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(The following additional keywords have been used to categorize articles within this section and may assist your search.)

Amblyomma, amphistoma, babesia, babesiosis, blood parasites, cestodes, cryptosporidium, lice, parasites, ticks, toxoplasmosis, trematodes, trypanosomiasis,

Elephant Bibliographic Database

References updated October 2009 by date of publication, most recent first.

Gandolf, A.R., Lifschitz, A., Stadler, C., Watson, B., Galvanek, L., Ballent, M., Lanusse, C., 2009. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for parasite elimination
73. J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 40, 107-112.
Abstract: Loxodonta africana are susceptible to a wide variety of parasites that are often treated with the broad spectrum antiparasitic ivermectin (IVM) based on empirical knowledge. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure plasma IVM levels following administration of 0.1 mg/kg IVM p.o., 2) compare plasma IVM levels following administration with regular versus restricted feed rations, 3) measure IVM excretion in feces, and 4) use these findings to generate dosing recommendations for this species. Using a crossover design, six African elephants were divided into two groups. Ivermectin was administered and typical grain rations were either provided or withheld for 2 hr. Blood and fecal samples were collected for 7 days following drug administration. After a 5-wk washout period, groups were switched and the procedure repeated. Plasma and fecal IVM were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no statistically significant difference detected in the pharmacokinetic data between the fed and fasted groups. Peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and half-life for plasma ranged between 5.41-8.49 ng/ml, 17.1-20.3 ng x day/ml, and 3.12-4.47 day, respectively. High IVM concentrations were detected in feces. The peak concentration values in feces were between 264-311-fold higher than those obtained in plasma. The comparatively large area under the curve and short time to maximum concentration in feces indicate elimination prior to absorption of much of the drug. Plasma IVM concentrations were low when compared to other species. Based on these findings, administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg p.o. should be appropriate for eliminating many types of parasites in elephants, and could minimize development of parasite resistance

Gandolf, A.R., Lifschitz, A., Stadler, C., Watson, B., Galvanek, L., Ballent, M., Lanusse, C., 2009. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta Africana):implications for parasite elimination. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40, 107-112.
Loxodonta africana are susceptible to a wide variety of parasites that are often treated with the broad spectrum antiparasitic ivermectin (IVM) based on empirical knowledge. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure plasma IVM levels following administration of 0.1 mg/kg IVM p.o., 2) compare plasma IVM levels following administration with regular versus restricted feed rations, 3) measure IVM excretion in feces, kind 4) use these findings to generate dosing recommendations for this species. Using a crossover design, six African elephants were divided into two groups. Ivermectin was administered and typical grain rations were either provided or withheld for 2 hr. Blood and fecal samples were collected for 7 days following drug administration. After a 5-wk washout period, groups were switched and the procedure repeated. Plasma and fecal IVM were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no statistically significant difference detected in the pharmacokinetic data between the fed and fasted groups. Peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and half-life for plasma ranged between 5.41-8.49 ng/ml, 17.1-20.3 ng x day/ml, and 3.12-4.47 day, respectively. High IVM concentrations were detected in feces. The peak concentration values in feces were between 264-311-fold higher than those obtained in plasma. The comparatively large area under the curve and short time to maximum concentration in feces indicate elimination prior to absorption of much of the drug. Plasma IVM concentrations were low when compared to other species. Based on these findings, administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg p.o. should be appropriate for eliminating many types of parasites in elephants, and could minimize development of parasite resistance.

Konnai, S., Mekata, H., Odbileg, R., Simuunza, M., Chembensof, M., Witola, W.H., Tembo, M.E., Chitambo, H., Inoue, N., Onuma, M., Ohashi, K., 2008. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies. Vector. Borne. Zoonotic. Dis. 8, 565-573.
Abstract: The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the Chiawa area of Lower Zambezi in Zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome DNA and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived DNA extracts as templates. Ninety G. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei species genomic DNA. Of the 90 T. brucei-positive flies, 47 (52.2%) also tested positive for vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. Sequence analysis of the vertebrate mitochondrial DNA amplicons established that they originated from 8 different vertebrate species, namely, human (Homo sapiens), African elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), and goat (Capra hircus). Furthermore, to investigate the prevalence of trypanosome infections in domestic goats in the same area where trypanosomes had been detected in tsetse files, a total of 86 goats were randomly selected from 6 different herds. Among the selected goats, 36 (41.9%) were found to be positive for T. brucei species. This combined detection method would be an ideal approach not only for mass screening for infection prevalence in tsetse populations, but also for the prediction of natural reservoirs in areas endemic for trypanosomosis

Lotfy, W.M., Brant, S.V., DeJong, R.J., Le, T.H., Demiaszkiewicz, A., Rajapakse, R.P., Perera, V.B., Laursen, J.R., Loker, E.S., 2008. Evolutionary origins, diversification, and biogeography of liver flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 248-255.
Abstract: Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable historical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) that included seven of the nine recognized species in the family. The fasciolids examined comprise a monophyletic group with the most basal species recovered from African elephants. We hypothesize fasciolids migrated from Africa to Eurasia, with secondary colonization of Africa. Fasciolids have been conservative in maintaining relatively large adult body size, but anatomical features of their digestive and reproductive systems are available. These flukes have been opportunistic, with respect to switching to new snail (planorbid to lymnaeid) and mammalian hosts and from intestinal to hepatic habitats within mammals

Mekata, H., Konnai, S., Simuunza, M., Chembensofu, M., Kano, R., Witola, W.H., Tembo, M.E., Chitambo, H., Inoue, N., Onuma, M., Ohashi, K., 2008. Prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (Glossina pallidipes) in southeastern Zambia. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 70, 923-928.
Abstract: The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, T. congolense forest and T. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respectively. To determine the mammalian hosts of T. congolense and T. vivax infections from the tsetse flies, mammalian mitochondrion DNA of blood meal in these flies were analyzed by PCR and subsequent gene sequence analysis of the amplicons. Sequence analysis showed the presence of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of 7 different mammalian species such as human, elephant, buffalo, goat, warthog, greater kudu and cattle. Goats which were main livestock in these areas were further examined to know the extent of its contribution in spreading the infection. We examined the prevalence of trypanosome infections in the domestic goat population in 6 settlements in Chiawa alone. Of the 86 goats sampled, 4 (4.6%), 5 (5.8%), 4 (4.6%) and 4 (4.6%) were positive for T. vivax universal, T. congolense savannah, forest and kilifi, respectively. These findings showed that the host-source of trypanosome infections in vector fly give a vital information about spread of infection. The result of this study will certainly contribute in elucidating more the epidemiology of trypanosomosis

Matsumoto, K., Parola, P., Rolain, J.M., Jeffery, K., Raoult, D., 2007. Detection of "Rickettsia sp. strain Uilenbergi" and "Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti" in Amblyomma tholloni ticks from elephants in Africa. BMC Microbiol 7, 74 [Epub ahead of print].
Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To date, 6 tick-borne rickettsiae pathogenic for humans are known to occur in Africa and 4 of them were first identified in ticks before being recognized as human pathogens. RESULTS: We examined 33 and 5 Amblyomma tholloni ticks from African elephants in the Central African Republic and Gabon, respectively, by PCR amplification and sequencing of a part of gltA and ompA genes of the genus Rickettsia. The partial sequences of gltA and ompA genes detected in tick in Gabon had 99.1% similarity with those of R. heilongjiangensis and 97.1% with those of Rickettsia sp. HL-93 strain, respectively. The partial gltA and ompA gene sequences detected in tick in the Central African Republic were 98.9% and 95.1% similar to those of Rickettsia sp. DnS14 strain and R. massiliae, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed Rickettsia sp. detected in Gabon clusters with R. japonica and R. heilongjiangensis in a phylogenetic tree based on the partial gltA and ompA genes. The genotype of the Rickettsia sp. detected in the Central African Republic is close to those of R. massiliae group in the phylogenetic tree based on partial gltA gene sequences, and distantly related to other rickettsiae in the tree based on partial ompA gene. CONCLUSIONS: The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsiae detected in this study may be new species although we could only study the partial sequences of 2 genes regarding the amount of DNA that was available. We propose the Rickettsia sp. detected in Gabon be provisionally named "Rickettsia sp. stain Davousti" and Rickettsia sp. detected in the Central African Republic be named "Rickettsia sp. strain Uilenbergi".

Dangolla, A., Ekanayake, D.K., Rajapakse, R.P., Dubey, J.P., Silva, I.D., 2006. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive elephants (Elephaus maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka
516. Veterinary Parasitology 137, 172-174.
Abstract: Serum samples collected during August 2003-June 2004 from 45 privately owned captive and 8 elephants from the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the direct modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in sera of 14 of 45 (32%) privately owned elephants with titers of 1:25 in three, 1:50 in three, 1:100 in three, 1:200 in three, and 1:400 in three elephants. The elephants from Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were seronegative. This is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in elephants in Sri Lanka

Penzhorn, B.L., 2006. Babesiosis of wild carnivores and ungulates
499. Veterinary Parasitology 138, 11-21.
Abstract: Although large and small piroplasms have been reported from various wild carnivore and ungulate species, relatively few have been named. In the past, mere presence of a piroplasm in a specific host frequently prompted naming of a new species. Descriptions were often inadequate or lacking altogether. Currently, demarcation of species relies heavily on molecular characterisation. Even serological evidence is deemed insufficient. Experimental transmission of Babesia spp. from domestic to wild animals is usually only successful in closely related species, or after splenectomy. There are indications that endemic stability, similar to the situation in livestock, is the general pattern in Babesia sp. infections in wildlife. All lions in Kruger National Park were found to be infected with B. leo, which did not lead to clinical disease manifestation in artificially infected lions. Under stressful conditions, infections could flare up and be fatal, as purportedly happened to the famous lioness "Elsa". Similarly black rhinos, which can harbour Babesia bicornis without ill effects, may develop clinical babesiosis during confinement after capture. Zoo-bred animals, which were not exposed to Babesia spp. at a young age, may be fully susceptible when released into a natural environment where other members of their species occur. This could have major implications for ex situ conservation programmes aimed at bolstering natural wildlife populations

Sabu, T.K., Vinod, K.V., Vineesh, P.J., 2006. Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests
524. J. Insect Sci. 6, 1-12.
Abstract: The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3-5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats

Uni, S., Bain, O., Agatsuma, T., Katsumi, A., Baba, M., Yanai, T., Takaoka, H., 2006. New filarial nematode from Japanese serows (Naemorhedus crispus: Bovidae) close to parasites from elephants
403. Parasite 13, 193-200.
Abstract: A new onchocercid species, Loxodontofilaria caprini n. sp. (Filarioidea: Nematoda), found in subcutaneous tissues of 37 (33%) of 112 serows (Noemorhedus crispus) examined in Japan, is described. The female worm had the characteristics of Loxodontofilaria, e.g., the large body size, well-developed esophagus with a shallow buccal cavity, and the long tail with three caudal lappets. The male worm of the new species, which was first described in the genus, had unequal length of spicules, 10 pairs of pre- and post-caudal papillae, and three terminal caudal lappets. Deirids were present in both sexes. Among four species of the genus loxodontofiloria: one from the hippopotamus and three from the Elepantidae, L. caprini n. sp. appears close to L. asiatica Bain, Baker & Chabaud, 1982, a subcutaneous parasite of Elephas indicus in Myanmar (Burma). However, L. caprini n. sp. is distinct from L. asiatica in that the Japanese female worm has an esophagus half as long and the microfilariae also half as long with a coiled posterior. The microfilariae were found in the skin of serows. The new parasite appears to clearly illustrate a major event in the evolution of onchocercids: the host-switching. This might have occurred on the Eurasian continent, where elephantids and the lineage of rupicaprines diversified during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, or in Japan, into which some of these hosts migrated

Hove, T., Mukaratirwa, S., 2005. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe. Acta Trop 94, 49-53.
Abstract: One hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from Zimbabwe were tested for IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (Panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (Tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34)and farm-reared struthionidae (Struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. Among the bovidae, the nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence of 90% (9/10). Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalences in browsers [greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (20% of 10), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) (10% of 10) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) (10% of 20)] were generally in the lower range. No antibodies were detected in the wild African suidae [warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus)]. Attempts to isolate T. gondii from the heart muscles of seropositve ostriches by subinoculation in BALB/c mice were unsuccessful.

Agatsuma, T., Rajapakse, R.P., Kuruwita, V.Y., Iwagami, M., Rajapakse, R.C., 2004. Molecular taxonomic position of the elephant schistosome, Bivitellobilharzia nairi, newly discovered in Sri Lanka
745. Parasitol. Int. 53, 69-75.
Abstract: Bivitellobilharzia nairi (Mudaliar and Ramanujachar, 1945) Dutt and Srivastava, 1955 was first recorded in India. A number of adult worm specimens of this schistosome species were recovered from a domestic elephant, which died in 1999 in Sri Lanka. This is the first report of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. In the present study, in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationship with other species of schistosomes, sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal gene repeat, part of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S), and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from B. nairi were analyzed. Two intraspecific variations were seen within 13 individuals in the ITS2 region. In the CO1 region of the mitochondrial DNA, there were four haplotypes in the nucleotide sequences and two haplotypes in the amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear DNA showed that B. nairi was basal to all of species of the genus Schistosoma. The 28S tree also showed that the mammalian lineage was monophyletic. However, phylogenetic analysis using the mitochondrial DNA showed that B. nairi was nested within the genus Schistosoma. The taxonomical position for this species as well as the contradiction between the results from the nuclear and mitochondrial genes were discussed

Dangolla, A., Ekanayake, D.K., Rajapakse, R., Dubey, J.P., Silva, I.D. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive elephants (Elephaus maximus maximus)) in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research  Sessions, Sri Lanka, Vol 9 November 10, 2004.  209-214. 2004.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Forty-five privately owned captive, apparently healthy elephants were blood sampled in order to detect the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii during August 2003- June 2004. The elephants were from 5 of the 11 districts in which, captive elephants live at present. Blood samples were transported in ice to the laboratory, serum separated immediately and frozen until analysed. A direct modified agglutination test was performed on serum. Sera of 14 of 45 (32%) elephants were found to be positive for the test. Highest titre reported was 1:400. A significantly high number of females (11/14) were positive for T.gondii antibodies compared with the male elephants (P = 0.02). The differences in titres among the age groups of elephants were not significant (P > 0.05). It appears that Toxoplasmosis is common among the Sri Lankan captive Elephants. Considering the nature of the infection, the sero-positive animals could become clinically diseased when immune-compromised, such as observed in the case of tuberculosis. Elephants, may have contacted this disease through faecal contamination from wild, semi wild or domestic animals. The fate of the parasites within elephant's body and investigating the possibility of elephants infecting humans or other animals may be of importance. This is the first report on presence of antibodies to T.gondii infection in elephants in Sri Lanka

Kinsella, J.M., Deem, S.L., Blake, S., Freeman, A., 2004. Endoparasites of African forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) from the Republic of Congo and Central African Republic. Comparative Parasitology 71 , 104-110.
Abstract: Fecal samples were collected from 6 African forest elephants, Loxodonta africana cyclotis, from the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo, and the Dzangha-Sangha National Park, Central African Republic. One of the elephants was found freshly dead from natural causes, and 12 species of intestinal parasites (2 bot fly larvae, 1 trematode, and 9 nematodes) were collected during a complete necropsy. In addition, fecal samples revealed the presence of a schistosome, Bivitellobilharzia sp., a tracheal nematode, Mammomonagamus sp., and a complex of intestinal strongylids and ciliates. The nematode genera Decrusia and Equimurbia are reported for the first time from African elephants, and the ciliate genus Latteuria is reported for the first time from wild elephants. The parasite fauna of the African elephant is discussed in the light of recent genetic evidence that the forest and savannah elephants may be separate species.

McAloon, F.M., 2004. Oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of Anoplocephala manubriata, cestode of the Asian elephant in India
726. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 32, 181-185.
Abstract: Anoplocephala manubriata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is a tapeworm that parasitizes both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants. Its life cycle has not yet been completely elucidated nor have intermediate hosts been previously reported. Soil and substrate was collected in the Kodanadu Forest Range, Ernakulum District and Guruvayur Devaswom Temple grounds, Thrissur District, in Kerala, India. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) were collected from dung piles near captive elephants' bedding and examined for immature stages of the tapeworm. Five species of oribatids were found to contain at least one immature life stage of A. manubriata: Galumna flabellifera orientalis Hammer 1958, Scheloribates latipes (C.L. Koch 1844), S. praeincisus (Berlese 1913), Protoribates seminudus (Hammer 1971), and P. triangularis (Hammer 1971)

Saseendran, P.C., Rajendran, S., Subramanian, H., Sasikumar, M., Vivek, G., Anil, K.S., 2004. Incidence of helminthic infection among annually dewormed captive elephants. Zoos' Print Journal 19, 1422.
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections among captive elephants in Guruvayoor town in Kerala, India. Dung samples were collected from 44 and 55 elephants during 2000 and 2002, respectively, and examined for the presence of helminth ova. Of the 99 elephants, 17 (17.17%) were positive for helminths. The incidence of helminth infection decreased from 22.73% in 2000 to 12.73% in 2002. Among the positive dung samples, 10 (10.10%) had Strongylidae and 7 (7.07%) had Digenea. The low incidence of helminth infection among captive elephants in the studied area might be due to the regular annual deworming using albendazole (2.5 mg/kg body weight).

 2003. Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi.

Chakraborty, A., 2003. Helminth parasites of Indian elephan. In: Sood, M.L. (Ed.), Helminthology in India. International Bood Distributors, Dehra Dun, India, pp. 263-284.

Chakraborty, A., 2003. Diseases of elephants (Elephas maximus) in India-A Review. Indian Wildlife Year Book 2, 74-82.

Easwaran, K.R., Ravindran, R., Pillai, K.M., 2003. Parasitic infections of some wild animals at Thekkady in Kerala. Zoos' Print Journal 18, 1030.
Abstract: Helminth infection is wide spread in wild animals and may cause mortality and morbidity of varying degrees. Gour et al.(1979) and Fowler(1986) have stated that the wild animals in the free-living state are generally infected with numerous parasites, but cause little harm to them, unless they are streesed. Therefore, understanding the rate of infection in wild animals is important since infections could result in massive die-offs of wild animals during extreme stress conditions. There are several reports of parasitic infection in zoo animals, but information of the same in free- living wild animal scanty. This paper reports the parasitic infection in four wild boars, a calf elephant, a sambar deer and a leopard cat which died at Thekkady forest area in Kerala. The parasites collected during post mortem by the first author were preserved in formalin and brought to College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy. The specimens were washed, dehydrated, cleared in creosote and eexamined for specific identity.
All the parasites found in wild boars except Gastrodiscoides hominis and Gnathostoma hispidum  commonly infect the domestic pig(Soulsby, 1982). Noda(1973) has reported Ascaris suum from Sus scrofa lucomystax while Henry and Conley(1970) recorded  Physosephalus sexalatus from European wild hogs. Occurrence of Amblyoma sp.(ticks) in wild boars is recorded by Rajagopalan et al.(1968). Herbivores and rodents are the common intermediate hosts of Lingutula serrata, which in the adult stage occur in carnivores. Available literature did not reveal the occurrence of larvae of this parasite in Sambar. The elephant calf was heavily infected with strongyle worms and maggots of Cobboldia elephantis and is quite likely that its death may be due this infection. Sundram(1966) has recorded all these parasites from captive elephants. The Leopard Cat was also heavily infected with Echinococcus granulosus causing enteritis which probably could have contributed to its death.

Islam, S., 2003. Parasitic disease of elephant. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 137-140.

Kashid, K.P., Shrikhande, G.B., Bhojne, G.R., 2003. Incidence of gastro-intestinal helminths in captive wild animals at different locations. Zoos' Print Journal 18, 1053-1054.
Abstract: The faecal samples of various species of wild and zoo animals in six different locations in India were analysed for the presence of gastrointestinal helminths. The percentages of infection for the tigers, leopards, elephants, monkeys, spotted deer, lions, peacocks, geese and ducks, kaka-kuas and other animals are given. The isolated worms included Amphistoma, strongyles, Trichuris spp., Moniezia spp., Ascaridia galli, Toxascaris leonina, Raillietina tetragona, Paragonimus westermani, Filaroides osleri [Oslerus osleri], F. hirthi, Ascaridia galli + R. tetragona, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris + P. westermani and Ascaridia galli + Subulura spp.

Mahanta, P.N., 2003. Health monitoring and common diseases in free ranging elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 130-136.

Mahato, G., 2003. Signs of health and sicknes, preventive healthcare, deworming and quarantine of elephants. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 123-129.

 2002. Large Animal Internal Medicine. Mosby, St.Louis.

Chandrasekharan, K., 2002. Specific diseases of Asian elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 31-34.
Abstract: The earliest writing describing the diseases of elephants in ancient literature said to be the works on "Gajasastra" (Elephantology) written in Sanskrit by authors like Gautama, Narada, Mrigacharma, Rajaputra and Vyasa. "Hasthyayurveda" a legendary book in Sanskrit written by a safe Palakapya deals with some diseases, treatment, desirable and undesirable points of selection, management practices and some mythological aspects on the origin of elephants. The earliest book in English dealing with diseases of elephants seems to be that of W. Gilchrist "A practical treatise on the treatment of diseases of elephants" published in 1848. Later Slym (1873), Sanderson (1878), Steel (1885), Evans (1910), Herpburn (1913), Milroy (1922), Ptaff (1940), Ferrier (1947), Utoke Gale (1974), Chandrasekharan (1979) and Panicker (1985) have documented their findings on the incidence, etiology and control of diseases of Asian elephants.

Gracenea, M., Gomez, M.S., Torres, J., Carne, E., Fernandez-Moran, J., 2002. Transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores at the Barcelona zoo: a long-term study. Vet Parasitol 104, 19-26.
Abstract: Factors influencing the transmission of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores housed at the Barcelona zoo have been analyzed. The relationship between continuous and discontinuous oocyst shedding, both animal housing conditions and abiotic factors (seasonality, humidity, temperature) was examined to explain the epizootiology of the protozoan. Thirty six fecal samples from each of 11 primates (Pongidae, Cebidae, Cercopithecidae and Lemuridae) and 22 herbivores (Elephantidae, Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Bovidae) were examined over the period of 1 year. The parasite transmission was based on the chronic infection status of some animals serving as a source of successive  reinfection for other animals. The environmental temperature and humidity (seasonality), the physical features of the facilities, the vicinity of the animals and the physiological status induced by captivity contributed to transmission. The long-term character of this study was essential for obtaining these results and interpreting the complex relationships.

Lopes, A., Rosa, F., Ferreira, M.L., 2002. Contributions to the knowledge of parasites of wild animals from the Central Republic of Africa. Garcia de orta Srie de Zoologia 24, 75-79.

McCallum, H., Dobson, A., 2002. Disease, habitat fragmentation and conservation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269, 2041-2049.
Abstract: Habitat loss and the resultant fragmentation of remaining habitat is the primary cause of loss of biological diversity. How do these processes affect the dynamics of parasites and pathogens? Hess has provided some important insights into this problem using metapopulation models for pathogens that exhibit 'S-I' dynamics; for example, pathogens such as rabies in which the host population may be divided into susceptible and infected individuals. A major assumption of Hess's models is that infected patches become extinct, rather than recovering and becoming resistant to future infections. In this paper, we build upon this framework in two different ways:  first, we examine the consequences of including patches that are resistant to infection; second, we examine the consequences of including a second species of host that can act as a reservoir for the pathogen. Both of these effects are likely to be important from a conservation perspective. The results of both sets of analysis indicate that the benefits of corridors and other connections that allow species to disperse through the landscape far outweigh the possible risks of increased pathogen transmission. Even in the commonest case, where harmful pathogens are maintained by a common reservoir host, increased landscape connectance still allows greater coexistence and persistence of a threatened or endangered host.

Murata, K., 2002. The louse, Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget, 1869, (Mallophaga: Haematomyzidae) infection of captive Asian elephants and its treatment. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 7, 145-148.
Abstract: A louse (Haematomyzus elephantis) infection was found on the epidermis of 3 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity. Although each elephant showed heavy itching sensation with scratching of bodies on the wall or ground in the facility, no bruises or papules on their bodies were observed. The local treatment by dipping using a synthetic pyrethroid liquid was ineffective. Good expulsion was attained with the treatment with a carbaryl-based shampoo 5 to 7 times during more than 2 months. It is necessary to inspect for louse infections of imported elephants in zoos at the time of quarantine.

Sarma, B., Pathak, S.C., Deka, D., 2002. Treatment of fly larvae infestation in elephants at Nameri, Assam. Zoos' Print Journal 17, 958.

Tresamol, P.V., 2002. Elephant surra. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 60.

Vidya, T.N., Sukumar, R., 2002. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in southern India. J Biosci 27, 521-528.
Abstract: Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons across seasons and habitats revealed that parasite loads were significantly higher during the dry season than the wet season, but were not different between the dry-deciduous and dry-thorn forests in either season. After accounting for the effect of age on body condition, there was no correlation between body condition, assessed visually using morphological criteria, and parasite load in either season. Individuals of different elephant herds were not characterized by distinct parasite communities in either season. When intra-individual variation was examined, samples collected from the same individual within a day differed significantly in egg densities, while the temporal variation over several weeks or months (within a season) was much less. Egg densities within dung piles were uniform, enabling a simpler collection method henceforth.

Carreno, R.A., Neimanis, A.S., Lindsjo, J., Thongnoppakun, P., Barta, J.R., Peregrine, A.S., 2001. Parasites found in faeces of Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand following treatment with mebendazole, with observations on Pfenderius papillatus (Cobbold, 1882) Stiles and Goldberger, 1910 by scanning electron microscopy. Helminthologia 38, 75-79.
Abstract: Three Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand were treated with mebendazole at a dose of 6-7 mg/kg body weight. Four days following treatment, faecal examinations were negative for nematode eggs in all elephants and negative for fluke eggs in two of the animals. However, adult parasites were recovered from faeces from each of the animals 36-72 hours after deworming. These included Murshidia falcifera, M. neveulemairei, a Quilonia species, and the amphistome Pfenderius papillatus, 1910. The finding of P. papillatus constitutes the first record of this species in Thailand. Specimens of P. papillatus were examined by scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to earlier descriptions of this species, no prominent papillae were found at the anterior end. Structures on the acetabulum that had previously been described as papillae were actually elevated pores that were spread over the acetabulum. These pores differ from all previous descriptions of P. papillatus and indicate a highly modified acetabulum in P. papillatus relative to other Pfenderius species.

Fowler, M.E., 2001. Hosts and helminth parasites: An evolutionary perspective. In: Chowdhury, N., Aguirre, A.A. (Eds.), Helminths of Wildlife. Enfield, New Hampshire, USA, pp. 7-21.

Okello-Onen, J., Hassan, S.M., Essuman, S., Kariuki, D.P., Mbogo, S.K., 2001. Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) reported for the first time in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 49, 146-149.
Abstract: Ticks were collected from different pre-direction sites of a variety of game animals (elephant, zebra, giraffe, buffalo, waterbuck, impala, cheetah and lion) in Kenya. B. microplus had 4/4 hypostome dentitions. The adanal plate had an angled margin with a small spur that does not approach the posterior margin of the body.

Peregrine, A.S., 2001. Parasites found in the faeces of Indian elephants Elephas maximus in Thailand following treatment with mebendazole, with observations on Pfenderius papillatus by scanning electron microscope. Helminthologia 38, 75-79English.

Raman, M., Jayathangaraj, M.G., Malik, P.K., 2001. In vitro survivability of strongylid larvae of elephants. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71, 1043-1044.
Abstract: Under laboratory conditions, larvae of Murshidia sp. revealed high motility until 4 months and maintained moderate motility until 7 months. In comparison, larvae of Quilonia sp. and Decrusia sp. displayed a high degree of motility during the first 2 months, but this subsequently declined. These observations suggest that, under in vitro conditions, strongylid larvae from captive Asiatic elephants of the Chennai region may survive for 4 to 7 months.

Ratanakorn, P. Elephant Health Problems and Management in Cambodia, Lao and Thailand. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  111-114. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Rietschel, W., Hildebrandt, T., Goritz, F., Rudolph, M., Ratanakorn, P. Relevant Ectoparasites in Camp Elephants in Thailand. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  285. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Samuel, W.M., Pybus, M.J., Kocan, A.A., 2001. Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals. Iowa State University PressEnglish, Ames, Iowa.

Suresh, K., Choudhuri, P.C., Kumari, K.N., Hafeez, M., Hamza, P.A., 2001. Epidemiological and clinico-therapeutic studies of strongylosis in elephants. Zoos' Print Journal 16, 539-540.
Abstract: Elephants like other herbivores are susceptible to various diseases including internal parasitism. In Nehru Zoological Park (NZP), Hyderabad, India, clinical records of Asian Elephants for a period of 10 years (1987-96) were examined to determine the prevalence of strongylosis in relation to season, age and sex. Faecal samples from elephants of S.V. Dairy Farm (SVD), Tirupathi, were also screened from January to June for helminthosis. Faecal egg counts (EPG) were estimated by Stoll's dilution method. Analysis of old records revealed that in NZP strongylosis was predominant in summer (52.63%) and the prevalence was lower in animals below 15 years of age. Seven animals (63.64 and 87.5%) each tested positive for ova of strongyles in NZP and SVD, respectively. On treatment with albendazole (Kalbend, 5 mg/kg BW, PO), the animals completely recovered on the seventh day. Therapy resulted in decreases in the pretherapeutic mean EPGs of 700±128.89 (SVD) and 671.4±123.20 (NZP) to 78.57±30.53 and 50±21.79, respectively. The animals were monitored up to four weeks after therapy.

Tuntasuvan, D., Mohkaew, K., Dubey, J.P., 2001. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in Thailand. Journal of Parasitology 87, 229-230.
Abstract: Serum samples from 156 captive elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) collected between 1994 and 1999 in Thailand were examined for antibodies to T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 45.5% of 156 elephants by MAT (_1:50) and 25.6% of 156 elephants by LAT (_1:64). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in E. maximus indicus from Asia.

Gomez, M.S., Torres, J., Gracenea, M., Fernandez-Moran, J., Gonzalez-Moreno, O., 2000. Further reports on Cryptosporidium in Barcelona zoo mammals. Parasitology Research 86, 318-323.

Mooring, M.S., Benjamin, J.E., Harte, C.R., Herzog, N.B., 2000. Testing the interspecific body size principle in ungulates: the smaller they come, the harder they groom. Animal Behaviour 60, 35-45.
Abstract: Tick removal grooming may be centrally regulated by an internal timing mechanism operating to remove ticks before they attach and engorge (programmed grooming model) and/or evoked by cutaneous stimulation from tick bites (stimulus-driven model). The programmed grooming model predicts that organismic and environmental factors that impact the cost-benefit ratio of grooming (e.g. body size and habitat) will influence the rate of tick removal grooming. The body size principle predicts that smaller-sized animals, because of their greater surface-to-mass ratio, should engage in more frequent tick removal grooming than larger-bodied animals in order to compensate for higher costs of tick infestation. The body size principle may be tested intraspecifically between young and adult animals, or interspecifically among species of contrasting body sizes. To rigorously test the interspecific body size prediction, we observed the programmed grooming (oral and scratch grooming) of 25 species (or subspecies) of bovids at a tick-free zoological park in which stimulus-driven grooming was ruled out. Multiple correlation analysis revealed highly significant negative correlations between species-typical mass and mean species grooming rates when habitat was controlled for in the model. Species-typical habitat type (classified along a gradient from most open to most closed) was positively correlated with mean oral grooming rate, indicating that species tended to groom at a higher rate in woodland and forest habitats (where typical tick density would be high) compared with more open environments. Species mass accounted for up to two-thirds of the variation in grooming rate across species, whereas habitat accounted for ca. 20% of variation in oral grooming. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was expanded to include 36 species/subspecies of six different families. The body size principle can therefore account for a large proportion of species-typical differences in programmed grooming rate among ungulates. However, to understand the tick defense adaptations of very large mammals that rarely or never engage in oral or scratch grooming (e.g. elephants, giraffes, rhinoceros), alternative tick defense strategies must be considered, such as thick skin, wallowing, rubbing and tolerance of oxpeckers and other tick-eating birds.

Raman, M., Jayathagaraj, M.G., Rajavelu, G., John, M.C., 2000. Strongylosis in captive elephants -- a report. Indian Journal of Animal Health 39, 85-86.

Bowman, D.D., 1999. Georgis' Parasitology for Veterinarians. Elsevier Science, St. Louis MO.

Hove, T., Dubey, J.P., 1999. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from Zimbabwe. Journal of Parasitology 85, 372-373.
Abstract: Serum samples from 97 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) slaughtered in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 1995, and from 19 elands (Taurotragus oryx [Tragelaphus oryx]), 67 sable antelopes (Hippotragus niger), 3 warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), 3 bushpigs (Koiropotamus [Potamochoerus] koiropotamus), 2 white rhinos (Ceratotherium simus [C. simum]), 18 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), 69 wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), and 19 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Sera were diluted at 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 for MAT testing; sera with antibodies in a 1:25 dilution were considered to have T. gondii infection. Antibodies were found in 9 domestic pigs (9.3%), 7 elands (36.8%), 8 sable antelopes (11.9%), no warthogs, no bush-pigs, one white rhino (50%), one buffalo (5.6%), 10 wildebeest (14.5%), and 2 elephants (10.5%).

Jeffery, J., Vellayan, S., Sulaiman, S., Oothuman, P., Zahedi, M., Krishnasamy, M., 1999. On the occurrence of Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget (Mallophaga: Haematomyzidae) on the elephant, Elephas maximus indicus Cuvier -- a new record for peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine 16, 51-52.
Abstract: The elephant lice, H. elephantis, is reported from peninsular Malaysia for the first time. The report is based on 4 males and 2 females collected from a 10 month old elephant, E. maximus indicus, kept in the Kuala Krai Mini Zoo in the state of Kelantan, peninsular Malaysia.English

Saidul, I., Abdul, M., Manoranjan, D., Islam, S., Mukit, A., Das, M., 1999. Pathology of concurrent Gastrodiscus secundus and Pseudodiscus collinsi infection in two captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 13, 151-152.
Abstract: Both immature and mature Gastrodiscus secundus and Pseudodiscus collinsi were recovered from the caecum of 2 captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. Oedema, pin head size haemorrhages and ulcerative patches in the caecal mucosa were prominent. Mild lymphocytic infiltration in the mucosa with focal necrosis at the tip of the villi were observed.

Bhat, M.N., Manickam, R., 1998. Coproculture and demonstration of third stage larvae of Murshidia sp. in elephants (Elephas maximus). Indian Veterinary Journal 75, 1140-1142.

Matsuo, K., Hayashi, S., Kamiya, M., 1998. Parasitic infections of Sumatran elephant in the Way Kambas National Park, Indonesia. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 3, 95-100.
Abstract: In 1995, 3 Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) died suddenly of clostridial infection in the Way Kambas National Park, Lampung province, Indonesia. Postmortem examination revealed that the gastrointestinal tracts of all 3 animals were also infected with Murshidia falcifera (Nematoda), Hawkesius hawkesi and Pfenderius papillatus (Digenea) and Cobboldia elephantis (Diptera). The elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, was a common cause of dermatopathy in elephants kept in the national park.

 1997. Laboratory Procedures for Veterinary Technicians. Mosby, St. Louis MO.

Islam, S., 1997. Studies on some aspects of fascioliasis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 11, 109.
Abstract: Summary of abstract: The epidemiology of Fasciola jacksoni in wild and captive elephants (Elephas maximus) was studied in Assam, India. Wild elephants had an overall prevalence rate of 33.78%. Captive elephants showed prevalence rates of 42.50, 62.28 and 18.18% according to locality. The egg, miracidium and adult stages of F. jacksoni were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy, and their morphology is described. A diurnal fluctuation in faecal egg count was recorded, with average counts of 4.89, 2.47 and 2.76 during the morning, noon and evening, respectively. Young animals were most affected by the parasite and showed anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, anaemia and icterus, with death occurring in severe cases. Some old adults survived the disease with no apparent clinical manifestations. The adult parasites caused massive liver damage. Treatment with triclabendazole (9 mg/kg, not exceeding 7200 mg/animal) and oxyclozanide (7.5 mg/kg, not exceeding 6.8 g/animal) were 100 and 72.16% effective, respectively.

Majewska, A.C., Kasprzak, W., Werner, A., 1997. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in mammals housed in Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland. Acta Parasitologica 42, 195-198.
Abstract: At the Zoological Garden in Poznan, Poland, 66 stool specimens from animals belonging to 40 species of 4 orders (Primates, Proboscidea, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla) were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were observed in 7 of 66 (9.1%) faecal samples obtained from 6 different animal species. This is the first report of C. parvum in a lesser slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris). The remaining Cryptosporidium-positive faecal specimens were collected from Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and Eld's deer (Cervus eldi).

Matsuo, K., Suprahman, H., 1997. Some parasites from Sumatran elephants in Indonesia. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 64, 298-299.
Abstract: Three Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park, Indonesia, that died of clostridiosis were infected with 1 species of nematode (Murshida falcifera), 2 trematodes (Hawkesius hawkesi and Pfenderius papillatus), and 1 larval botfly species (Cobboldia elephantis) in the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first report of H. hawkesi, P. papillatus and C. elephantis infection in Sumatran elephants in Indonesia.

Saidul, I., 1997. Studies on some aspects of fascioliasis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 11, 109.

Timoshenko, O., Imai, S., 1997. Three new intestinal protozoan species of the genus Latteuria n.g. (Ciliophora: Trichostomatia) from Asian and African elephants. Parasitology International 46, 297-303.
Abstract: Three new ciliate species presumed to belong to the family Paraisotrichidae were recovered from faecal samples from Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) in Kiev, Moscow and Warsaw zoos. As all the ciliates have a unique but similar arrangement of somatic ciliature, a new genus Latteuria gen. nov. was erected. The genus is characterized by the presence of a tapered frontal "spout" at the anterior end of the body, posterior ciliary rows in narrow grooves encircling the posterior half of the body and an anterior arch of cilia. L. polyfaria sp. nov. (type species) from Loxodonta africana in Moscow Zoo is the largest species in the genus with 9-11 posterior ciliary rows. In L. media sp. nov. from E. maximus in Kiev Zoo, of medium body size, the number of rows varies from 4 to 6, and the smallest species, L. trifaria sp. nov. from Loxodonta africana in Moscow Zoo, has only 3-4 posterior ciliary rows.

Watve, M.G., Sukumar, R., 1997. Asian elephants with longer tusks have lower parasite loads. Current Science 72, 885-889.

Dasgupta, B., 1996. The "rogue" elephants and their problem of dental myiasis. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society 15, 1-3.
Abstract: An account is given of a game-hunter in 1930s Bangladesh, who after shooting 3 'rogue' Indian elephants (Elephas maximus), found the bases of their tusks to be filled with many kilos of dipteran larvae [of unknown species].

Warren, K., Bolton, J., Swan, R., Gaynor, W., Pond, L., 1996. Treatment of gastrointestinal tract impaction of a 2-year-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Australian Veterinary Journal 73, 37-38.
Abstract: The case of a 2-year-old Asian elephant (E. maximus) with gastrointestinal impaction caused by ingesting sand and clay is reported. The sand was the basic substrate of the elephant's enclosure at Perth Zoo, Australia, and the clay had been added as a top-dressing. The behaviour was thought to have been the result of salt deficiency in the elephant's diet, and once this had been rectified and the impaction treated, she stopped ingesting sand. There were 3 other elephants in the enclosure and although they ingested sand, they did not suffer from impaction. Segments of Anaoplocephalus sp. [Anoplocephala sp.] were found in her faeces, and this infection had probably been picked up from a 36-year-old elephant in the enclosure which was known to be infected.

 1995. A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India.

Boomker, J., Bain, O., Chabaud, A., Kriek, N.P.J., 1995. Stephanofilaria thelazioides n. sp. (Nematoda: Filariidae) from a hippopotamus and its affinities with the species parasitic in the African black rhinoceros. Systematic Parasitology 32, 205-210.
Abstract: Stephanofilaria thelazioides sp. nov. is described and figured from an ulcerated skin lesion on a hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. This nematode is closely related to S. dinniki, a parasite of the black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis in Africa, but differs from it in the number of cuticular spines surrounding the mouth, the arrangement of the cloacal papillae and the measurements of the spicules, gubernaculum and microfilariae. Species of the genus Stephanofilaria possess spines on the head which have been derived by modification of the sensory papillae. S. thelazioides is the most primitive species of the genus and has the least modified arrangement of these papillae, with 6 bifid internal labial spines, 4 bifid external labial spines and 4 cephalic papillae. The genus appears to have diversified in various mammals which have in common a thick skin, such as rhinoceroses, elephants, buffaloes and now the hippopotamus. It appears to have become adapted secondarily to domestic bovines, initially in Asia and subsequently in North America.

Chandrasekharan, K., Radhakrishnan, K., Cheeran, J.V., Nair, K.N.M., Prabhakaran, T., 1995. Review of the Incidence, Etiology and Control of Common Diseases of Asian Elephants with Special Reference to Kerala. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 439-449.
Abstract: Incidence, etiology, symptoms and control of specific and non-specific diseases of captive and wild elephants have been reviewed. Asian elephants have been observed to be susceptible to various parasitic diseases such as helminthiasis, trypanosomiasis and ectoparasitic infestations, bacterial diseases such as tetanus, tuberculosis, haemorrhagic septicemia, salmonellosis and anthrax, viral diseases such as foot and mouth disease, pox and rabies and non-specific diseases like impaction of colon, foot rot and corneal opacity. A detailed study extending over two decades on captive and wild elephants in Kerala, revealed high incidence of helminthiasis (285), ectoparasitic infestation (235), impaction of colon (169) and foot rot (125). Diseases such as trypanosomiasis (21), tetanus (8), tuberculosis (5) pox (2) and anthrax (1) were also encountered. The line of treatment against the diseases mentioned, have been discussed in detail.

Modi, G.S., Prasad, B.N., Sinha, A.K., Sinha, B.K., 1995. Parasitic infections in herbivorous zoo animals. Indian Journal of Veterinary Research 4, 45-50.
Abstract: Parasites were detected in 49 of 105 faecal samples collected from zoo animals in India including elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, mithun, nilgai, sambar, black-buck, spotted deer, capped langoor, golden langur, common langur, and gibbon. The common parasites identified were Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Oesophagostomum, Trichuris, Strongyloides, Fasciola, Paramphistomum, Coccidia and Entamoeba. 11 of 19 faecal samples obtained from animal keepers/attendants were positive for either Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica or Giardia lamblia [G. duodenalis].

Sasaki, H., Kang'-ethe, E.K., Kaburia, H.F.A., 1995. Blood meal sources of Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Nguruman, southwest Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 32, 390-393.
Abstract: In total, 1952 adults of G. pallidipes and 1098 of G. longipennis were collected in forest and savanna habitat in Nguruman, southwestern Kenya, by NG2G traps during the dry season of 1992. Of these, 339 individuals (11.1%) had blood meals, of which 155 (45.7%) were identified by direct ELISA. The most frequent blood meal source was bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), followed by ostrich (Struthio camelus), elephant (Loxodonta africana), buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). Few meals were taken from cattle. The finding of frequent blood meals from ostriches is new for G. pallidipes and may indicate that ostriches are an important host. More detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis is required.

Timoshenko, O., Imai, S., 1995. Eleven new ciliate species of the genus Triplumaria (Ciliophora, Entodiniomorphida) from Asian elephant, Elephas maximus and African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Journal of Protozoology Research 5, 157-175.
Abstract: Intestinal ciliate compositions in faecal samples from 3 zoo-kept Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) (Kiev and Moscow zoo and Berlin Tierpark) and 1 African elephant (Loxodonta africana) (Moscow zoo) were examined. The elephants had all been born in the wild. Eleven new ciliate species belonging to the genus Triplumaria are described. Four of the new species possessed honeycomb-like thick skeletal plates and broad linear skeletons which were present in T. hamertonii (type species) and T. selenica. The anterior location of the micronuclei in T. selenica also occurred in these 4 new species. However, 2 species possessed long macronuclei with the posterior end either curved ventrally (T. longinucleata n. sp.), or straight and extended into the tail lobe (T. nucleocaudata n.sp.). T. asiatica n. sp. had 2 bulb-like and one cylindrical caudalia; hill-like caudalia of T. heterofasciculata n. sp. were clearly characteristic in size. Six new species possessed thin light skeletal plates and slender linear skeletons which showed vertebra-like structure; T. antis n. sp. was small in body size and had a micronucleus in the centre of the macronucleus, whereas the other species had micronuclei located anteriorly; T. doliiformis n. sp. was characterized by an anteriorly hooked macronucleus; T. acuticaudata n. sp. had a triangular tail lobe; T. dvoinosi n. sp. possessed antero-dorsal and ventral caudalia directed up and downward. The antero-dorsal caudalium of T. ovina n. sp. was shifted upwards and the ventral caudalium of T. irregularis n. sp. was shifted to the left. T. poljanskii n. sp. was characterized by a combination of heavy honeycomb-like skeletal plate, vertebra-like linear skeleton and the posterior location of the micronucleus. T. acuticaudata and T. nucleocaudata were identified in Loxodonta africana, whereas the remaining 9 species were identified in Elephas maximus.

Watve, M.G., 1995. Helminth Parasites of Elephants: Ecological Aspects. In: Daniel, J.C. (Ed.), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India, pp. 289-295.
Abstract: The helminth parasites of free ranging as well as captive elephants of the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary were studied quantitatively by analysing over 200 dung samples and 7 autopsy examinations. The prevalence and intensities of infection were high in both captive as well as wild elephants. The helminth communities of both were, however, species poor as compared to other mammalian host species. The high prevalence and intensities are thought to be related to the absence of predation and the low species diversity may be a result of absence of other closely related host species. The age and sex of individuals sampled did not affect their parasite loads significantly. The faecal propagule densities were significantly greater during the dry season as compared to the wet season. Stronglid nematodes of the genus Quilonia dominated the helminth communities. Tapeworm infection was significantly greater in captive elephants than the wild ones. The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

Watve, M.G., Sukumar, R. Parasite  abundance  and diversity in mammals: correlates with host ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA).  8945-8949. 1995.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Durden, L.A., Musser, G.G., 1994. The mammalian host of sucking lice (Anoplura) of the world: A host-parasite list. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 19, 130-168.

Komoin-Oka, C., Truc, P., Bengaly, Z., Formenty, P., Duvallet, G., Lauginie, F., Raath, J.P., N'-Depo, A.E., Leforban, Y., 1994. A study of the prevalence of trypanosome infections in different species of wild animals in Comoe National Park Cote d'Ivoire: preliminary results of a comparison of three diagnostic methods. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 47, 189-194.
Abstract: Microscopic examination of thin smears, an ELISA, and kit for in vitro isolation of trypanosomes (KIVI) were compared for diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in 3 elephants, 53 African buffaloes, 12 roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), 9 hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), 19 waterbuck (Kobus ellipisiprymnus), 61 Kob (Kobus kob), and 6 wart hogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). In the 82 animals on which all 3 tests were carried out, 20% were positive by the thin smear method, 50% by the ELISA and 80% by the KIVI test. The trypanosomes were probably T. brucei, T congolense and T. vivax but these were not identified.

Meiswinkel, R., Braack, L.E.O., 1994. African horsesickness epidemiology:  five species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected live behind the ears and at the dung of the African elephant in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Oderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61, 155-170.
Abstract: During the culling of elephants (Loxodonta africana) at 5 sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, 682 Culicoides of 5 species of the subgenus Avaritia were found either living behind the ears of elephants or attracted to the freshly disemboweled intestinal dung of elephants. The species were Culicoides tororoensis, C. kanagai, C. loxodontis, and 2 undescribed species, Culicoides sp. £50 and Culicoides sp. £54 pale form (p.f.). Of 511 female midges found behind ears, 39.9% were nulliparous, 57.3% empty parous, 2.5% freshly bloodfed and 0.2% gravid. The age composition of this subpopulation indicates that the Culicoides were behind the ears to suck blood and, furthermore, would do so in broad daylight. The age composition of 171 Culicoides of 3 species attracted to dung was entirely different: 1.8% nulliparous, 14.6% empty parous, and 83.0% gravid, indicating that the great majority of midges captured at dung were about to oviposit or had just oviposited. Immediately after culling, light traps were operated at 2 of the sites. Of 4023 Culicoides of 21 species captured, 93% were of the same 5 species found on the ears and at the dung of elephants. Using these and other unpublished data pertaining to the rearing of these 5 Avaritia species from elephant dung over the past 7 years, the life cycle of these Culicoides is broadly sketched, the first for any Afrotropical species of the genus. The implications that the close association between elephant and midge has for the dispersal and geographic distribution of the latter, and how it may influence the involvement of midges in the transmission of diseases such as African horse sickness, are also discussed. Owing to difficulties in identifying species of the subgenus Avaritia in the Afrotropical Region, the taxonomy of each of the 5 above-mentioned species is briefly appraised. Of the remaining 16 species (7%) captured in light traps, 15 (6%) belong to that sector of the genus Culicoides whose immature stages develop in groundwater habitats and include C. imicola, which comprised only 2% of the light-trap collections. The large disparity in the adult abundance patterns of the "dung" and "groundwater" species in the middle of dry bushveld is probably the result of differences in host and larval habitat preferences, and is briefly discussed. Finally, the few reports extant on the wild-host preferences of Afrotropical Culicoides are reviewed.

Singh, K.P., Srivastava, V.K., Prasad, A., Pandey, A.P., 1994. Pathology due to Fasciola jacksoni in Indian elephants (Elephas indicus). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 64, 802-804.
Abstract: F. jacksoni recovered from infected liver and lungs were almost round, pear-shaped measuring 10-16 mm in length and 8.5-14 mm in width with ill-defined cephalic end between indistinct shoulders. The intestine was extensively branched. The yellowish tinged ova were oval with an operculum at one end and measured 0.112-0.160 (mean 0.13) mm in length and 0.054-0.096 (mean 0.07) mm in width. Infected liver showed haemorrhagic tracts, thickening of bile ductules, cirrhotic changes and pseudolobulations. In the lungs, the bronchial lumen contained desquamated cells admixed with fibrinohaemorrhagic exudate.

Bengis, R., 1993. Care of the African elephant Loxodonta africana in captivity. The capture and care manual : capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. Pretoria : Wildlife Decision Support Services : South African Veterinary  Foundation, Pretoria, pp. 506-511.

Cheah, T.S., Rajamanickam, C., Ong, B.L., Lazarus, K., 1993. A first record in Malaysia of Quilonia travancra (Lane, 1914) and Bathmostomum sangeri (Cobbold, 1879) in Malaysian elephants (Elephas maximus hirsutus). Tropical Biomedicine 10, 41-43.
Abstract: Quilonia travancra (6 females and 5 males) and Bathmostomum sangeri (5 females, 9 males) are reported for the first time in Malaysia. Both were found in Elephas maximus hirsutus, the former species in an 8-year-old female in a zoo in Perak, and the latter in a one-year-old male belonging to the State Wildlife and National Parks Department in Pahang. The worms are described and figured. The elephant infected with Q. travancra had exhibited signs of anorexia but recovered after anthelmintic treatment. The carcass of the elephant infected with B. sangeri appeared generally pale and anaemic; on post-mortem examination the contents of the stomach and small intestine were loose and watery and filled with B. sangeri.

Ebedes, H., 1993. The use of long-acting tranquilizers in captive wild animals. The capture and care manual : capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. Pretoria : Wildlife Decision Support Services : South African Veterinary  Foundation, Pretoria.

Li, C.X., Rong, Y.M., Xie, Q.P., 1993. A study of helminth parasites of elephants (Elephas maximus). Chinese Journal of Zoology 28, 43-44.
Abstract: Between 1985 and 1990, the following parasites were recovered from Elephas maximus in China: Choniangium epistomum, Murshidia falcifera, M. murshida, M. neveulemairei, Quilonia travancra, Chabertia erschovi, Gasterophilus pecorum, and G. intestinalis.

Zahedi, M., Vellayan, S., Krishnasamy, M., Jeffery, J., 1993. Pfenderius papillatus in a Sumatran rhino. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia 5, 49-50.
Abstract: An amphistome was isolated from the dung of a recently-captured Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) from Peninsular Malaysia. The parasite is described and illustrated; it was identified as Pfenderius papillatus, which is common in Asian elephants. This is a new host record for this species.

Arora, B.M., 1992. An overview of infectious diseases and neoplasms of the elephants (Elephas maximus) in India. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 159-161.

Baker, G.T., Chandrapatya, A., 1992. Sensilla on the mouthparts and antennae of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget (Phthiraptera: Haematomyzidae). Journal of Morphology 214, 333-340.
Abstract: The labial palpus of H. elephantis has 6 sensilla that represent 3 different types: trichoid, basiconic and styloconic. Two rows of basiconic sensilla are situated on the dorsal and central surfaces of the rostrum, and each row consists of 3 sensilla. Male and female antennae have 15-17 trichoid sensilla situated on the scape, pedicel and 3 antennal annuli. Both sexes have 2 sensilla basiconica on the dorsal surface of the pedicel near the junction of the scape and pedicel. Two coeloconic sensilla are situated on the antenna of both sexes, one sensillum on each of the last 2 annuli. There are 3 plate organs, 2 on the last annulus and 1 on the penultimate annulus of the male and female antennae. Sexual dimorphism is exhibited in the male and female antennae, in that the male has about twice as many sensilla basiconica on the apex of the last annulus as does the female. The total number of sensilla basiconica on the apex of the male antennae is at least 2 times the number that is known to be present in any other species of lice.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B., 1992. Pathology of Fasciola jacksoni infestation in elephants. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology 16, 98-101.
Abstract: Fasciola jacksoni infection was discovered in 2 out of 3 elephants autopsied at Assam State Zoo, India, during 1985 to 1989. The parasites were attached to biliary epithelium. Microscopy demonstrated that the biliary epithelium was distorted by necrotic tissue which contained erythrocytes and ova of F. jacksoni. The epithelium was analyzed by X-ray microanalysis, which showed that the infected epithelium contained aluminum, silicon, calcium and iron, while non-infected, normal biliary epithelium contained only phosphorus and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the parasite possessed spines.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B., Rahman, H., Hussain, A., Baruah, M.C., 1992. Intussusception and gangrene in elephants. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 164-165.

Chandrasekharan, K., 1992. Prevalence of infectious diseases in elephants in Kerala and their treatment. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 148-155.

Gnanaprakasam, V., Mahalingam, P., 1992. Tetramisole toxicity in a baby elephant. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 166-167.
Abstract: Summary: A case of toxicity in a 2 year old elephant treated with 1 liter of Nilverm (300 g of Tetramisole  is presented. Clinical symptoms included muscular tremors, salivation, initially diarrhoea followed by constipation and bradycardia. Treatment with dextrose, B complex, atrophine sulfate and liquid paraffin resulted in alleviation of symptoms and slow improvement.  The authors comment that: "tetramisole itself has a safety margin variously estimated to be 2-6 times the therapeutic dose of 15 mg/kg and the safety factor of levamisole is about twice that of the parent compound since levamisole is equally active against parasites in half the dosage."

Kharchenko, V.A., Marunchin, A.A., 1992. Helminths of mammals in the Kiev zoological park. Vestnik Zoologii 3, 61-63.
Abstract: Necropsy of 6 animals that died in the Kiev Zoo, Ukraine, revealed the presence of Trichuris trichiura and Subulura distans in Macaca nemestrina, Prosthenorchis elegans in Saimiri sciureus, Murschidia murchida and Hawkesius hawkesi in Elephas maximus and T. globulosa in Giraffa camelopardalis. No helminths were found in Equus hemionus and Felis lynx. The deaths of M. nemestrina and S. sciureus were attributed to the helminth infections. The results of the examination of faeces of other zoo animals for helminth ova are also presented.

Meiswinkel, R., 1992. Afrotropical Culicoides: C. (Avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., a new member of the Imicola group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with the African elephant in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 59, 145-159.
Abstract: Culicoides (Avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., is described and illustrated from both sexes collected in South Africa. It is the 5th species of the Imicola group of the subgenus Avaritia to be described from the Afrotropical Region, and is presently known only from the Kruger National Park where it has been collected in light-traps and reared from the dung of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) on various occasions. A number of character states, and statistical analyses of antennal and palpal measurements, are used to separate the new species from its taxonomic congeners C. imicola Kieffer, 1913, C. pseudopallidipennis Clastrier, 1958, C. bolitinos Meiswinkel, 1989 and C. miombo Meiswinkel, 1991. It is suggested that the occurrence of the African elephant is the primary factor that determines the distribution of Culicoides loxodontis sp. nov., and that this close association, coupled with the fact that C. loxodontis sp. nov. can be locally abundant, may result in the cycling of certain arboviruses between this biting midge and the elephant

Mihok, S., Munyoki, E., Brett, R.A., Jonyo, J.F., Rottcher, D., Majiwa, P.A.O., Kang'-ethe, E.K., Kaburia, H.F.A., Zweygarth, E., 1992. Trypanosomiasis and the conservation of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 30, 103-115.
Abstract: Tsetse populations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary, Kenya, to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment (96.3% of the 3204 tsetse caught during the main drug season survey of 1990); G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipse averaged 3.6%, with 3 times as many Trypanosoma vivax (2.21%) as T. congolense (0.88%) infections (also found were T. brucei, in 0.03% and immature infections, in 0.46%). A similar infection rate was found in G. longipennis (1.58% T. vivax, 0.53% T. congolense, 1.05% immature). T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. None of the 7 G. brevipalpis dissected was infected. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the Savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovids and elephants. Rhino accounted for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), it was estimated that the wild host population was acquiring 7 infections per km/day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.

Rao, D.S.T., Yathiraj, S., Choudhuri, P.C., Reddy, P.K., 1992. Treatment of helminthiosis in elephants. Indian Journal of Animal Science 62, 1155-1156.
Abstract: Summary: Strongyle and paramphistome eggs were found in the faeces of 3 elephants belonging to S V Dairy Farm, Tirupati. The body weights of these elephants were calculated using the formula: weight (kg) = 12.8 (n+ng) -4281, where g is chest girth (cm) and ng is neck girth (cm). A drug containing 25% fenbendazole was given orally at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. One elephant had diarrhoea and was also given astringent. No eggs were detected after 7 days in 2 cases and after 14 days in all 3 cases.

Sreekumaran, T., Jayaprakasan, V., Manomohanan, C.B., Chandrasekharan, K., 1992. Scanning electronmicroscopic observations on Pseudodiscus collinsi (Cobbald, 1875) a trematode parasite of the Indian elephant. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 171-172.

Tripathy, S.B., Das, P.K., 1992. Treatment of Stephanofilarial dermatitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): a case report. In: Silas, E.G., Nair, M.K., Nirmalan, G. (Eds.), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, pp. 162-163.
Abstract: Chronic progressive dermatitis to be due to Stephanofilaria in an Asian elephant has been discussed.  The lesions were detected on the toes and heels of both hind feet and on the right abdominal wall. Examination of the skin scrapings and oozing blood over the lesion area revealed presence of microfilarae. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed hyperkeratosis parakeratosis, acnathosis, granulomatous reactions and perivascular cuffings. Application of 8% metrifonate ointment on Vaseline and Himax base brought clinical cure in 22 and 15 days post treatment, respectively.

Chakraborty, A., Chaudhury, B. Fasciola jacksoni infection in elephants. International Seminar on Veterinary Medicine in Wild & Captive Animals, Bangalore, India, November 8 to 10, 1991.  28. 1991.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Pathology of Fasciola jacksoni infection in the bile duct of elephant have been reported by gross histopathology, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (EDAX). SEM Study of the parasite was also attempted. Grossly, the parasites were found attached in the biliary epithelium and microscopically, the epithelial surface of the bile duct was covered by a necrotic homogeneous mass admixed with erythrocytes. The liver parenchyma adjacent to the bile duct, was replaced by fibrous tissue proliferation.  SEM showed distortion of biliary epithelium which turned into a homogeneous mass. The infected biliary epithelium was analysed through EDAX and the values were compared with biliary epithelium of unaffected animal. The infected epithelium contained aluminium, silicon, calcium and iron while in normal biliary epithelium only phosphorous and sulphur could be noticed.
On SEM study both the dorsal and ventral surface of the parasite contained spines.

Chakraborty, A., Islam, S., Gogoi, A.R., Chaudhury, B., 1991. A note on clinical examination of elephants in Manas Tiger Project and Kaziranga National Park in Assam. Zoos' Print Journal November.
The diseases of elephants have been recorded by Steel (1885) and Evans (1910) and till then many works have done on elephants. Compared to the extent of work done in other states of our country, very little investigation seems to have been done in Assam. The present communication relates the report of investigation carried out in the domesticated elephants of Manas Tiger Project and Kaziranga National Park in Assam.

Cheah, T.S., Rajamanickam, C., 1991. Scanning electron microscope study of the cephalic and tail region of Quilonia renniei Railliet, Henry and Joyeux, 1913 (Nematoda, Strongyloidea). Tropical Biomedicine 8, 187-189.
Abstract: Six male and 8 female specimens of Quilonia renniei recovered from a 20-year-old male Malaysian elephant were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron micrographs of the cephalic region, bursa, genital cone and spicules are presented.

Krivolutskii, D.A., Nguyen, T.K., Fan, T.V., 1991. The fauna of anoplocephalid tapeworms in domestic and wild animals of Vietnam. Parazitologiia 25, 468-469.
Abstract: 101 species of oribatid mites and 12 species of helminths--anoplocephalids, transmitted by these mites, were found out by Soviet-Vietnam studies in agroecosystems and tropical forests of northern and southern Vietnam. Helminths were recorded from graminivorous mammals as follows: horses, zebu, sheep, goats, buffaloes, deer, hares, elephant, 2 species of rates, 5 species of monkeys and 11 species of birds.

Mandlekar, B.D., Soni, J.L., Nema, S.K. Disintegrating trypanosomes in elephant; diagnosis and chemotherapy. International Seminar on Veterinary Medicine in Wild and Captive Animals, Nov. 8-10, Bangalore, India.  30. 1991.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Sudden change in behaviour of six elephants was observed violent in nature did not permit their use for tourist. They were losing their condition. Anorexia, pyrexia, and anemia vis-a-vis the infected elephants were lethargic,eyes shrunken with lacrimation and they became unresponsive to command. Disintegrating trypanosomes in elephants of Kanha National Park were diagnosed by blood sample. NSD findings were reported by other diagnostic laboratories. Chemotherapy with corridane (Hindustan antibiotic) was done. An elephant of average build was injected with 12.5 gms of corridane dissoved in 75 ml of dist. water subcutaneously. A single injection was effective for 3 months.  In recurrent the above dose need to be repeated. Berenil (Hoechst) @ 800 mg/ 100 kg body weight by deep IM route, revealed synergistic effects. Livferol 250 ml B.D. 15 days effectively managed anaemia and deranged liver function. Sugar cane was supplemented to check hypoglycaemia. Six elephants simultaneously affected were cured. Half dose of corridane has chemoprophelectic effect. Rehydration was done with 3 kg of Gur, common salt 510 gms, fresh water 60 liters for 4-5 days.

Pavlovic, I., Nesic, D., Savin, Z., Valter, D., Hudina, V., 1991. Endoparasites of elephant and giraffe in the Belgrade Zoological Garden. Veterinarski Glasnik 45, 749-751.
Abstract: During examinations for parasites of animals in the Belgrade Zoo in summer 1990, species of Trichonema [Cyathostoma] and Strongylus were found in an elephant and Oesophagostomum columbianum was found in a male giraffe. The infections were subclinical.

Jeu, M.H., Fan, P.F., Jiang, F.M., 1990. Morphological study of the adult stage of the elephant louse Haematomyzus elephantis with light and scanning electron microscopy (Insecta: Rhynchophthiraptera). Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College 8, 9-19.
Abstract: Certain features of the morphology of adult males and females of H. elephantis are figured in 20 SEM micrographs, and described. The specimens were from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) from Burma in Chongqing Zoo. The distribution of the sensory setae and campaniform organs on the legs, the existence of sexual dimorphism of the sensory pegs on the apical part of the 5th antennal segment, the abdominal scales with a serrated edge, and the phallic sac of the male with 2 types of sensory pores are all described for the first time. Several errors in the literature are corrected, especially concerning the mouthparts and antennal sensilla. The mouthparts of H. elephantis differ from those of either the Anoplura (described functionally as piercing) or Mallophaga (chewing). It is suggested that the mouthparts of H. elephantis are not homologous with those of Mallophaga (the suborder in which H. elephantis is placed by some authorities) but instead that they represented a unique piercing type. Arguments are put forward to raise the suborder Rhynchophthirina (represented by this single species, according to other authorities) to ordinal rank, for which the name Rhynchophthiraptera is proposed.

Maske, D.K., Sardey, M.R., Bhilegaonkar, N.G., 1990. Helminth parasites in zoo animals of Maharaj Bag, Nagpur, Maharashtra State. Indian Journal of Animal Science 60, 952.
Abstract: Faecal samples obtained from 28 animals during 1979 to 1981 were examined by direct smear, flotation and dilution count techniques. 17 animals were positive for parasitic infections. Toxascarids and Ancylostoma were found in lions and tigers in rainy and winter seasons. Isospora felis, Paragonimus westermani and Taenia pisiformis were also found in winter. Ancylostoma sp. was found in leopard cubs, and ascarids in lion cubs. More than 1 helminth species were not usually found together. Strongyles were found in elephants and a cestode in a python. A slothbear, Himalayan bear, Russian bear and white and black monkeys were negative for helminth parasites.

Chabaud, A.G., Cuisance, D., Colas, F., 1989. Leiperenia moreli n. sp. (Nematoda: Atractidae), a parasite of the African elephant. Systematic Parasitology 14, 135-140.
Abstract: Leiperenia moreli sp. nov. from 12 Loxodonta africana from Gona-Re-Zhou National Park, Zimbabwe, differs from Leiperenia leiperi in its measurements (smaller body length and longer male genitalia). These 2 species differ from L. galebi parasitizing elephants in India, by a much larger female tail. The genus exhibits many original characteristics: labial and cephalic papillae at the end of a peduncle, an oesophagus with a subspherical anterior region and a club-shaped posterior region, a dorsal tooth in the pharyngeal part of the oesophagus, a longitudinal slit-like excretory pore, a monodelphic female laying larvae by the "matricide endotokie" process, and a male with several hypertrophied pyriform cloacal papillae. The most closely related genus appears to be Grassenema, a parasite of Procavia, but the differences between the 2 genera are very distinct. Genera belonging to the family Atractidae may have had ancestors with a normal parasitic life (without an endogenic cycle) which may have belonged to the Cosmocercidae at one time, and the Kathlaniidae at another. The family is thought to be paraphyletic.

Kuntze, A., 1989. Dermatopathies in elephants and their treatment. Kleintierpraxis 34, 405-415.

Muller, M., Rytz, U. Dermatomycosis in two African elephants. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Dortmund 1989.  207-209. 1989. Berlin, German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Cases of dermatomycosis are reported in 2 adult African elephants in the Zoological Garden in Basle. Trichothecium, Scopulariopsis and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from skin biopsies.

Tripathy, S.B., Das, P.K., Acharjya, L.N., 1989. Treatment of microfilarial dermatitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): a case report. Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicines 31-33.
Abstract: Clinical and laboratory findings are presented for a case of chronic dermatitis in a 32-year-old female Asian elephant in Nandan Biological Park, Barang. Lesions were observed on the toes and heels of the hind feet and right abdominal wall, and microfilariae resembling Stephanofilaria were present in skin scrapings and blood from the lesions. Application of 8% metrifonate [trichlorfon] ointment in Himax (right food and abdomen) or vaseline (left foot) daily resulted in clinical cure after 15 days in lesions treated with Himax-based metrifonate and 22 days with vaseline-based metrifonate.

Lahkar, B.C., Das, M.R., 1988. A note on the successful treatment of trichostrongyle infection of elephants (Elephas maximus) with Panacur (fenbendazole). Indian Veterinary Journal 65, 538.

Li, C.X., Rong, Y.M., Lan, J.G., 1988. Anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole against parasites in Indian elephants. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 9, 42-43.
Abstract: 4 Indian elephants treated orally with albendazole at 20, 30 or 35 mg/kg were negative for nematode and trematode eggs after one month.

Matevski, S., Ippen, R.ed., Schroder, H.D. Helminths and helminthiasis of animals in the Sofia Zoological Gardens. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 30. internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere vom 11. Mai bis 15. Mai 1988 in Sofia.  173-175. 1988. Berlin; German Democratic Republic, Akademie Verlag.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: Information on the helminthological infections encountered in primates, carnivores, ruminants, camels, elephants and birds in recent years in the Sofia Zoo, Bulgaria, are summarized. Some anthelmintic treatment results are also mentioned.

Roy, S., Mazumdar, B.K., 1988. Anthelmintic activity of fenbendazole (Panacur) against Murshidia murshida in zoo elephants. Indian Veterinary Journal 65, 531-532.

Snow, W.F., Tarimo, S.A., Staak, C., Butler, L., 1988. The feeding habits of the tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen on the south Kenya coast, in the context of its host range and trypanosome infection rates in other parts of East Africa. Acta Tropica 45, 339-349.
Abstract: The results of blood-meal identifications for 651 Glossina pallidipes from 5 subpopulations near the Kenya coast south of Mombasa, and one, 70 km inland, are presented. Bushpigs [Potamochoerus porcus] and/or warthogs [Phacochoerus aethiopicus] were important hosts for G. pallidipes at all sites. Other major hosts included elephant [Loxodonta africana], buffalo [Syncerus caffer] and bushbuck [Tragelaphus scriptus] where present, and on a dairy ranch nearly 30% of feeds were taken from cattle. There was a relation between the numbers and diversity of wild herbivores and the abundance of G. pallidipes. These results are discussed in relation to published data on feeding patterns and trypanosome infection rates for G. pallidipes from other parts of East Africa. Overall, there are significant correlations between the proportions of bovid feeds and Trypanosoma vivax infections. Bovid-feeding G. pallidipes populations with high T. vivax infection rates in south-east Uganda and western Kenya contrast with the coastal, suid-feeding populations with low T. vivax rates. These characteristics are presented as clines extending across East Africa.

Pond, J. Artifacts, pseudoparasites, spurious organisms, and unusual objects found during parasitological examination of exotic animal feces. American Association of Zoo Veterinary Technicians 6th Annual Proceedings. American Association of Zoo Veterinary Technicians 6th Annual Proceedings , 67-79. 1986.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Karesh, W.B., Robinson, P.T., 1985. Ivermectin treatment of lice infestations in two elephant species. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187, 1235-1236.

Levine, N.D., 1985. Veterinary Protozoology. Iowa State University Press.

Agrawal, M.C., Shah, H.L., 1984. Stephanofilarial dermatitis in India. Vet. Res. Commun. 8, 93-102.
Abstract: Four species of Stephanofilaria have been reported from India causing various forms of dermatitis in cattle, buffalo, goat and elephant. However, additional work is needed to establish their identity as separate species. The lesions appear to flare up following reinfection, while the application of a petroleum jelly alone reduces them. In vitro tests have shown organophosphorous compounds to possess stephanofilaricidal action in addition to their insecticidal activity. Aspects where further work is needed are indicated.

Braack, L.E.O., 1984. A note on the presence of the louse Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget (Mallophaga:Rhychophthirina) in the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 27, 139-140.

Chatterjee, A., 1984. Association of a Stephanofilaria indistinguishable form S. assamensis with lesions on the feet of Indian elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Journal of Animal Health 23, 29-35.

Crockett, E.C., Dipeolu, O.O., 1984. A survey of helminth parasites of game animals in Kainji Lake National Park of Nigeria. Int. J. Zoonoses 11, 204-215.
Abstract: Between January and April 1983, the Borgu sector of the Kainji Lake National Park was visited and faecal droppings of several game animals belonging to the groups of Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Proboscidae and Primates were collected and processed for the presence of helminth ova and larvae. Faeces were also collected from the rectum of domestic ruminants which had grazed on the periphery of the park. Post mortem examinations were conducted on a baboon and an adult Monitor Lizard. Most of the game animals possessed multiple helminth infection but the egg-counts were generally low. Larvae of Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus were common to wild and domestic ruminants while larvae of hook- and lungworms were mostly restricted to carnivores and primates. Some of the helminths found in the stomach and intestine of baboon during post-mortem were of public health interest

Domrow, R., Ladds, P.W., 1984. A new ear mite from the Indian elephant (Acari:Anoetidae) [Loxanoetus lenae]. J. Nat. Hist 18, 759-764.

Prokopic, J., Hulinska, D., Zahor, Z. A nematode found in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from zoological garden of Algiers. Proceedings International Symposium Diseases of Zoo Animals 26, 423-424. 1984.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Vitovec, J., Kotrla, B., Haji, H., Hayles, L.B., 1984. Fatal infection of an elephant calf caused by the trematode Protofasciola robusta (Lorenz, 1881) in Somaliland. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. [B]. 31, 597-602.

Prokopic, J., Hulinska, D., Zahor, Z., 1983. Choniagnium algericum sp. n. (Nematoda: Strongylidae) from the intestine of African elephant, Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1779). Folia Parasitologica 30, 309-311.
Abstract: Nematodes of the genus Choniagnium were found in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from Algerian Zoological Garden. On the basis of studies in light and scanning electron microscope these nematodes were identified as a new species, Choniagnium algericum sp. n.

Wallach, J.D., Boever, W.J., 1983. Perissodactyla (equids, tapirs, rhinos), Proboscidae (elephants), and Hippopotamidae (hippopotamus). In: Wallach, J.D., Boever, W.J. (Eds.), Diseases of exotic animals. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp. 761-829.

Bain, O., Baker, M., Chabaud, A.G., 1982. New data on the Dipetalonema lineage (Filarioidea, Nematoda). Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 57, 593-620.
Abstract: The evolutionary line of Dipetalonema can apparently be divided into four groups: I: Australian species; II: paleoendemic South American species; III: the Tetrapetalonema group; IV: the Acanthocheilonema group. Loxodontofilaria at present insufficiently known to be classified and several species belonging to the Acanthocheilonema group are the object of the present study. Descriptions are given of Loxodontofilaria asiatica n. sp., parasite of Elephas indicus in Burma, Cercopithifilaria degraaffi n. sp., parasites of Papio ursinus in South Africa, C. cephalophi n. sp., parasite of Cephalophus dorsalis and C. gabonensis n. sp., parasite of Atherurus africanus in Gabon. Additional morphological data are given on Cercopithifilaria didelphis, C. rugosicauda, Acanthocheilonema pachycephalum, A. viteae, Molinema dessetae, Dipetalonema gracile, Orihelia sp., Skrjabinofilaria skrjabini, Breinlia (B.) spratti, Litomosa sp., Loxodontofilaria hippopotami. Yatesia n. gen. with type species Yatesia hydrochoerus (Yates, 1980), is proposed, distinguished by specialized characters of the posterior extremity. The genus Cercopithifilaria is used to accomodate species considered as specialized Acanthocheilonema. Chenofilaria is placed in synonymy with Acanthocheilonema. Loxodontofilaria includes the three filarid species from elephants, L. loxodontis, L. gossi, L. asiatica n. sp. and the species from the Hippopotamus, L. hippopotami; D. okapiae is considered a species inquirenda. The interpretation given for the neotropical fauna is the following: --Skrjabinofilaria, Orihelia, Dasypafilaria and Dipetalonema may be true paleoendemics in South America. --Molinema and Ackertia on the one hand and Yatesia on the other may be forms of African origin introduced at the end of the Eocene during the migration of African rodents into South America. The capture in American reptiles (the genus Macdonaldius) could have occurred during this period. --Surprisingly, the two species of Dipetalonema in Didelphis may be late captures of neartic origin: A. pricei from Acanthocheilonema in carnivores and C. didelphis from a Cercopithifilaria in eutherian mammals.

Chandrasekharan, K., Cheeran, J.V., Nair, K.N.M., Ramanujam, K.N., Radhakrishnan, K., 1982. Comparative efficacy of 6 anti-helminthics against strongylosis in elephants. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 13, 15-20.
Abstract: Infections with Murshidia falcifer, Quilonia travancra and Bathmostomum sangeri in 30 elephants were successfully treated by oral administration (in bread) of mebendazole at 3-4 mg/kg body weight, levamisole at 3 mg/kg and morantel tartrate at 5 mg/kg. Slightly less effective (68-96%  reduction in faecal egg counts) were mebendazole at 2 mg/kg, thiabendazole   [tiabendazole] at 32 mg/kg, bephenium hydroxynaphthoate at 25 mg/kg and  disophenol at 3 mg/kg.

Chandrasekharan, K., Radhakrishnan, K., Cheeran, J.V., 1982. Efficacy of Distodin in the treatment of amphistomiasis in Indian elephants. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 13, 55-58.
Abstract: Hexachlorophene (Distodin 100 mg tablets) was given by mouth at 5, 8 or 10 mg/kg body weight to ten elephants infected with Pseudodiscus collinsi, P.
hawkesi and Gastrodiscus secundus. The lowest dose eliminated 65 to 84% of  trematode eggs from the faeces, the medium dose 86 to 100% and the
highest 100%. Symptoms of anorexia, diarrhoea and weakness cleared up after treatment.

Mohr, J.L., Jollie, K.G., Smith, T.P. Ciliates of elephant caecums. Journal of Protozoology 29, 482. 1982.
Ref Type: Abstract
Abstract: On the basis of limited sampling, African elephants, Loxodonta, appear to have more complex ciliate assemblages than other cellulose-eating mammals.  In caecal samples of five Kenyan Loxodonta at least ten families are represented of which the Kofoidian elephantophilae and some others have been found only in Loxodonta and Elephas.  One paraisotrichid genus, found in both elephants, may be related to ciliates of hyracoid mammals.  Some cycloposthiids have be identified with species in hoofed mammals, but most appear to be restricted to elephants.  Except for Kofoid's original Mysore collection, all Elephas materials studied have been from zoological gardens; their assemblages have been much less varied than those in wild Loxodonta.  In the Loxodonta assemblage we have tried to determine roles of various ciliates.  There are obvious cellulose ingesters, carnivores and bacteriovores, "vampires" (suctorians) and presumably osmiotrophs, however, much cannot be determined from such fixed materials.  Current ciliate taxonomy appears to need revision to accomodate some of the species.

Moucha, P., 1982. A contribution to the treatment and diagnosis of parasitic diseases in elephants. Gaxella 3, 129-130.

Patton, S., McCracken, M.D., 1981. Hookworms from the liver of "Ole Diamond" (Loxodonta africana). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 56, 54.

Eloff, A.K., Van Hoven, W., 1980. Intestinal protozoa of the African elephant Loxodonta Africana. South African Journal of Zoology 15, 83-90.

Norval, R.A.I., Colborne, J., Tannock, J., MacKenzie, P.K.I., 1980. The life cycle of Amblyoma tholloni Acarina Ixodidae under laboratory conditions. Veterinary Parasitology 7, 255-264.

Stehlik, M., 1980. Skin myiasis due to Ruttenia loxodontis Rodhain in an African elephant. Vet Rec 107, 227.

White, P.T., 1980. Blood parasites in free-living African elephants. Zoologische Garten 50, 45-48.

Chandrasekharan, K., Rajamorhanan, K., Sundaram, R.K., 1979. A case of cestode infection in an Indian elephant. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 10, 157-158.
Abstract: Oxyclozanide was given as a single oral dose of 3.4 mg/kg body weight In food to a 10-year-old elephant naturally infected with Anoplocephala manubriata. Many tapeworm segments, but no scoleces, were found in faeces on the 2nd and 3rd days after treatment; no eggs or segments were found from the 4th day onwards. The condition of the elephant improved from the 10th day, with restoration of normal appetite.

Chandrasekharan, K., Sathianesan, V., Pythal, C., Sundaram, R.K., 1979. Anthelmintic activity of thiophanate (Nemafax) in elephants and zoo animals. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 1979, 167-170.
Abstract: Thiophanate orally at 14 mg/kg body weight was 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes (mainly Murshidia falcifera but also Amera pileata, Decrusia additicta and Choniangium epistomum) in 4 elephants, and at 50 mg/kg was 85 to 100% effective against Toxascaris leonina in 5 lion cubs, and 100% effective against Oesophagostomum dentatum in 2 wild boars.

Chandrasekharan, K., Pythal, C., Radhakrishnan, K., Sundaram, R.K., 1979. Methyridine as an effective anthelmintic against strongylosis in elephants. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 10, 163-166.
Abstract: Methyridine at 50 mg/kg bodyweight was injected subcutaneously at 2 sites on the caudal flap of the tails of 2 elephants, both infected with Grammocephalus varedatus and Murshidia falcifera. Large numbers of dead  worms were passed in the faeces for 2 days after treatment. On the 3rd day, faecal egg counts fell to zero and the condition of the elephants  progressively improved.

Chandrasekharan, K. Common diseases of elephants. State Level Workshop on Elephants.  51-61. 1979. India, College of Veterinary and Animal Sicences, Kerala Agricultural University.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Graber, M., Thal, J., 1979. Myiasis of wild Artiodactyla and Proboscidea in Central Africa. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 32, 257-262.

Sathianesan, V., Chandrasekharan, K., Sundaram, R.K., Pythal, C., 1979. Anthelmintic efficacy of oxibendazole against the common strongylids in elephants. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 10, 153-156.
Abstract: Five naturally infected elephants in Kerala were treated with Oxybendazole at 2.5 mg/kg body weight in fried rice flour. Faeces were examined for 5   days. The drug was 100% effective against Bathmostomum sangeri (in one  elephant), Murshidia murshidia (in 2) and M. falcifera (in one), and 96.9%   effective against Decrusia additicta (in one).

Caple, I.W., Jainudeen, M.R., Buick, T.D., Song, C.Y., 1978. Some clinicopathologic findings in elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Fasciola jacksoni. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14, 110-115.
Abstract: Severe submandidular and ventral abdominal edema was observed in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in which liver flukes ( Fasciola jacksoni) were recovered from the bile ducts at post-mortem examination.  Clinico-pathologic examination of blood samples and serum from this elephant and another 8 elephants showed that most had anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal samples from 6 of the elephants contained from 6 to 83 eggs per gram.  Treatment of elephants with nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection produced severe local reactions at the injection site.  Feces collected 2 and 4 months after treatment were free of trematode eggs.  Hematologic values measured 4 months after treatment showed that the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and plasma protein concentration had increased to within the normal range.

Crusz, H., Nugaliyadde, L., 1978. Parasites of the relict fauna of Ceylon. VII.  General considerations and the first host-parasite checklist. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales et Associees (Paris) 54, 85-105.

Dipeolu, O.O., 1976. The occurrence of ticks on a baby African elephant in Nigeria. East African Wildlife Journal 14, 227.

Kane, K.K., Corwin, R.M., Boever, W.J., 1976. Louse infestation of Asian elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 169, 906-908.

Setasuban, P., 1976. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of Bathmostomum sangeri Cobbold, 1879, of elephants. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 7, 390-394.
Abstract: Bathmostomum sangeri is an intestinal parasite of the elephant. Males measured 12.15-14.25 mm in length; females measured 14.98-17.68 mm in length. Buccal capsule is well-developed and funnel-shaped. There is a raised and transverse fissure ridge around the oral margin. The internal wall of the buccal capsule is raised into a series of circular ridges or lamellae. Teeth or cutting plates could not be seen. Spicules are stout, wing-like structures. The telamon is pear-shaped, but a gibernaculum is not present. There are two pairs of papillae on the either side of the cloacal opening. The female tail is gradually tapering.

Windsor, R.S., Scott, W.A., 1976. Fascioliasis and salmonellosis in African elephants in captivity. British Veterinary Journal 132, 313-317.

Graber, M., 1975. Parabronema longispiculatum n. sp., A stomach parasite of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach, 1797). Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 28, 473-479.

Riemann, G.P., Burridge, M.J., Behymer, D.E., Franti, C.E., 1975. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living African mammals. J Wildl Dis 11, 529-533.
Abstract: Twelve species of free-living African mammals from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. Of 157 animals sampled, 20 (13%) were seropositive. T. gondii antibodies were detected in Burchell's zebra, (Equus burchelli), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), defassa waterbuck (Kobus defassa), lion (Panthera leo), and rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), The highest titers were found in elephants, two having titers of 1:4096 and one of 1:8192. These results are discussed in relation to the maintenance of T. gondii among African wildlife.

Young, E., Whyte, I.J., 1975. Trichinosis (Trichinella spiralis infestations) in wild animals of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 46, 233-234.
Abstract: In Africa trichinosis is essentially a disease of wild carnivores.  Once established in a suilline cycle it becomes a more important threat to man.  The results of test of 8,000 specimens of 20 wildlife species in the Kruger National Park are discussed and the epizootilogy of trichinosis in South Africa is briefly reviewed.  The first case of trichinosis in an African civet, Viverra vetta Schreber, 1776, is reported.  The confirmed absence of trichinosis in true herbivores is of practical significance in view of the increasing utilization of game meat as food.

Young, E., 1975. Echinococcosis (hydatidosis) in wild animals of the Kruger National Park. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 46, 285-286.
Abstract: Echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the Kruger National Park: lion, Panthera leo, spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, Cape hunting dog, Lycaon pictus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, Syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, Aepyceros melampus.  Infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala.  Species like elephant, Loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, do not seem to be susceptible.  The successful artificial transmission of Echinococcus granulosis felidis from Bruchell's zebra to the lion is reported for the first time.

Allen, K.B., Follis, T.N., Kistner, T.P., 1974. Occurrence of Grammocephalus clathratus (Baird, 1868) Pailliet and Henry, 1910 (Nematoda: Ancyclostomatidae), in an African elephant imported into the United States. Journal of Parasitology 60, 952.

Condy, J.B., 1973. Observations on internal parasites in Rhodesian elephant, Loxodonta africana. Procedings and Transactions of the Rhodesian Science Association 55, 67-99.
Abstract: One source says this is 1974.

Chandrasekharan, K., Sundaram, R.K., Peter, C.T., 1972. On Indofilaria elephantis from Indian elephants  Elephas maximus. Indian Veterinary Journal 49, 857-862.

Chandrasekharan, K., Pythal, C., Sundaram, R.K., 1972. A clinical note on the use of thiabendazole (thibendole) against murshidiasis in Indian elephants Elephas maximus. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 3, 56.

Hoare, C.A., 1972. The Trypanosomes of Mammals. Oxford Press; Blackwell Scientific Publications, U.K.

Mwambu, P.M., Woodford, M.H., 1972. Trypanosomes from game animals of the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Western Uganda. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 4, 152-155.

Basson, P.A., McCully, R.M., de Vos, V., Young, E., Kruger, S.P., 1971. Some parasitic and other natural diseases of the African elephant in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 38 , 239-254.

Bhattacharjee, M.L., 1970. A note on stephanofilarial dermatitis among elephants in Assam. Science and Culture 36, 600-601.

Bwangamoi, O., 1970. A check-list of helminth parasites of animals in Tanzania. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa 18, 229-242.

Fain, A., 1970. A new anoetid living in the ear wax of an elephant (Acarina: Sarcoptiformes). Acta Zool Pathol Antverp 50, 173-177.

Zumpt, F., Wetzel, H., 1970. Fly parasites (Diptera:Oestridae and Gasterophilidae) of the African elephant Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach) and their problems. Koedoe 13, 109-121.

Zumpt, F. Arthropod parasites of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus,Linnaeus).  Taxonomic and biological aspects. Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Parasitology, 6-12 September, 1970, Washington, D.C. Journal of Parasitology 56, sect II, part I. 1970.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Greve, J.H., 1969. Strongyloides elephantis sp.from an Indian elephant, Elephas indicus. Journal of Parasitology 55, 498-499.
Abstract: Strongyloides elephantis sp.parasitic females were recovered from the small intestine of a captive Indian elephant suffering from multiple parasitism.  Principal features of S. elephantis are its size (2.6 to 3.6 mm), the presence of nontwisted ovaries, salient vaginal musculature and vulvar lips, and the posterior position (73% of the body length from anterior end) of the vulva.  Intrauterine eggs measured 23 by 49 microns.  The form passed in the feces and free-living forms were not observed.

Raghavan, R.S., Reddy, K.R., Khan, G.A., 1968. Dermatitis in elephants caused by the louse Haematomycus elephantis (Piagot 1869). Indian Veterinary Journal 45, 700-701.

Seneviratna, P., Hayasinghe, J.B., Jainudeen, M.R., 1967. Filariasis of elephants in Ceylon. Veterinary Record 81, 716-717.

Brocklesby, D.W., Campbell, H., 1963. A babesia in the African elephant. East African Wildlife Journal 1, 119.

LaPage, G., 1962. Mönnig's Veterinary Helminthology and Entomology. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, London.

McGaughey, C.A., 1962. Diseases of elephants.  Part 5. Internal parasites. Ceylon Veterinary Journal 10, 61-64.

Evans, G.H., 1961. Elephants and Their Diseases: A Treatise on Elephants. Government Printing, Rangoon, Burma.

McGaughey, C.A., 1961. Diseases of elephants. Part 2. Ceylon Veterinary Journal 9, 41-48.

Alwar, V.S., Seneviratna, P., Gopal, S., 1959. Indofilaria pattabiramani n.g.n. sp., a filaria from the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) causing haemorrhagic dermatitis. Indian Veterinary Journal 36, 408-414.

Rao, S.R., Hiregaudar, L.S., 1954. Schistosomiasis in elephants in Bombay state. Indian Veterinary Journal 30, 241-242.

Sutherland, A.K., O'Sullivan, P.J., Ohman, A.F.S., 1950. Helminthiasis in an elephant. Australian Veterinary Journal 26, 88-90.

Ferrier, A.J., 1947. The care and management of elephants in Burma. Steel Brothers, London.

Brito-Babapulle, S.A.P., 1946. Phenothiazine and the elephant cecal worm. Vet. J. 102, 11.

Goss, L.J., 1946. Hospital and laboratory. 51st Annual Report,New York Zoological Society 22-25.

Pfaff, G., 1940. Diseases of Elephants. Superintendent, Govt. Printing and Stationary, Burma, Rangoon.

Berghe, V.D.L., Gillain, G., 1939. Sur un genre nouveau de filaroidae chez l'elephant au Congo Belge. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 32, 388-393.

Van de Westhuysen, O.P., 1938. A monograph of the helminth parasites of the elephant. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 10, 49-190.

Berghe, V.D.L., 1937. Une microfilaire de l'elephant au Congo Belge. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee 15, 225-226.

Austen, E.E., 1936. Exhibition of the ears of African elephants showing evidence of attack by larvae of a warble-fly. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1936, 1189.

Dobberstein, J., 1936. Ueber Sektionsbfunde bei den in zoologischen Garten gehaltenen Tieren. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 52, 389-392.

Dobberstein, J., 1936. Ueber die haufigsten Todesurachen der in zoologischen Garten gehaltenen Tiere. Med. Klinik. 32, 311-315.

Bhalerao, G., 1935. Helminth parasites of the Indian elephant from the Andamans and Burma. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 5, 35-48.

Bhalerao, G., 1933. The trematode parasites of the Indian elephant, Elephas indicus. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 3, 103-115.

Bhalerao, G., 1931. A note on the occurrence of Pseudodiscus collinsii in Indian elephant. Proc. 18th Indian Sci. Congr. 359-360.

Ferris, G.F., 1931. The louse of elephants. Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget (Mallophaga: Haematomyzidae). Parasitology 23, 112-127.

Austen, E.E., 1930. On a new dipterous parasite (family Calliphoridae, subfamily Calliphorinae) of the Indian elephant with notes on other dipterous parasites of elephants. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1930, 677.

Singh, V.P., 1924. Dropsy in elephants. Indian Veterinary Journal 1, 35-59.

Baylis, H.A., 1923. A filariid from the African elephant. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11, 208-211.

Alessandri, G., 1922. Complete bibliography of parasites of elephants. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1922, 227.

Gedoelst, L., 1922. Quelques nematodes parasites de l'elephant africain. Bull. Soc. Pat. Exot. 15, 122.

Khalil, M., 1922. A revision of the nematode parasites of elephants, with a description of four new species. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1922, 205-279.

Baylis, H.A., 1921. A new genus of nematodes parasitic in elephants. Parasitology 13, 57-66.

Gupta, M.C., 1921. Internal parasites in elephants. Vet. J. 77, 25-28.

Bequaert, J.C., 1916. Parasitic muscid larvae collected from the African elephant and the white rhinocerous by the Congo expedition. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 35, 377-387.

Evans, G.H., 1910. Elephants and Their Diseases: A Treatise on Elephants. Government Printing, Rangoon, Burma.

Evans, G.H., 1910. Notes on some parasites in Burma.III. A few common parasites of elephants. J. Trop. Vet. Sci. 5, 240-250.

Bruce, D., Hamerton, A.E., 1909. A note on the occurrence of a trypanosome in the African elephant. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. [B] Biol. Sci. 81, 414-416.

Evans, G.H., Rennie, T., 1909. Notes on some parasites in Burma.II. J. Trop. Vet. Sci. 4, 134-143.

Bonvicini, A., 1897. Necropscopia di una elefantessa Cisti d'echinococco nel fegato e nei polmoni. Bologna.
Abstract: Note: Citation may be incomplete.  May be a book.

Freeman, H.E., 1886. Parasites of elephant. J. Micr. and Nat. Sci. 5, 187.

Cobbold, T.S., 1882. The parasites of the elephants. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool. ) 2, 223-258.

Cobbold, T.S., 1876. Entozoa of the elephant. The Lancet 2, 415.

Fritz, R.H., 1876. The elephant's fluke, Fasciola jacksoni Cobbold. Veterinarian (Lond) 22, 854.

Cobbold, T.S., 1875. On the destruction of elephants by parasites; with two new species of entozoa and on the so-called earth-eating habits of elephants and horses in India. Veterinarian (Lond) 21, 756-757.

Cobbold, T.S., 1875. Further remarks on parasites from the horse and the elephant, with a notice of new amphistomes from the ox. Veterinarian (Lond) 21, 817-821.

Cobbold, T.S., 1869. Description of a species of trematode from the Indian elephant, with remarks on its affinities. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 9, 48-49.

Baird, W., 1868. Description of a new species of sclerostoma from the stomach of the African elephant (Loxodonta africanaa). Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868, 262.

Baird, W., 1859. Description of a new species of entozoan (Sclerostoma sipunculiforme) from the intestine of the elephant. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1859, 425-427.



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