Journal of Bacteriology 40, 823-856.

Eales, N., 1928. The anatomy of a foetal African elephant, Elephas africanas (Loxodonta africana) Part II.  The body muscles. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 55, part III, 609-642.

Eales, N., 1926. The anatomy of the head of a foetal African elephant, Elephas africanas (Loxodonta africana). Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 54, part III, 491-551.

Forbes, A., Cobb, S., Cattell, M., 1921. An electrocardiogram and an electromyogram in an elephant. American Journal of Physiology 55, 385-389.

Evans, G.H., 1910. Elephants and Their Diseases: A Treatise on Elephants. Government Printing, Rangoon, Burma.

Miall, L.C., Greenwood, F., 1879. The anatomy of the Indian elephant. Part I.  The muscles of the extremities. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology 12, 261-287.

Miall, L.C., Greenwood, F., 1879. The anatomy of the Indian elephant.  Part II. Muscles of the head and trunk. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology 12, 385-400.

Garrod, A.H., 1875. Report on the Indian elephant which died in the society's gardens on July 7th, 1875. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1875, 542-543.

Watson, M., 1875. Contributions to the anatomy of the Indian elephant, Part IV. Muscles and blood vessels of the face and head. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology 9, 118-133.

J.G.F., 1844. The osteology of the elephant. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 13, 915-919.

Blair, P., 1710. Osteographia elephantina: or, a full and exact description of all the bones of an elephant which dy'd near Dundee, April the 27th, 1706, with their several dimensions, etc. Part II. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol] 27, 117-168.

Blair, P., 1710. Osteographia elephantina: or, a full and exact description of all the bones of an elephant which dy'd near Dundee, April the 27th, 1706, with their several dimensions, etc. Part I. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol] 27, 51-116.



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