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post-traumatic stress disorder, stress, welfare

Elephant Bibliographic Database
www.elephantcare.org

References updated October 2009 by date of publication, most recent first.

Glaeser, S.G., Klinck, H., Mellinger, D.K., Ren, Y., 2009. A vocal repertoire of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and comparison of call classification methods. J Acoust Soc Am 125, 2710.
Abstract:
This study compares classification methods applied to an acoustic repertoire of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Recordings were made of captive elephants at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, OR and of domesticated elephants in Thailand. Acoustic and behavioral data were collected in a variety of social contexts and environmental noise conditions. Calls were classified using three methods. First, calls were classified manually using perceptual aural cues plus visual inspection of spectrograms for differentiation of fundamental frequency contour, tonality, and duration. Second, a set of 29 acoustic features was measured for nonoverlapping calls using the MATLAB-based program Osprey, then principal component analysis was applied to reduce the feature set. A neural network was used for classification. Finally, hidden Markov models, commonly used for pattern recognition, were utilized to recognize call types using perceptually-weighted cepstral features as input. All manual and automated classification methods agreed on structural distinction of six basic call types (trumpets, squeaks, squeals, roars, rumbles, and barks), with two call types (squeaks and squeals) being highly variable. Given the consistency of results among the classification methods across geographically and socially disparate subject groups, we believe automated call detection could successfully be applied to acoustic monitoring of Asian elephants.

Holdo, R.M., Holt, R.D., Fryxell, J.M., 2009. Grazers, browsers, and fire influence the extent and spatial pattern of tree cover in the Serengeti. Ecological Applications 19, 95-109.
Abstract:
Vertebrate herbivores and fire are known to be important drivers of vegetation dynamics in African savannas. It is of particular importance to understand how changes in herbivore population density, especially of elephants, and fire frequency will affect the amount of tree cover in savanna ecosystems, given the critical importance of tree cover for biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human welfare. We developed a spatially realistic simulation model of vegetation, fire, and dominant herbivore dynamics, tailored to the Serengeti ecosystem of east Africa. The model includes key processes such as tree-grass competition, fire, and resource-based density dependence and adaptive movement by herbivores. We used the model to project the ecosystem 100 years into the future from its present state under different fire, browsing (determined by elephant population density), and grazing (with and without wildebeest present) regimes. The model produced the following key results: (1) elephants and fire exert synergistic negative effects on woody cover; when grazers are excluded, the impact of fire and the strength of the elephant-fire interaction increase; (2) at present population densities of 0.15 elephants/km2, the total amount of woody cover is predicted to remain stable in the absence of fire, but the mature tree population is predicted to decline regardless of the fire regime; without grazers present to mitigate the effects of fire, the size structure of the tree population will become dominated by seedlings and mature trees; (3) spatial heterogeneity in tree cover varies unimodally with elephant population density; fire increases heterogeneity in the presence of grazers and decreases it in their absence; (4) the marked rainfall gradient in the Serengeti directly affects the pattern of tree cover in the absence of fire; with fire, the woody cover is determined by the grazing patterns of the migratory wildebeest, which are partly rainfall driven. Our results show that, in open migratory ecosystems such as the Serengeti, grazers can modulate the impact of fire and the strength of the interaction between fire and browsers by altering fuel loads and responding to the distribution of grass across the landscape, and thus exert strong effects on spatial patterns of tree cover.

Holdo, R.M., Holt, R.D., Fryxell, J.M., 2009. Grazers, browsers, and fire influence the extent and spatial pattern of tree cover in the Serengeti
88. Ecol. Appl. 19, 95-109.
Abstract: Vertebrate herbivores and fire are known to be important drivers of vegetation dynamics in African savannas. It is of particular importance to understand how changes in herbivore population density, especially of elephants, and fire frequency will affect the amount of tree cover in savanna ecosystems, given the critical importance of tree cover for biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human welfare. We developed a spatially realistic simulation model of vegetation, fire, and dominant herbivore dynamics, tailored to the Serengeti ecosystem of east Africa. The model includes key processes such as tree-grass competition, fire, and resource-based density dependence and adaptive movement by herbivores. We used the model to project the ecosystem 100 years into the future from its present state under different fire, browsing (determined by elephant population density), and grazing (with and without wildebeest present) regimes. The model produced the following key results: (1) elephants and fire exert synergistic negative effects on woody cover; when grazers are excluded, the impact of fire and the strength of the elephant-fire interaction increase; (2) at present population densities of 0.15 elephants/km2, the total amount of woody cover is predicted to remain stable in the absence of fire, but the mature tree population is predicted to decline regardless of the fire regime; without grazers present to mitigate the effects of fire, the size structure of the tree population will become dominated by seedlings and mature trees; (3) spatial heterogeneity in tree cover varies unimodally with elephant population density; fire increases heterogeneity in the presence of grazers and decreases it in their absence; (4) the marked rainfall gradient in the Serengeti directly affects the pattern of tree cover in the absence of fire; with fire, the woody cover is determined by the grazing patterns of the migratory wildebeest, which are partly rainfall driven. Our results show that, in open migratory ecosystems such as the Serengeti, grazers can modulate the impact of fire and the strength of the interaction between fire and browsers by altering fuel loads and responding to the distribution of grass across the landscape, and thus exert strong effects on spatial patterns of tree cover

Leighty, K.A., Soltis, J., Wesolek, C.M., Savage, A., Mellen, J., Lehnhardt, J., 2009. GPS determination of walking rates in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
79. Zoo. Biol. 28, 16-28.
Abstract: The movements of elephants in captivity have been an issue of concern for animal welfare activists and zoological professionals alike in recent years. In order to fully understand how movement rates reflect animal welfare, we must first determine the exact distances these animals move in the captive environment. We outfitted seven adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Disney's Animal Kingdom with collar-mounted global positioning recording systems to document their movement rates while housed in outdoor guest viewing habitats. Further, we conducted preliminary analyses to address potential factors impacting movement rates including body size, temperature, enclosure size, and social grouping complexity. We found that our elephants moved at an average rate of 0.409+/-0.007 km/hr during the 9-hr data collection periods. This rate translates to an average of 3.68 km traveled during the observation periods, at a rate comparable to that observed in the wild. Although movement rate did not have a significant relationship with an individual's body size in this herd, the movements of four females demonstrated a significant positive correlation with temperature. Further, females in our largest social group demonstrated a significant increase in movement rates when residing in larger enclosures. We also present preliminary evidence suggesting that increased social group complexity, including the presence of infants in the herd, may be associated with increased walking rates, whereas factors such as reproductive and social status may constrain movements

Leighty, K.A., Soltis, J., Savage, A., 2009. GPS assessment of the use of exhibit space and resources by African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
65. Zoo. Biol. 28, 1-11.
Abstract: In public discussions of animal rights and welfare, we as members and proponents of zoological institutions often face significant challenges addressing the concerns of our detractors due to an unfortunate deficiency in systematically collected and published data on the animals in our collections. In the case of elephants, there has been a paucity of information describing their use of space within captive environments. Here, using collar-mounted GPS recording devices, we documented the use of exhibit space and resources by a herd of five adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom((R)). We found that dominant animals within the herd used a greater percentage of the available space and subordinate females avoided narrow or enclosed regions of the enclosure that we termed "restricted flow areas." In their use of other resources, dominant females demonstrated increased occupation of the watering hole over subordinate females, but all females demonstrated relatively equivalent use of the mud wallow. Overall, our results provide preliminary evidence that position within the dominancy hierarchy impacts the percentage of space occupied in a captive setting and may contribute to resource accessibility. These findings can be applied to future decisions on exhibit design and resource distribution for this species. Zoo Biol 28:1-11, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Mason, G.J., Veasey, J.S., 2009. How should the psychological well-being of zoo elephants be objectively investigated?
47. Zoo. Biol.
Abstract: Animal welfare (sometimes termed "well-being") is about feelings - states such as "suffering" or "contentment" that we can infer but cannot measure directly. Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state. We briefly review the resulting indices here, and discuss how well they are understood for elephants, since objective welfare assessment should play a central role in evidence-based elephant management. We cover behavioral and cognitive responses (approach/avoidance; intention, redirected and displacement activities; vigilance/startle; warning signals; cognitive biases, apathy and depression-like changes; stereotypic behavior); physiological responses (sympathetic responses; corticosteroid output - often assayed non-invasively via urine, feces or even hair; other aspects of HPA function, e.g. adrenal hypertrophy); and the potential negative effects of prolonged stress on reproduction (e.g. reduced gametogenesis; low libido; elevated still-birth rates; poor maternal care) and health (e.g. poor wound-healing; enhanced disease rates; shortened lifespans). The best validated, most used welfare indices for elephants are corticosteroid outputs and stereotypic behavior. Indices suggested as valid, partially validated, and/or validated but not yet applied within zoos include: measures of preference/avoidance; displacement movements; vocal/postural signals of affective (emotional) state; startle/vigilance; apathy; salivary and urinary epinephrine; female acyclity; infant mortality rates; skin/foot infections; cardio-vascular disease; and premature adult death. Potentially useful indices that have not yet attracted any validation work in elephants include: operant responding and place preference tests; intention and vacuum movements; fear/stress pheromone release; cognitive biases; heart rate, pupil dilation and blood pressure; corticosteroid assay from hair, especially tail-hairs (to access endocrine events up to a year ago); adrenal hypertrophy; male infertility; prolactinemia; and immunological changes. Zoo Biol 28:1-19, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Rees, P.A., 2009. The sizes of elephant groups in zoos: implications for elephant welfare. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 12, 44-60.
Abstract: This study examined the distribution of 495 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and 336 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in 194 zoos, most of which were located in Europe (49.1%) and North America (32.6%). Cows outnumbered bulls 4 to 1 (Loxodonta) and 3 to 1 (Elephas). Groups contained 7 or fewer: mean, 4.28 (sigma = 5.73). One fifth of elephants lived alone or with one conspecific. Forty-six elephants (5.5%) had no conspecific. Many zoos ignore minimum group sizes of regional zoo association guidelines. The American Zoo and Aquarium Association recommends that breeding facilities keep herds of 6 to 12 elephants. The British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums recommends keeping together at least 4 cows over 2 years old. Over 69% Asian and 80% African cow groups-including those under 2 years-consisted of fewer than 4 individuals. Recently, Europe and North America have made progress with some zoos no longer keeping elephants and with others investing in improved facilities and forming larger herds. The welfare of individual elephants should outweigh all other considerations; zoos should urgently seek to integrate small groups into larger herds

Rees, P.A., 2009. Activity budgets and the relationship between feeding and stereotypic behaviors in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoo
75. Zoo. Biol. 28, 79-97.
Abstract: Activity budgets were studied in eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Chester Zoo (UK) for 35 days, between January and November 1999. Recordings were made between 10:00 and 16:00 hr (with most behavior frequencies calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 hr). The elephants exhibited variation in activity depending on their age, sex, the time of day and the time of year. Only the five adult cows exhibited stereotypic behavior, with frequencies ranging from 3.9 to 29.4% of all observations. These elephants exhibited individual, diurnal and seasonal variation in stereotypic behavior. This has implications for studies that use short sampling periods and may make comparisons of data collected at different times of the day or year invalid. The six adult elephants spent 27.4-41.4% of the time feeding (between 10:00 and 14:00 hr), 22.9-42.0% standing still, 6.1-19.2% walking and 3.9-9.6% dusting. The hypothesis that the frequency of stereotypic behavior in adult cow elephants was negatively correlated with the frequency of feeding behavior was tested and was found to be true. Stereotypic behavior increased in frequency toward the end of the day-while waiting to return to the elephant house for food--and elephants spent more time stereotyping during the winter months than during the summer months. Elephants were inactive (i.e. exhibited behaviors other than locomotion) for between 70.1 and 93.9% of the time. Creating more opportunities for elephants to exhibit foraging behavior and the introduction of greater unpredictability into management regimes, especially feeding times, may reduce the frequency of stereotypic behavior and increase general activity levels

Thompson, M.E., Schwager, S.J., Payne, K.B., Turkalo, A.K., 2009. Acoustic estimation of wildlife abundance: methodology for vocal mammals in forested habitats. African Journal of Ecology.
Abstract:
Habitat loss and hunting pressure threaten mammal populations worldwide, generating critical time constraints on trend assessment. This study introduces a new survey method that samples continuously and non-invasively over long time periods, obtaining estimates of abundance from vocalization rates. We present feasibility assessment methods for acoustic surveys and develop equations for estimating population size. As an illustration, we demonstrate the feasibility of acoustic surveys for African forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). Visual surveys and vocalizations from a forest clearing in the Central African Republic were used to establish that low-frequency elephant calling rate is a useful index of elephant numbers (linear regressionP<0.001,radj.2=0.58). The effective sampling area was 3.22km2per acoustic sensor, a dramatic increase in coverage over dung survey transects. These results support the use of acoustic surveys for estimating elephant abundance over large remote areas and in diverse habitats, using a distributed network of acoustic sensors. The abundance estimation methods presented can be applied in surveys of any species for which an acoustic abundance index and detection function have been established. This acoustic survey technique provides an opportunity to improve management and conservation of many acoustically-active taxa whose populations are currently under-monitored.

Thompson, M.E., Schwager, S.J., Payne, K.B., 2009. Heard but not seen: an acoustic survey of the African forest elephant population at Kakum Conservation Area, Ghana. African Journal of Ecology.
Abstract:
This study, designed to survey forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) at Kakum Conservation Area, Ghana, is the first to apply acoustic methods to elephant abundance estimation and to compare results with independent survey estimates. Nine acoustic sensors gathered sound continuously for 38days. Low-frequency calling rates have been established as useful elephant abundance indices at a Namibian watering hole and a central African forest clearing. In this study, we estimated elephant population size by applying an abundance index model and detection function developed in central Africa to data from simultaneous sampling periods on Kakum sensors. The sensor array recorded an average of 1.81 calls per 20-min sampling period from an effective detection area averaging 10.27km2. The resulting estimate of 294 elephants (95% CI: 259-329) falls within confidence bounds of recent dung-based surveys. An extended acoustic model, estimating the frequency with which elephants are silent when present, yields an estimate of 350 elephants (95% CI: 315-384). Acoustic survey confidence intervals are at least half as wide as those from dung-based surveys. This study demonstrates that acoustic surveying is a valuable tool for estimating elephant abundance, as well as for detecting other vocal species and anthropogenic noises that may be associated with poaching.

Clubb, R., Rowcliffe, M., Lee, P., Mar, K.U., Moss, C., Mason, G.J., 2008. Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science 322, 1649.
Abstract: We analyzed data from over 4500 elephants to show that animals in European zoos have about half the median life span of conspecifics in protected populations in range countries. This discrepancy is clearest in Asian elephants; unlike African elephants in zoos, this species' infant mortality is very high (for example, twice that seen in Burmese timber camps), and its adult survivorship in zoos has not improved significantly in recent years. One risk factor for Asian zoo elephants is being moved between institutions, with early removal from the mother tending to have additional adverse effects. Another risk factor is being born into a zoo rather than being imported from the wild, with poor adult survivorship in zoo-born Asians apparently being conferred prenatally or in early infancy. We suggest stress and/or obesity as likely causes of zoo elephants' compromised survivorship

Doherty, T., 2008. More on AVMA policy on elephant guides and tethers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233, 1061.

Gobush, K.S., Mutayoba, B.M., Wasser, S.K., 2008. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants. Conserv. Biol. 22, 1590-1599.
Abstract: Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented

Kislak, P., 2008. Thoughts on AVMA policy on elephant guides and tethers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233, 550-551.

Menargues, A., Urios, V., Mauri, M., 2008. Welfare assessment of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) using salivary cortisol measurement. Animal Welfare 17, 305-312.
Abstract: The measurement of salivary cortisol allows non-invasive assessment of welfare in captive animals. We utilised this technique to test the effect of zoo opening on six Asian elephants and two Indian rhinoceros at the Terra Natura Zoological Park, Alicante, Spain, during pre-opening, opening and post-opening periods. Salivary cortisol concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the opening period than during pre- and post-opening periods for both species. This method could prove a useful tool in monitoring the success of decisions taken to improve the welfare of captive animals.

Ramanathan, A., Mallapur, A., 2008. A visual health assessment of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in India. J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 39, 148-154.
Abstract: A visual health assessment and survey questionnaire was conducted on 81 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) housed in 10 animal facilities throughout India between November 2004 and February 2005. The survey questionnaire consisted of 10 questions that evaluated the health of the elephants, and they were completed after visually assessing each individual elephant. The information collected was ranked on a scale that was used to statistically compare the health among the study subjects. This study documented that 43.21% of the captive elephants surveyed exhibited hyperkeratosis. A significant proportion of the elephants owned by tourist camps had poor skin condition when compared with elephants from zoos and at a forest camp. Similarly, captive-born individuals were found to have better skin condition than animals that were caught from the wild. Sixty (74.1%) of the captive elephants that were observed during this study had fissures in their footpads, 20% of which were severe. The prevalence of foot fissures was significantly higher in females. A greater proportion of elephants owned by tourist camps displayed vertical and horizontal toenail cracks in comparison with the forest camp and zoo elephants. It was noted that 76.9% of the wounded animals and 80% of those having abscesses were housed at temples and tourist camps. Also, approximately 8.5% of the captive elephant population observed during this study had eye-related problems, and they were all housed at temples and tourist camps. In conclusion, it was evident that elephants housed at temples or tourist camps exhibited poor skin condition with wounds and abscesses. These findings suggest that the overall condition of the elephants housed at tourist camps was poor compared with elephants housed at zoos and at the forest camp

Woolley, L.A., Millspaugh, J.J., Woods, R.J., van Rensburg, S.J., Mackey, R.L., Page, B., Slotow, R., 2008. Population and individual elephant response to a catastrophic fire in Pilanesberg National Park. PLoS. One. 3, e3233.
Abstract: In predator-free large herbivore populations, where density-dependent feedbacks occur at the limit where forage resources can no longer support the population, environmental catastrophes may play a significant role in population regulation. The potential role of fire as a stochastic mass-mortality event limiting these populations is poorly understood, so too the behavioural and physiological responses of the affected animals to this type of large disturbance event. During September 2005, a wildfire resulted in mortality of 29 (18% population mortality) and injury to 18, African elephants in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. We examined movement and herd association patterns of six GPS-collared breeding herds, and evaluated population physiological response through faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (stress) levels. We investigated population size, structure and projected growth rates using a simulation model. After an initial flight response post-fire, severely injured breeding herds reduced daily displacement with increased daily variability, reduced home range size, spent more time in non-tourist areas and associated less with other herds. Uninjured, or less severely injured, breeding herds also shifted into non-tourist areas post-fire, but in contrast, increased displacement rate (both mean and variability), did not adjust home range size and formed larger herds post-fire. Adult cow stress hormone levels increased significantly post-fire, whereas juvenile and adult bull stress levels did not change significantly. Most mortality occurred to the juvenile age class causing a change in post-fire population age structure. Projected population growth rate remained unchanged at 6.5% p.a., and at current fecundity levels, the population would reach its previous level three to four years post-fire. The natural mortality patterns seen in elephant populations during stochastic events, such as droughts, follows that of the classic mortality pattern seen in predator-free large ungulate populations, i.e. mainly involving juveniles. Fire therefore functions in a similar manner to other environmental catastrophes and may be a natural mechanism contributing to population limitation. Welfare concerns of arson fires, burning during "hot-fire" conditions and the conservation implications of fire suppression (i.e. removal of a potential contributing factor to natural population regulation) should be integrated into fire management strategies for conservation areas

Dehnhard, M., 2007. Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses. Gen. Comp Endocrinol. 151, 274-284.
Abstract: Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method for assessing sympathoadrenal activity in captive female elephants. We found a circadian variation in urinary noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE), adrenaline (epinephrine, Epi) and dopamine (DA) under short day length. Peak activity of noradrenaline and dopamine was noted at 3 a.m. Adrenaline showed a biphasic pattern with a minor peak recorded at 3 a.m. and a major peak 9 a.m. Under long-day photoperiodic conditions, simultaneous peaks of noradrenaline and adrenaline were again noted at 3 a.m. whereas dopamine does not appear to have a distinct circadian pattern under long-day length. A transfer of two elephant cows resulted in a marked increase in urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, confirming that the transfer represented a stressful event. During the peripartal period, noradrenaline concentrations increased and maximum concentrations were obtained at delivery. Daily measurements of urinary dopamine throughout the follicular phase revealed an increase in dopamine secretion close to ovulation. This increase might indicate a role of dopamine in the ovulatory mechanisms. These results suggest that changes in urinary catecholamine excretion reflect fluctuations in sympathoadrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress

Maple, T.L., 2007. Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 10, 63-70.
Abstract: Although the accredited institutions of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums have all committed to enhancing the welfare of nonhuman animals, acceptable standards and best practices are still under debate. Currently, experts from zoos and the field hold widely divergent opinions about exhibition and management standards for elephants. Standards and practices for managing nonhuman primates provide a model for other nonhuman creatures exhibited in zoos and aquariums. Examining the key issues for primates demonstrates the value of applying scientific data before promulgating standards. The field of applied behavior analysis provides a wealth of information to frame the debate. Animal behaviorists have contributed to an emerging science of animal welfare, which may provide a foundation for empirical zoo management, standards, and practices.

Maple, T.L., 2007. Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 10, 63-70.
Abstract: Although the accredited institutions of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums have all committed to enhancing the welfare of nonhuman animals, acceptable standards and best practices are still under debate. Currently, experts from zoos and the field hold widely divergent opinions about exhibition and management standards for elephants. Standards and practices for managing nonhuman primates provide a model for other nonhuman creatures exhibited in zoos and aquariums. Examining the key issues for primates demonstrates the value of applying scientific data before promulgating standards. The field of applied behavior analysis provides a wealth of information to frame the debate. Animal behaviorists have contributed to an emerging science of animal welfare, which may provide a foundation for empirical zoo management, standards, and practices

Millspaugh, J.J., Burke, T., van Dyk, G., Slotow, R., Washburn, B.E., Woods, R.J., 2007. Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and   Safari Adventures. Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 1257-1260.
Abstract:
African elephants (/Loxodonta africana/) are intensively managed in southern Africa and are routinely translocated between reserves. Domesticated elephants are used for elephant-back safaris and interactions with guests. Understanding how elephants respond to such activities is critical because of welfare issues associated with both humans and elephants. We investigated the stress response (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolite secretion [FGM]) of working elephants in Letsatsing Game Reserve, South Africa, over 1 year to evaluate their response to transportation and ecotourism activities. We used free-ranging elephants in adjacent Pilanesburg National Park as controls. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were greatest prior to and during translocation and declined over the year. Within 12 months of transportation, FGM levels in working elephants became indistinguishable from those in wild elephants. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were higher during human interaction days than days without interaction. The highest observed FGM levels were associated with transportation and episodic loud noises. Transportation is a stressful activity for elephants, and ?3 months should be provided to translocated elephants to acclimate to their new surroundings. Although stress levels of elephants increased slightly when interacting with humans in the contexts we studied, evaluating interactions under a wider range of contexts is necessary to minimize danger to elephants and humans.

Teixeira, C.P., Schetini de Azevedo, C., Mendl, M., Cipreste, C.F., Young, R.J., 2007. Revisiting translocation and reintroduction programmes: the importance of considering stress. Animal Behaviour 73,  1-13.
Abstract: It is widely known that the adverse effects of stress must be considered in animal conservation programmes. However, a full consideration of how and where stress occurs in animal conservation programmes has not been undertaken, especially in translocation and reintroduction programmes. The literature concerning these types of programmes shows high levels of mortality, despite researchers' consideration of the effects of stress. However, an analysis of the literature shows that many conservation biologists have only a superficial knowledge about stress. For example, most do not understand the importance of subclinical stress or the fact that the effect of successive stressors can be additive or accumulative. While most conservation biologists know that stress is bad for animal health, few have considered its adverse effects on cognitive abilities, which an animal needs to survive in the wild (e.g. memory). In this paper we conclude with suggestions for improving the efficiency of animal conservation programmes in terms of the number of animals surviving after reintroduction or translocation. The most important conclusion from this review of the literature is that there needs to be a greater interchange of information between animal welfare and animal conservation scientists.

Yon, L., Kanchanapangka, S., Chaiyabutr, N., Stanczyk, F., Meepan, S., Lasley, B., 2007. ACTH stimulation in four Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus): an investigation of androgen sources in bull elephants. Gen. Comp Endocrinol. 151, 246-251.
Abstract: The phenomenon of musth is a very stressful event, both behaviorally and physiologically. An ACTH stimulation test was conducted in four adult Asian bull elephants to investigate the possibility that the classical hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is active during musth, resulting in an increase in adrenally produced steroids. Serum cortisol, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4), androstenediol (A5), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured. Cortisol increased 3-10 times above baseline in response to ACTH stimulation, and DHEA doubled. A4 and A5 were erratic, while testosterone decreased significantly in all bulls. The pattern of results suggests that the adrenal steroid increase which occurs during musth results from some mechanism other than the classical HPA axis

Yon, L., Kanchanapangka, S., Chaiyabutr, N., Meepan, S., Stanczyk, F.Z., Dahl, N., Lasley, B., 2007. A longitudinal study of LH, gonadal and adrenal steroids in four intact Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus) and one castrate African bull (Loxodonta africana) during musth and non-musth periods. Gen. Comp Endocrinol. 151, 241-245.
Abstract: During their annual musth cycle, adult African and Asian bull elephants have increased gonadal androgens (testosterone [T], dihydrotestosterone [DHT], androstenedione [A4]). Because musth is a physiologically and psychologically stressful time, this study was conducted to investigate whether the adrenal glands (stimulated by stress) increase production of both glucocorticoids and androgens during musth. Weekly serum samples were taken for 11-15 months from four intact adult Asian bull elephants, and from a castrate African bull elephant who exhibits musth. Testosterone, androstenediol (A5), A4, luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured in each sample. In three of the four intact bulls, all hormones measured increased during musth. Adrenal androgens were strongly correlated with LH and testicular androgens, though not to cortisol. None of the hormones measured in the castrate bull increased during his musth cycles. While the significance of adrenal activity in the elephant during musth has yet to be determined, this study provides evidence that the adrenal gland actively produces both glucocorticoids and androgens during musth in the Asian elephant

Clemins, P.J., Johnson, M.T., 2006. Generalized perceptual linear prediction features for animal vocalization analysis
431. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 527-534.
Abstract: A new feature extraction model, generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP), is developed to calculate a set of perceptually relevant features for digital signal analysis of animal vocalizations. The gPLP model is a generalized adaptation of the perceptual linear prediction model, popular in human speech processing, which incorporates perceptual information such as frequency warping and equal loudness normalization into the feature extraction process. Since such perceptual information is available for a number of animal species, this new approach integrates that information into a generalized model to extract perceptually relevant features for a particular species. To illustrate, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are made between the species-specific model, generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP), and the original PLP model using a set of vocalizations collected from captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The models that incorporate perceptional information outperform the original human-based models in both visualization and classification tasks

Druce, H., Pretorius, K., Druce, D., Slotow, R., 2006. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on resident bull's group size and musth periods: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36, 133-137.
Abstract: African elephants have been reintroduced into small, enclosed reserves in South Africa,many populations being established with orphans <10 years old.This has resulted in abnormal behaviour in some elephant populations, which was corrected in Pilanesberg National Park by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants.In July 2003, three older bulls (29-41 years old) were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in order to normalize the bull age structure and in an attempt to reduce the abnormally long musth period of one particular resident bull. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls.The introduced bulls all came into musth within eleven months postrelease.The older bulls do not appear to have had any influence on the musth periods of the oldest resident bull (36 years old at introduction). Detailed behavioural studies of the effects of management actions on elephant populations, within small, enclosed reserves provide information and resources for future management decisions.This study demonstrates that old bulls can be successfully introduced to very small areas provided that electrification of the entire perimeter is secure. Further, the introduction has no detectable medium-term (one year) effect on the behaviour of a relatively dense population of resident elephants, and the welfare of the elephants was not greatly affected.

Ganguly, S., Rao, S., Varma, S. The crisis in captive elephant welfare and management in India: Report from an all-India survey. Proceedings International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium.  251. 2006. 2006.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hutchins, M., 2006. Death at the Zoo: The Media, Science, and Reality. Zoo Biology 25, 101-115.
Abstract: Media characterizations of zoo and aquarium animal deaths were randomly monitored on the internet for a 20-month period (September 2003-May 2005). Based on 148 samples collected, it was possible to classify articles into one of four categories, which were operationally defined: 1) dispassionate observers; 2) accusers; 3) sympathizers; and 4) balancers. In addition, with the notable exception of seven cases, all of the articles examined focused on large, charismatic mammals, such as gorillas, dolphins, lions, and elephants. Although a majority
of the articles examined (70.4%) were either dispassionate and objective or sympathetic, nearly a third (29.6%) were either accusatory or attempted to balance the accusatory statements of animal rights activists with sympathetic statements from zoo professionals. Recommendations are offered for how zoos should deal with the increasing media and public interest in zoo animal deaths, including: 1) a greater commitment to studying the reasons for mortality in a wide variety of species; and 2) an increased investment in record keeping and analysis,
which should allow zoos to calculate average life spans in animal populations and to monitor and assess the risk of certain lethal diseases on a real-time basis. Comparisons are drawn between zoo veterinary practices and human medicine, which are both inexact sciences. Suggestions are made for how the public and key decision-makers can distinguish between media reports on zoo animal deaths that are legitimate cause for concern vs. those that are sensationalist and meant to generate controversy and sell papers. A greater focus on the science of zoo animal death is necessary for accredited zoos to maintain the public's confidence in their animal care practices.

Tresz, H., 2006. Behavioral management at the Phoenix Zoo: New strategies and perspectives. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 9, 65-70.
Abstract: It all started with a seemingly simple decision to re-evaluate and document the Phoenix Zoo's behavioral management protocol. The purpose of this project was to present proactive standards for the care and psychological well-being of our living collection, while meeting or exceeding the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Act. Preparing the protocol was a catalyst to re-evaluate the zoo's philosophy and application of behavioral management. It suggested a restructuring of collection management and the rethinking of future goals and practices. Gradually, the process became more focused and organized. Behavioral enrichment, training, animal behavior issues, and exhibit architecture were embraced as essential components for providing quality of life. Staff from all levels worked side-by-side on assignments. Our way of thinking and working was changing.

Bradshaw, G.A., Schore, A.N., Brown, J.L., Poole, J.H., Moss, C.J., 2005. Elephant breakdown
639. Nature 433, 807.

Clemins, P.J., Johnson, M.T., Leong, K.M., Savage, A., 2005. Automatic classification and speaker identification of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations
633. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 956-963.
Abstract: A hidden Markov model (HMM) system is presented for automatically classifying African elephant vocalizations. The development of the system is motivated by successful models from human speech analysis and recognition. Classification features include frequency-shifted Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and log energy, spectrally motivated features which are commonly used in human speech processing. Experiments, including vocalization type classification and speaker identification, are performed on vocalizations collected from captive elephants in a naturalistic environment. The system classified vocalizations with accuracies of 94.3% and 82.5% for type classification and speaker identification classification experiments, respectively. Classification accuracy, statistical significance tests on the model parameters, and qualitative analysis support the effectiveness and robustness of this approach for vocalization analysis in nonhuman species

Rahman, S.A., Walker, L., Ricketts, W., 2005. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania
536. Rev. Sci. Tech. 24, 597-612.
Abstract: In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities

Bradshaw, I.G.A., 2004. Not by Bread Alone: Symbolic Loss, Trauma, and Recovery in Elephant Communities. Society And Animals 12, 143-158.
Abstract: Like many humans in the wake of genocide and war, most wildlife today has sustained trauma. High rates of mortality, habitat destruction, and social breakdown precipitated by human actions are unprecedented in history. Elephants are one of many species dramatically affected by violence. Although elephant communities have processes, rituals, and social structures for responding to trauma - grieving, mourning, and socialization - the scale, nature, and magnitude of human violence have disrupted their ability to use these practices. Absent the cultural, carrier groups (murdered elephant matriarchs and elders) who traditionally lead and teach these healing practices, humans must assume the role. Trauma theory has brought attention to victims' severe, sustained psychological damage. Looking through the lens of trauma theory provides a better understanding of how systematic violence has affected individuals and groups and how the pervasive nature of traumatic events affects human-nonhuman animal relationships. The framing of recent trauma theory compels conservationists to create new relationships - neither anthropocentric nor powerbased - with nonhuman animals. The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, Kenya, shows how humans, taking on the role of interspecies witness, bring orphan elephants back to health and help re-build elephant communities shattered by genocide.

Rees, P.A., 2004. Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull asian elephant (Elephas maximus)
734. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 7, 49-58.
Abstract: This study recorded sexual behavior within a captive herd of 8 Asian elephants for approximately 230 hr on 50 days over a period of 10 months. The study observed a single adult and a single juvenile bull mounting cows more than 160 times. When the juvenile bull was between 4 years, 2 months and 4 years, 8 months old, he exhibited mounting behavior only on days when adult mounting occurred. Adult mounting always occurred first. Beyond the age of 4 years, 8 months, the juvenile bull exhibited spontaneous mounting behavior in the absence of adult mounting. This suggests that mounting behavior may develop because of social facilitation. Determining the significance of the presence of sexually active adults in the normal development of sexual behavior in juveniles will require further studies. Encouraging the establishment of larger captive herds containing adults and calves of both sexes-if their presence is important-would improve the welfare of elephants in zoos and increase their potential conservation value

Smith, T. Zoo research guidelines: Monitoring stress in zoo animals.  2004. London, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ref Type: Report

Stiles, D., 2004. The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conservation 31, 309-321.
Abstract: In response to significant elephant population declines in the 1970s and 1980s because of poaching for ivory, the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) banned the international trade in Asian and African elephant species by listing them on Appendix I in 1973 and 1989, respectively. Many southern African countries disagreed with the African elephant trade ban and have continued to argue against it since the mid-1980s. They maintain that their governments practice sound wildlife management policies and actions and, as a consequence, their national elephant populations have reached unsustainable size. They argue that they should not be penalized because other countries cannot manage their wildlife. Further, they say they need the proceeds from ivory and other by-product sales to finance conservation efforts. In 1997, the CITES Conference of Parties voted to allow Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe to auction off 50 tonnes of government ivory stockpiles to Japanese traders on a one-off experimental basis, which took place in 1999. Ivory trade opponents allege that this sale stimulated ivory demand, resulting in a surge of elephant poaching. Nevertheless, CITES voted again in 2002 to allow Botswana, Namibia and South Africa to auction off another 60 tonnes of ivory after May 2004. Trade opponents have launched an active campaign to prevent the sales, warning that they could provoke a renewed elephant holocaust. This paper reviews available quantitative evidence on ivory trade and elephant killing to evaluate the arguments of the ivory trade proponents and opponents. The evidence supports the view that the trade bans resulted generally in lower levels of ivory market scale and elephant poaching than prevailed prior to 1990. There is little evidence to support claims that the 1999 southern African ivory auctions stimulated ivory demand or elephant poaching. Levels of elephant poaching and illegal ivory trading in a country are more likely to be related to wildlife management practices, law enforcement and corruption than to choice of CITES appendix listings and consequent extent of trade restrictions. Elephant conservation and public welfare can be better served by legal ivory trade than by a trade ban, but until demand for ivory can be restrained and various monitoring and regulation measures are put into place it is premature for CITES to permit ivory sales.

Wilson, M.L., Bloomsmith, M.A., Maple, T.L., 2004. Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Animal-Welfare 13, 39-43.
Abstract: The behaviour and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were studied to determine whether their stereotypic swaying was more prevalent before regularly scheduled events in the elephants' routine, and whether the elephants that exhibited more stereotyped swaying had lower mean serum cortisol concentrations. Behavioural data were collected during hour-long observations balanced across three periods, and during 15-min observations prior to the elephants being moved to different portions of their enclosure. Observational data were collected using instantaneous focal sampling of behaviours every 30 s. Serum cortisol measures were obtained through weekly blood withdrawal from the elephants' ears. Of the three elephants, two exhibited stereotyped swaying, which accounted for a mean of 0.4% of the scans during the hour-long observations and a mean of 18% of the scans prior to the elephants being moved between different parts of the enclosure. Swaying was highly variable among the individual elephants during both categories of observations. Additionally, both elephants swayed more prior to moving in the afternoon than prior to moving in the morning. Analyses of serum cortisol concentrations indicated that each elephant had a different mean cortisol level, which did not clearly correspond with the expression of swaying. The findings indicate that a rigidly scheduled management event may elicit stereotyped swaying in the studied elephants. Future research should document the behavioural and physiological effects of an altered management routine to improve captive elephant welfare.

 2003. Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi.

In safe hands: A response to the RSPCA report on the welfare of elephants in captivity.  1-8. 2003. London, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ref Type: Report

Coe, J.C., 2003. Steering the ark toward Eden: Design for animal well-being. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223, 977-980.

Langman, V.A., Rowe, M., Forthman, D., Langman, N., Black, J., Walker, T., 2003. Quantifying shade using a standard environment. Zoo Biology 22, 253-260.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to quantify the thermal microclimate provided by a shade structure in the African elephant enclosure at Zoo Atlanta. The hypothesis was that the interior of a weather instrument shelter (a Stevenson screen) would provide the maximum environmental shielding and the coolest possible ambient conditions without artificial heating or cooling. The ambient conditions inside the Stevenson screen were compared with the ambient conditions in the shaded and nonshaded sections of the exhibit to quantify the extremes possible under the environmental conditions. The Stevenson screen reduced the radiant heat load by 766 W m-2. The shade structure in the elephant enclosure reduced the radiant heat load by 278 W m-2, which was 37% of the total possible reduction represented by the interior of the Stevenson screen. The longwave radiant heat was 10% greater in the direct sun and 37% greater in the shaded area than the shortwave radiant heat. The shade structure reduced the shortwave radiant heat by 254 W m-2 or 43%, but only reduced the longwave radiant heat by 24 W m-2 or 3%. Shade structures alone may not provide adequate protection from radiant heat for captive species. A cool microclimate in an artificial enclosure should be designed to reduce all sources of radiant heat.

Meredith, M., 2003. Biography of an Endangered Species in Africa. PublicAffairs.
Abstract: Review from Publishers Weekly:  In this solid introduction to the world of elephants, Meredith covers all  the major topics including biology, social behavior, recent scientific  discoveries, ancient elephantology, the devastating  ivory trade, the truth  about elephant graveyards and the insistent threat  of extinction. Meredith demonstrates that human involvement in elephantine affairs has been disastrous to the pachyderm: the quest for ivory had caused the extinction of all Syrian herds by 500 B.C.; many ancient cultures took elephants to war; and Romans used the animals in their blood sports. Much of the book follows the history of the European exploitation of Africa's three treasures: gold, slaves and ivory. The quantities of murdered elephants and descriptions of killing methodologies are deeply affecting. Once Meredith's history reaches modern times, the shock of  population counts is astounding in comparison with the numbers of elephants that roamed free in the past.   Aristotle's treatise on the animals' anatomy,  behavior, diet and  reproduction was the beginning of a long line of nterest, but only recently  has science uncovered the answers to mysteries such as how separate herds coordinate movement over many miles. Meredith's primer on elephantine
matters will help turn a reader's casual interest into a fascination.

Mikota, S.K., Hammatt, H., Finnegan, M. Occurrence and prevention of capture wounds in Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus). Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet.  291-293. 2003.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Abstract: The capturing of elephants in Indonesia began in 1986 as an attempted solution to human-elephant conflict.  The intent was to train "problem" elephants for use in agriculture, logging and tourism.  The initial captures were conducted under the guidance of Thai mahouts and Thai koonkie elephants (trained elephants used for capture).  A number of the Indonesians that were originally trained in capture techniques still work for the government forestry department (KSDA).  The younger pawangs (elephant handlers) that participate in captures have learned from their peers.  There is no formal training program. The actual mortality rate associated with elephant captures in Sumatra is unknown as official reports are lacking.  The age structure of the existing ~ 400 captive elephants is young (most under 25) which suggests that smaller, younger elephants are preferentially captured and / or that adult elephants do not survive the capture and training processes.  Our personal experiences (Mikota and Hammatt) in Sumatra show that mortality in newly captured elephants is high.In 2001, with endorsement from the World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF), the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Fauna and Flora International (FFI), and the International Elephant Foundation (IEF), we requested a two-year Moratorium on elephant captures during which time capture techniques would be improved and alternative conflict mediation techniques evaluated.
A Moratorium against placing additional elephants into the Elephant Training Centers has been issued by the central government, however capture for translocation is still sanctioned.  Unfortunately, the provincial governments have increasingly acted in their own interests since the government of Indonesia began a de-centralization process a few years ago. Riau Province is thought to have the largest remaining populations of wild Sumatran elephants.Fifty-seven, human-elephant conflicts occurred in Riau between 1997-2000.  Although Riau is a hotbed of conflict, problems are occurring throughout Sumatra and we are aware of conflicts and captures in Bengkulu and North Sumatra. In October 2002, we were invited by KSDA (the provincial forestry department) to accompany their team into the field as they attempted to capture a large bull that had been raiding a palm oil plantation.  This opportunity was invaluable as we were able to observe first hand the techniques being used and where improvements were needed.  As a result of this and other experiences with newly captured elephants we observed: Equipment (Palmer) is old, poorly maintained, and used improperly.  Essential supplies are lacking or homemade substitutes are used.
The dose of xylazine is very high compared to wild elephant capture doses used in India and Malaysia.  The same dose is often used regardless of the size of the elephant. The needles are too short to reach muscle; open-ended needles are used which can become plugged with tissue, thus preventing injection. Neither the correct charge nor the correct load is selected.  We observed that many darts bounced making it difficult to ascertain the amount of drug injected or its depth of penetration.  Selection of an inappropriate charge results in unnecessary trauma. The preparation and use of darts, needles, and syringes lacks basic hygiene. Dart wounds are not treated and antibiotics are not administered.   There is no understanding of stress or capture myopathy. The capture team was not aware that sternal recumbency severely compromises respiration in elephants and that they can quickly die in this position. It is believed that elephant restraints must inflict pain to prevent wild elephants from escaping once captured.  There is no veterinarian on the capture team. The current capture techniques result in leg wounds from unprotected chains, neck wounds from "kahs" (neck yokes made of wood and wire), and abscesses from inappropriately administered darts.  Leg and neck wounds often become maggot infested.  Infections from dart wounds are, however, the primary cause of capture-related mortality.  These abscesses can drain for several months, even with treatment, and often progress to a necrotizing fasciitis, acute sepsis, and death. The Riau Province KSDA Team has been receptive to suggested changes to minimize wounds. Provision of heavier chains has alleviated the fear that elephants will escape.  Covering the chains with fire hose or heavy plastic minimizes injuries to legs and use of the kah has been discontinued.  A basic dart wound treatment protocol has been established. In June 2003, a comprehensive Elephant Immobilization and Translocation Workshop for Sumatra is planned to retrain all of Sumatra's field teams and to upgrade equipment. Sumatra's wild elephant population probably numbers fewer than 3000 and is under continued threat.  With so few elephants left, the preservation of as many viable herds as possible takes on increased urgency.  The Moratorium achieved in 2001 has set the groundwork for KSDA to choose translocation of wild elephants rather than capture and placement into already over-crowded and under-resourced Elephant Training Centers.  We cannot guarantee that Sumatra will capture elephants only for translocation, and it is inevitable that many more elephants will end up in captivity.  Regardless, all of the elephants that must suffer the interruption of their lives at the hand of man deserve, at the very least, humane treatment.  Translocations are neither simple nor a complete panacea.  Identifying suitable translocation areas and insuring that elephants remain there are significant challenges.  WWF-Indonesia is continuing its efforts to secure the lowland forest of Tesso Nilo in Riau Province as a "safe haven" for at least some of Sumatra's wild elephants (see WWF AREAS Program Riau, Sumatra: http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/attachments/riau_profile.pdf).  The identification of interim release sites, together with improved capture techniques, offers the hope that fewer elephants will be removed from the wild.   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: Our work in Sumatra has been supported by the Guggenheim Foundation, a CEF grant from the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, the International Elephant Foundation, Oregon Zoo, Columbus Zoo, Disney, Peace River Refuge, the Elephant Managers Association, the Riddles Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary, Tulsa Zoo, Toronto Zoo, Niabi Zoo, San Antonio Zoo, Denver Zoo (AAZK Chapter), Milwaukee Zoo (AAZK Chapter), the Audubon Nature Institute (Youth Volunteers), Buttonwood Park Zoo, Melbourne Zoo, and private donors.  Special thanks to Harry Peachey, John Lehnhardt, Holly Reed, Kay Backues, Mike Keele, Steve Osofsky, and Heidi and Scott Riddle.

Rees, P.A., 2003. The welfare and conservation of Asian elephants a reply to Sukumar. Oryx 37, 25.
Abstract: Since my summary of the global fate of Asian elephants in zoos (this issue) was written Clubb & Mason (2002) have published a review of the welfare of zoo elephants in Europe, commissioned by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in the UK. In an attempt to collect data on behaviour, reproduction, group composition, welfare and other aspects of husbandry, they sent questionnaires to the directors of the 18 zoos in the UK that hold elephants. Professor Sukumar doubts my contention that zoo directors lack the commitment necessary to manage the zoo elephant population as viable breeding units. Why then did none of the zoos contacted by Clubb & Mason reply?

Sukumar, K., 2003. Asian elephants in zoos a response to Rees. Oryx 37, 23-24.
Abstract: The real role of zoos in the conservation of threatened animals is increasingly coming under public scrutiny, and this is perhaps natural in the case of intelligent, charismatic animals such as elephants. From Roman times up to the mid nineteenth century the elephant was a curiosity in Europe, and then with the establishment of zoos and the popularity of modern circuses there was a steady influx of animals from colonies in Africa and Asia. Elephants, however, never bred well in captivity, either historically in Asia or in recent decades in western zoos. Kings and other rulers have over the centuries obtained their elephant stocks mainly through capture from the wild, in many instances depleting these populations to the point of local extinction (Sukumar, 1989). Even the stocks of timber camp elephants in British India and Burma during the twentieth century were built up mainly through capture as opposed to breeding (Williams, 1950; Stracey, 1963; Gale, 1974; Krishnamurthy & Wemmer, 1995). The longevity of elephants ensured that sizeable numbers were available at any point in time; there was breeding among the timber camp elephants but in most places this rarely compensated for the mortality rate.

Talukdar, B.N., 2003. Practices on welfare and prevention of cruelty: legal provisions related to elephant. In: Das, D. (Ed.), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp. 180-190.

Live hard, die young - how elephants suffer in zoos.  1-11. 2002. Southwater, U.K., RSPCA / Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
Ref Type: Report

Clubb, R., Mason, G. A review of the welfare of zoo elephants in Europe: A report commissioned by the RSPCA.  1-280. 2002. Oxford,U.K., University of Oxford, Animal Behaviour Research Group, Department of Zoology.
Ref Type: Report

Grandy, J.W., Rutberg, A.T., 2002. An animal welfare view of wildlife contraception. Reprod Suppl 60, 1-7.
Abstract: Although there is some dissent, the animal protection community generally supports the concept of wildlife contraception. However, some contraceptive agents, delivery mechanisms and specific applications will be opposed by animal welfare advocates on environmental, humane or other ethical grounds, and some animal rights advocates may oppose wildlife contraception entirely. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has supported and conducted wildlife contraception studies for more than 10 years. In general, we have invested in contraceptive agents (such as porcine zona pellucida) that we believe will prove environmentally, physiologically and behaviourally benign, and in delivery mechanisms that are narrowly targeted. As we consider contraception to be a major intervention into natural processes, we believe that wildlife contraception should be applied judiciously, locally and in a manner that is sensitive to the needs of animals, humans and ecosystem function.

Lair, R., 2002. A regional overview of the need for registration of domesticated Asian elephants. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 8-13.
Abstract: The need for registration of domesticated elephants, in order to improve welfare, prevent smuggling and assist in conservation, is discussed. The tools required (tags, forms, databases etc.) are described. The feasibility of registration programmes in 11 Asian countries are discussed.

Lohanan, R., 2002. The elephant situation in Thailand and a plea for co-operation. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 231-238.
Abstract: For copies write to: Forest Resources Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand; Email: masakazukashio@fao.org

Milroy, A.J.W., 2002. A.J.W. Milroy's Management of Elephants in Captivity. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun, New Delhi, India.

Prabhkaran, L., 2002. Humane treatment of elephants and the legal perspective. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7, 49-51.

Ratanakorn, P., 2002. The role of NGOs in the management of domesticated elephants in Thailand. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 227-229.
Abstract: For copies write to: Forest Resources Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand; Email: masakazukashio@fao.org

Schmid, J., 2002. Keeping circus elephants temporarily in paddocks - the effects on their behaviour. Animal Welfare 4, 87-101.

Suprayogi, B., Sugardjito, J., Lilley, R.P.H., 2002. Management of Sumatran elephants in Indonesia: problems and challenges. In: Baker, I., Kashio, M. (Eds.), Giants on Our Hands: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Domesticated Asian Elephant, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-10 February 2001. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Bangkok; Thailand, pp. 183-194.
Abstract: The status of domestic elephants in Indonesia is described. The development of elephant training centres and reasons for their failure to encourage the use of elephants for logging operations are discussed. Problems of stress and other health problems are described. The availability of resources (feed, water and veterinary support) are discussed. Recommendations for improvement are given.

Groo, M., 2001. The elephant listening project. AWI (Animal Welfare Institute?) quarterly 50, 10.

Gsandtner, H., Schwammer, H. Future Perspectives for Elephant-Keeping in Circuses. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  263. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Kurt, F., Garai, M. Stereotypies in Captive Asian Elephants - A Symptom of Social Isolation. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  57-63. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Mellen, J., MacPhee, M.S., 2001. Philosophy of environmental enrichment: past, present, and future. Zoo Biology 20, 211-226.
Abstract: The brief tenure of environmental enrichment has been influenced both directly and indirectly by the field of psychology, from the work of B.F. Skinner to that of Hal Markowitz. Research on enrichment supports the supposition that an enriched environment does indeed contribute to a captive animal's well-being. Critical elements of effective environmental enrichment are 1) assessing the animal's natural history, individual history, and exhibit constraints and 2) providing species-appropriate opportunities, i.e., the animal should have some choices within its environment. This paper presents a historic perspective of environmental enrichment, proposes a broader, more holistic approach to the enrichment of animals in captive environments, and describes a framework or process that will ensure a consistent and self-sustaining enrichment program.

Schmid, J., Heistermann, M., Ganslosser, U., Hodges, J.K., 2001. Introduction of foreign female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) into an existing group: behavioural reactions and changes in cortisol levels. Animal-Welfare 10, 357-372.
Abstract: The present study examined the extent to which the introduction of three female Asian elephants (aged 3, 11 and 27 years) into a group of 5 (1 male, 4 female) elephants at Munster zoo, Germany, affects the behaviour and urinary cortisol levels of the animals involved. At Munster, only the females were monitored , while the bull was mainly kept separate. Behavioural observations were carried out before transfer and during the six-month period following transfer. Urine samples were collected regularly from each elephant during the whole observation period. All the elephants showed behavioural changes to the process of introduction. The transferred animals increased their social behaviour after arrival in the foreign zoo. Two of them showed an increase in stereotypies and one a reduction in stereotypes. The elephants at Munster reacted with decreased frequencies of stereotypies and increased frequencies of social behaviour and manipulation/exploration behaviour. Six months after transfer, three of the four elephants at Munster and one of the three transferred elephants showed nearly the same behavioural activity pattern as before transfer. One female still showed elevated stereotypic behaviour. From the four elephants in which cortisol measurements could be reliably performed (two of the transferred elephants and two elephants at Munster), only one individual at Munster responded to the process of introduction with a short-term elevation in urinary cortisol levels. One elephant showed a negative correlation between locomotion and cortisol levels and one a positive correlation between stereotypies and cortisol levels. Taken together, the results suggest that transfer and introduction caused some stress responses in the elephants, but that stress was neither prolonged nor severe. Serious welfare problems may have been prevented through individual behavioural coping mechanisms and former experience with stressful situations.

Wehnelt, S. The New Elephant Exhibit at Chester Zoo - High Husbandry and Welfare Standards. A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001.  293. 2001. Vienna, Austria, Schuling Verlag. 2001.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Wemelsfelder, F., Hunter, T.E.A., Mendl, M.T., Lawrence, A.B., 2001. Assessing the 'whole animal': A free choice profiling approach. Animal Behaviour 62, 209-220.
Abstract: The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour summarizes the different aspects of an animal's dynamic style of interaction with the environment, using descriptors such as 'confident', 'nervous', 'calm' or 'excitable'. Scientists frequently use such terms in studies of animal personality and temperament, but, wary of anthropomorphism, are reluctant to do so in studies of animal welfare. We hypothesize that qualitative behaviour assessment, in describing behaviour as an expressive process, may have a stronger observational foundation than is currently recognized, and may be of use as an integrative welfare assessment tool. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the inter- and intraobserver reliability of spontanous qualitative assessments of pig, Sus scrofa, behaviour provided by nine nave observers. We used an experimental methodology called 'free choice profiling' (FCP), which gives observers complete freedom to choose their own descriptive terms. Data were analysed with generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), a multivariate statistical technique associated with FCP. Observers achieved significant agreement in their assessments of pig behavioural expression in four separate tests, and could accurately repeat attributing expressive scores to individual pigs across these tests. Thus the spontaneous qualitative assessment of pig behaviour showed strong internal validity under our controlled experimental conditions. In conclusion we suggest that qualitative behaviour assessment reflects a 'whole animal' level of organization, which may guide the intepretation of behavioural and physiological measurements in terms of an animal's overall welfare state.

Lewis, M.H., Gluck, J.P., Petitto, J.M., Hensley, L.L., Ozer, H., 2000. Early social deprivation in nonhuman primates: long-term effects on survival and cell-mediated immunity. Biol Psychiatry 47, 119-126.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early differential social experience of non-human primates has resulted in long-term alterations in behavior and neurobiology. Although brief maternal separation has been associated with changes in immune status, the long-term effects on survival and immune function of prolonged early social deprivation are unknown. METHODS: Survival rates were examined in rhesus monkeys, half of which had been socially deprived during their first year of life. Repeated measures of immune status were tested in surviving monkeys (18-24 years old). Peripheral blood T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes, macrophages, and monocytes were measured by flow cytometry. Functional cellular immune activity measures included T-cell proliferative responses to mitogens (concanavalin and phytohemagglutinin), T-cell memory response to tetanus toxoid antigen, T-cell-dependent B-cell proliferative responses to mitogen (PWM) and natural killer cell cytotoxic activity. RESULTS: Despite identical environments following isolation, early social deprivation resulted in a significantly decreased survival rate, males being particularly vulnerable to early death. Early social deprivation was associated with a decrease in the ratio of helper to suppressor T cells, and a significant increase in natural killer cell number and in natural killer cell activity in the surviving monkeys. No differences in T- or B-lymphocyte proliferation following mitogen or tetanus toxoid antigen stimulation were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged early social deprivation of non-human primates profoundly affected mortality and resulted in lifelong effects on cell-mediated immune status.

Mikota, S.K. Sumatra's elephant training centers: a call for assistance. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conference.  127-129. 2000.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Chatkupt, T.T., Sollod, A.E., Sarobol, S., 1999. Elephants in Thailand: determinants of health and welfare in working populations
531. J. Appl. Anim Welf. Sci. 2, 187-203.
Abstract: The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has played a prominent role in Thai history and society. However, in the face of modernization, elephant handlers have been struggling to justify their continued ownership. As a result, working elephants may still encounter situations in which their health and welfare are jeopardized. This study developed both a survey instrument and a visual assessment to describe and evaluate the health and living conditions of elephants encountered in a variety of work and living situations. These situations were found to be significantly associated with whether or not an elephant received proper husbandry or was in good body condition. These results may prove valuable in predicting the welfare of elephants according to work and living situations

Friend, T.H., Parke, M.L., 1999. The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64, 213-225.
Abstract: The behaviour of 9 female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) who performed 2 shows each day with a circus that travelled to a new location in the USA (40 to 250 km from the previous day's lot) daily or every 2 days was studied during the 1996 and 1998 seasons. When not performing or working, the elephants were picketed during 1996 in the traditional fashion. During the 1998 season, the same elephants were maintained exclusively in small (approximately 52 m2 per elephant) portable electric pens. Camera and time-lapse recorders were used to videotape the behaviour of each elephant, while picketed or penned, for three _24 h periods during the 1996 and 1998 seasons. The behaviour of each focal elephant was recorded at 5 min intervals. The amount of time the elephants spent stereotypic weaving was significantly decreased by keeping the elephants in pens when compared to picketing. The incidence of all stereotypic behaviour (weaving, head bobbing and trunk tossing) was also significantly decreased when the elephants were kept in pens. The total amount of time spent performing all stereotypic behaviours (weaving, head bobbing and trunk tossing) was negatively correlated with age when the elephants were picketed in 1996 and somewhat less correlated with age when penned in 1998. Time spent performing all stereotypic behaviour was not correlated with time spent eating or time spent lying when the elephants were picketed or penned. It is concluded that portable electric pens are preferred over picketing because the elephants show reduced stereotypic behaviour, they appear to be calmer when out of the pens for work or performances, and they can be kept cleaner.

National Symposium on Elephant Management and Conservation.  1-94. 1998. Sri Lanka, Jayantha Jayewardene and Charles Santiapillai, Organizers. 1998.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Elephants in need :action alert.  1998. Washington,D.C., Humane Society of the United States; DNAL Videocassette-no.-2744 (6 min).
Ref Type: Audiovisual Material
Abstract: Focuses on a case showing the cruelty to wild baby elephants as they are being held and waiting to be sold for profit

Taylor, V.J., Poole, T.B., 1998. Captive breeding and infant mortality in Asian elephants:  a comparison between twenty Western zoos and three Eastern elephant centers. Zoo Biology 17, 311-332.
Abstract: A questionnaire was designed to assess the importance of reproductive behaviour and husbandry factors on breeding success in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). This was circulated to zoos in Europe and North America in 1996. Data from 20 zoos were analysed. Data were also obtained from 3 elephant centres in Asia (Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage in Sri Lanka, Myanma Timber Enterprise in Myanmar and the Tamilnadu Forest Department in India). The aims were to compare Asian elephant breeding success, establish possible causes for any differences, and make recommendations for improving the welfare and breeding success of the animals. Breeding success in most of the zoos was notably lower and the percentages of stillbirths and infant mortality were relatively higher when compared with those of the centres in Asia. Female elephants in zoos appeared to reach sexual maturity and reproduce earlier than those in the Asian establishments. However, zoo elephants produced fewer young per female. The different facilities and husbandry methods used are described. Recommendations are made for both short- and long-term changes that could be used to modify existing practices to improve the welfare and breeding success of captive Asian elephants.

Arnold, C. Riddle's elephant breeding farm and wildlife sanctuary and Hendrix College- -people helping animals and people. Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of the International Society  for Applied Ethology  14-17 August, 1996, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.  74. 1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Friend, T., Bushong, D. Stereotypic behaviour in circus elephants and the effect of "anticipation" of feeding, watering and performing.  Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology  14-17 August, 1996, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.  30. 1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Schmid, J., Kurt, F. Stereotypes in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). First International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals.  1996.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Krishnamurthy, V., Wemmer, C. Veterinary Care of Asian Timber Elephants in India: Historical Accounts and Current Observations.  534. 1995. Bombay, India, Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press.
Ref Type: Abstract

Williams, L.M., Williams, T., 1995. Please pass up the salt. Sandridge, Bloomington, Ind.USA.
Abstract: Tells the story of Congo, an elephant who lives in the Red Apple Zoo and  who enjoys eating salty snacks, such as pretzels and peanuts. Describes the effect of too much salt on Congo, and discusses what healthy snacks can be substituted for salty ones.

Schmid, J., Zeeb, K., 1994. The establishment of the paddocks for keeping elephants in the circus. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 101, 50-52.
Abstract: The guidelines for keeping, training and using animals in circuses and similar institutions, which are made in connection with the law for prevention of cruelty to animals, claim to keep elephants daily 1 hour unshackled in a group in a paddock. The effect of the paddock on social, play behaviour, and the stereotypic movements of circus elephants is discussed. Parameters for housing and managing captured elephants are based on observations of their normal behaviour in nature. A pilot study with 29 elephants in 4 circuses showed that the paddock enabled the elephants to carry out social and comfort behaviour more frequently than when shackled. The stereotypic movements were nearly absent by keeping the elephants in the paddock.

McNeely, J.A., 1992. Elephants as beasts of burden. In: Shoshani, J. (Ed.), Elephants. Majestic creatures of the wild. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, pp. 149-151.

Cockrill, W.R. World Association for Transport Animal Welfare and Studies. Inaugural Meeting. Wolfson College Oxford, 12 December 1989. Working animals international. World Association for Transport Animal Welfare and Studies. Inaugural Meeting. Wolfson College Oxford, 12 December 1989. Working animals international.  1-78. 1990. Oxford, UK.
Ref Type: Conference Proceeding

Hovell, G.J.R., 1990. Transport animals promoted. British Veterinary Journal 146, 385-386.

Kiley-Worthington, M. Are elephants in zoos and circuses distressed? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26[3], 299. 1990.
Ref Type: Abstract

Moore, D.E., Doyle, C.E., 1986. Elephant training and ride operations, part I: animal health, cost/benefit and philosophy. Elephant 2, 19-31.
Abstract: Results from a survey, conducted by the authors as employees of the Burnett Park Zoo, show that very few captive elephants in zoos (18 in the USA) are trained for ride operations.  Trained elephants are easily accessable for treatments, are less "bored", and overall are healthier than non-trained elephants, which may be manifested in a longer life span.  The benefits derived from a well planned elephant training and ride operation outweigh the costs incurred.

Siegel, R.K., 1984. LSD-induced effects in elephants: comparisons with musth behavior. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22, 53-56.
Abstract: Musth is a condition observed in male Asiatic elephants and is characterized by aggression and temporal gland secretion.  A classic and controversial 1962 study attempted to induce a musth syndrome in an elephant via treatment with LSD. Two elephants in the present study survived dosages of LSD (.003 -.10 mg/kg) and exhibited changes in the frequency or duration of several behaviors as scored according to a quantitative observational system.  LSD increased aggression and inappropriate behaviors such as ataxia.  Results are discussed in terms of musth and drug-induced perceptual-motor dysfunction.

Meyer-Holzapfel, M., 1968. Abnormal behavior in zoo animals. Abnormal behavior in animals. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 479-484.

West, L.J., Pierce, C.M., 1962. Lysergic acid diethylamide: Its effects on a male Asiatic elephant. Science 138, 1100-1103.
Abstract: Summary:Researchers gave LSD to a zoo elephant in order to "induce a behavioral abberation that might resemble the phenomenon of going on musth."  Elephant cause of death was asphixiation secondary to laryngeal spasm.

Nicholson, B.D., 1956. The African elephant: How to shoot it humanely, when necessary. African Wild Life 10, 25-36.

Lieberman, S.S. African elephants: Can we end the slaughter. Anim. Agenda v.9.  41-43. 1955. Monroe, Conn. USA, Animal Rights Network.
Ref Type: Report

Milroy, A.J.W., 1922. A short tretise on the management of elephants. Government Printer, Shillong.

Tennent, J.E., 1867. The wild elephant and the method of capturing and taming it in Ceylon. Longmans, Green and Co., London.

 1839. The Elephant (as he exists in a wild state and as he has been made subservient, in peace and war, to the purposes of man). Harper and Brothers, New York.
Abstract: Note: This work was originally published by the British Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge

 

 

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