Elephant TB References       
Projects   Background   Mission/Goals/Strategies

A list of 127 Elephant TB references are further below, you may also consider the following:

Tuberculosis in Elephants - Frequently Asked Questions  www.elephantcare.org/TBinfo.htm
ECI Elephant TB Initiative - an extensive downloadable PDF file
Elephant Care International: TB Initiative  Presented at the 2007 meeting of Zoos and Aquariums Committed to Conservation
TB: Implications for Elephant Management in Asia
Presented at the 2006 meeting of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
India: Elephant Healthcare Project (Elephant Care International)
Elephant TB Initiative - Nepal TB Research (Elephant Care International)

Where can I find more information about TB in humans?

CDC Health Information for International Travel 2008 – Prevention of TB



World Health Organization: Tuberculosis


American Lung Assoc. 2007 Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Fact Sheet  http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35815

WHO 2006 Emergence of XDR-TB http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2006/np23/en/index.html

If you recognize that TB in elephants is an important threat, please consider a donation to Elephant care International to help protect the elephants and the people who work with elephants.  Donate now.

References for Tuberculosis in Elephants
www.elephantcare.org database / Updated Oct 2007

     1.     Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis in elephants.  2003. Ref Type: Electronic Citation

     2.     1994. Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children.Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149: 1359-1374.

     3.    Alexander K.A., Pleydell E., Williams M.C. et al. 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An Emerging Disease of Free-Ranging Wildlife.Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 598-601.

     4.    Anonymous 1998. TB in elephants.Communique 18.

     5.    Arora B.M. 1986. Tuberculosis in wildlife in India.  Summer Institute on Health, Production and Management in Wildlife, pp. 67-78. Indian Veterinary Institute, India.

     6.    Auclair B., Mikota S., Peloquin C.A., Aguilar R. and Maslow J.N. 2002. Population pharmacokinetics of antituberculous drugs and treatment of Mycobacterium bovis  infection in Bongo Antelope (Tragelaphus eurycrus isaaci ).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33: 193-203.

     7.    Baldrey F.S.H. 1930.  Tuberculosis in an elephant.J.R.Army Vet.Corp. 1: 252.

     8.    Ball R., Dumonceaux G., Olsen J. and Burton M.S. 2006. Comparison of trunk wash results matched to Multiantigen Print Immunoassay (MAPIA) in a group of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).Proceedings International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium: 242-243.

     9.    Ball R.L., Dumonceaux G., Olsen J.H., Burton M.S. and Lyashchenko K. 2006. Comparison of trunk wash results matched to multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) in a group of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).  2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 303-304.

   10.    Bhat M.N., Manickam R. and Ramkrishna J. 1999. Screening of captive wild animals for tuberculosis.Indian Veterinary Journal 76: 959-961.

   11.    Biberstein E.L. and Hirsch D.C. 1999. Mycobacterium species: The agents of animal tuberculosis.  Veterinary Microbiology pp. 158-172. Blackwell Science, Maiden, MA.

   12.    Binkley M. 1997. Tuberculosis in captive elephants.  Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 116-119.

   13.    Boomershine C.S. and Zwilling B.S. 2000. Stress and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.Clinical Microbiology Newsletter 22: 177-182.

   14.    Bopayya A.B. 1928. Tuberculosis in an elephant.Indian Veterinary Journal 5: 142-145.

   15.    Chakraborty A. 2003. Diseases of elephants (Elephas maximus) in India-A Review.Indian Wildlife Year Book 2: 74-82.

   16.    Chandrasekharan K. 1979. Common diseases of elephants.  State Level Workshop on Elephants, pp. 51-61. College of Veterinary and Animal Sicences, Kerala Agricultural University, India.

   17.    Chandrasekharan K. 1992. Prevalence of infectious diseases in elephants in Kerala and their treatment. In: Silas EG, Nair MK and Nirmalan G (eds), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989) pp. 148-155. Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India.

   18.    Chandrasekharan K., Radhakrishnan K., Cheeran J.V., Nair K.N.M. and Prabhakaran T. 1995. Review of the Incidence, Etiology and Control of Common Diseases of Asian Elephants with Special Reference to Kerala. In: Daniel JC (ed), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants pp. 439-449. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India.

   19.    Chandrasekharan K. 2002. Specific diseases of Asian elephants.Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7: 31-34.

   20.    Clifton-Hadley R.S., Sauter-Louis C.M., Lugton I.W. et al. 2001. Mycobacterial diseases. In: Williams ES (ed), Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals pp. 340-361. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

   21.    Cousins D.V. and Florisson N. 2005. A review of tests available for use in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in non-bovine species.Rev.sci.tech.Off.int.Epiz. 24: 1039-1059.

   22.    Curasson G. 1942. Traite de pathologie exotique veterinaire et comparee. Vigot Freres, Paris.

   23.    Curasson G. 1936. Treatise on the pathology of exotic animals. Vigot Freres, Paris.

   24.    Dalovision J.R., Montenegro-James S., Kemmerly S.A. et al. 1996. Comparison of the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) direct test, aplicor MTB PCR and IS6, 110-PCR for detection of MTB in respiratory specimens.Clin.Infect.Dis. 23: 1099-1106.

   25.    Damman and Stedefeder 1909. Tuberculosis diseases in elephants with human type mycobacterium.Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 17: 345.

   26.    Datta S.C.A. 1934. Report of the pathology section.Ann.Rep.Imp.Inst.Vet.Research Muktesar: 25-33.

   27.    Davis M. 2001. Mycobacterium tuberculosis risk for elephant handlers and veterinarians.Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16: 350-353.

   28.    Devine J.E., Boever W.J. and Miller E. 1983. Isoniazid therapy in an Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 14: 130-133.

   29.    Dumonceaux G. and Mikota S. 2006. Tuberculosis treatment protocols and complications for elephants.Proceedings International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium: 84-85.

   30.    Dunker F. and Rudovsky M. 1998. Management and treatment of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive elephant at the San Francisco Zoo.   Proceedings AAZV and AAWV Joint Conference, pp. 122-123.

   31.    Essey M.A. and Davis J.P. 1997. Status of the National cooperative state-federal bovine tuberculosis eradication program fiscal year 1997.  Proceedings United States Animal Health Association, p. 564.

   32.    Fowler M.E. 1991. Tuberculosis in zoo ungulates. In: Essey MA (ed), Bovine tuberculosis in cervidae: Proceedings of a symposium, pp. 37-41. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication No. 1506., Washington,D.C.

   33.    Furley C.W. 1997. Tuberculosis in elephants.Lancet British edition 350: 224.

   34.    Garrod A.H. 1875. Report on the Indian elephant which died in the society's gardens on July 7th, 1875.Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1875: 542-543.

   35.    Gavier-Widen D., Hard Af Segerstad C., Roken B. et al. 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Sweden.  European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians 4th Scientific Meeting, Heidelberg, Germany.

   36.    Gorovitz C. 1962. Tuberculosis in an African elephant.Nord Vet Med 14: 351-352.

   37.    Gorovitz C. 1969. Tuberculosis in an African elephant.American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Newsletter January 20.

   38.    Greenberg H.B., Jung R.C. and Gutter A.E. 1981. Hazel Elephant is dead (of tuberculosis) (letter).Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 124: 341.

   39.    Griffith A.S. 1939. Infections of wild animals with tubercle and other acid-fast bacilli.Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 32: 1405-1412.

   40.    Gutter A. 1981. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an Asian elephant.  Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet., pp. 105-106.

   41.    Haagsma J. and Eger A. 1990. ELISA for diagnosis of tuberculosis and chemotherapy in zoo and wildlife animals.  pp. 107-110.

   42.    Halloran P.O. 1955. A bibliography of references to diseases in wild mammals and birds.American Journal of Veterinary Research 16(part 2): 161.

   43.    Harr K., Isaza R. and Harvey J. 2001. Clinicopathological findings in Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive elephants (Elephas maximus) in comparison to clinically normal elephants. In: Kirk Baer C and Wilmette MW (eds), Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians and the National Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference  2001, pp. 209-211. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

   44.    Hecht, J. Telltale bones. New Scientist (2312), 14. 2001.
Ref Type: Magazine Article

   45.    Helke K.L., Mankowski J.L. and Manabe Y.C. 2007. Animal models of cavitation in pulmonary tuberculosis.Tuberculosis (Edinb) 86: 337-348.

   46.    Hirsch D.C. and Biberstein E.L. 2004. Mycobacterium. In: Hirsch DC, MacLachlan NJ and Walker RL (eds), Veterinary Microbiology pp. 223-234. Blackwell, Ames, Iowa.

   47.    Holmes T.H. 1956. Multidiscipline studies of tuberculosis. In: Sparer PJ (ed), Personality,stress, and tuberculosis pp. 65-125. Int. Univ. Press, New York.

   48.    Ilnitskii I.G. 1991. Chemo-tuberculin therapy in association with tissue electrophoresis in the management of patients with recently detected destructive pulmonary tuberculosis.Vrach.Delo. 0: 59-61.

   49.    Isaza R. and Ketz C.J. 1999. A Trunk Wash Technique for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Elephants.Verh.ber.Erkrg.Zootiere 39: 121-124.

   50.    Isaza R. 2001. The elephant trunk wash - An update.  ProcElephant Mangers Association Annual Conference.

   51.    Ishigami T. 1918. The influence of psychic acts on the progress of pulmonary tuberculosis.Am.Rev.Tuberc. 2: 470-484.

   52.    Iyer A.K. 1937. Veterinary science in India, ancient and modern with special reference to tuberculosis.Agric.Livest.India 7: 718-724.

   53.    Janssen D.L., Oosterhuis J.E., Fuller J. and Williams K. 2004. Field technique: A method for obtaining trunk wash mycobacterial cultures in anesthetized free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE, pp. 582-583.

   54.    John M.C., Nedunchelliyan S. and Raghvan N. 1991. Tuberculin testing in Indian elephants.Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 11: 48-49.

   55.    Jones W.D., Jr. and Good R.C. 1982. Hazel elephant redux (letter).Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 125: 270.

   56.    Lacasse C., Gamble K.C., Terio K. et al. 2005. Mycobacterium szulgai osteoarthritis and pneumonia in an African elephant (Loxodonta Africana).  2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, pp. 170-172.

   57.    Lacasse C., Terio K., Kinsel M.J. et al. 2007. Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38: 101-107.

   58.    Larsen R.S., Salman M.D., Mikota S.K. et al. 2000. Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in captive elephants.Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31: 291-302.

   59.    Larsen R.S., Kay M., Triantis J. and Salman M.D. 2005. Update on serological detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants.  2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, pp. 62-63.

   60.    Larsen R.S., Salman M.D., Mikota S.K., Isaza R. and Triantis J. 2000. Validation and use of a multiple-antigen ELISA for detection of tuberculosis infections in elephants.  Proc. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conf., pp. 231-233.

   61.    Lewerin S.S., Olsson S.L., Eld K. et al. 2005. Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo.Vet Rec. 156: 171-175.

   62.    Lyashchenko K., Singh M., Colangeli R. and Gennaro M.L. 2000. A multi-antigen print immunoassay for the development of serological diagnosis of infectious disease.Journal of Immunological Methods 242: 91-100.

   63.    Lyashchenko K., Miller M. and Waters W.R. 2005. Application of MAPIA (Multiple antigen print immunoassay) and rapid lateral flow technology for tuberculosis testing of elephants.  2005 Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, pp. 64-65.

   64.    Lyashchenko K.P., Greenwald R., Esfandiari J. et al. 2006. Tuberculosis in elephants: antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment.Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 722-732.

   65.    Mahato G., Rahman H., Sharma K.K. and Pathak S.C. 1998. Tuberculin testing in captive Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) of a national park.Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases 19: 63.

   66.    Mangold B.J., Cook R.A., Cranfield M.R., Huygen K. and Godfrey H.P. 1999. Detection of elevated levels of circulating antigen 85 by dot immunobinding assay in captive wild animals with tuberculosis.Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30: 477-483.

   67.    Mann P.C., Bush M., Janssen D.L., Frank E.S. and Montali R.J. 1981. Clinicopathologic correlations of tuberculosis in large zoo mammals.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 179: 1123-1129.

   68.    Maslow J. 1997. Tuberculosis and other mycobacteria as zoonoses.  Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 110-115.

   69.    Maslow J.N., Mikota S.K., Zhu M., Riddle H. and Peloquin C.A. 2005. Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol (EMB) in elephants.J Vet Pharmacol Ther 28: 321-323.

   70.    Maslow J.N., Mikota S.K., Zhu M. et al. 2005. Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta
africana).J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 28: 1-7.

   71.    Michalak K., Austin C., Diesel S. et al. 1998. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a zoonotic disease: transmission between humans and elephants.Emerg Infect Dis 4: 283-287.

   72.    Michel A.L., Venter L., Espie I.W. and Coetzee M.L. 2003. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in eight species at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, 1991-2001.Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34: 364-370.

   73.    Michel A.L., Bengis R.G., Keet D.F. et al. 2006. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas:Implications and challenges.Veterinary Microbiology 112: 91-100.

   74.    Mikota S.K. 1999. Diseases of the Elephant: A Review.Verh.ber.Erkrg.Zootiere 39: 1-15.

   75.    Mikota S.K., Miller M., Dumonceaux G. et al. 2006. Elephant tuberculosis diagnosis: implications for elephant management in Asian range countries. 
2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 142-143.

   76.    Mikota S.K., Peddie L., Peddie J. et al. 2001. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 32: 1-16.

   77.    Mikota S.K. and Maslow J. 2002. Epidemiology and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Elephants: 2002. In: Baer CK (ed), American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference, 2002, pp. 384-387.

   78.    Mikota S.K. and Maslow J. 1997. Theoretical and technical aspects of diagnostic techniques for mammalian tuberculosis.  Proceedings, American Association Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 162-165.

   79.    Mikota S.K., Larsen R.S. and Montali R.J. 2000. Tuberculosis in Elephants in North America.Zoo Biology 19: 393-403.

   80.    Mikota S.K., Dumonceaux G., Miller M. et al. 2006. Tuberculosis in elephants: An update on diagnosis and treatment; implications for control in range countries.Proceedings International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium: 109-118.

   81.    Mikota S.K. 2008. Tuberculosis in elephants. In: Fowler ME and Miller RE (eds), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy 6th edition pp. 355-364. Saunders/Elsevier, St. Louis.

   82.    Moda G., Daborn C.J., Grange J.M. and Cosivi O. 1996. The zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis.Tubercle and Lung Disease 77: 103-108.

   83.    Moller T., Roken B., Petersson L., Vitaud C. and Lyashchenko K. 2005. Preliminary results of a new serological test for detection of TB-infection (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africanum) - Swedish Case studies.  Verh.ber.Erkrg.Zootiere, pp. 173-181.

   84.    Moller T., Roken B.O., Lewerin S.S. and Lyashchenko K. 2006. The elephant Rapid Test (RT) the future diagnostic test for TB (M. tuberculosis) in elephants? Call for a validation study in Europe.Proceedings International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium: 119-124.

   85.    Montali R.J., Spelman L.H., Cambre R.C., Chattergee D. and Mikota S.K. 1998. Factors influencing interpretation of indirect testing methods for tuberculosis in elephants.  Proceedings AAZV and AAWV Joint Conference, pp. 109-112.

   86.    Montali R.J., Mikota S.K. and Cheng L.I. 2001. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in zoo and wildlife species.Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 20: 291-303.

   87.    Narayanan R.S. 1925. A case of tuberculosis in an elephant.Journal of Comparative Pathology 38: 96-97.

   88.    Oh P., Granich R., Scott J. et al. 2002. Human exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a Metropolitan Zoo.Emerg Infect Dis 8: 1290-1293.

   89.    Pandey R. and Khuller G.K. 2005. Antitubercular inhaled therapy: opportunities, progress and challenges.Journal of Antimicrobial Therapy 55: 430-435.

   90.    Pavlik I., Ayele W.Y., Parmova I. et al. 2003. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in animal and human populations in six Central European countries during 1990-1999.Veterinarni Medicina 48: 83-89.

   91.    Payeur J.B., Jarnagin J.L., Marquardt J.G. and Whipple D.L. 2002. Mycobacterial isolations in captive elephants in the United States.Ann N Y Acad Sci 969: 256-258.

   92.    Peloquin C.A., Maslow J.N., Mikota S.K. et al. 2006. Dose selection and pharmacokinetics of rifampin in elephants for the treatment of tuberculosis.J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 29: 1-6.

   93.    Peloquin CA. 2002. Therapeutic drug monitoring in the treatment of tuberculosis.Drugs 62: 2169-2183.

   94.    Peloquin CA. 1997. Using therapeutic drug monitoring to dose the antimycobacterial drugs.Clinics in Chest Medicine 18: 79-97.

   95.    Pinto M.R.M., Jainudeen M.R. and Panabokke R.G. 1973. Tuberculosis in a domesticated Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus.Veterinary Record 93: 662-664.

   96.    Potters D., Seghers M., Muyldermans G. et al. 2003. Recovery of Mycobacterium elephantis from sputum of a patient in belgium.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41: 1344.

   97.    Rahman T. 2003. Infectious and non-infectious disease of elephants. In: Das D (ed), Healthcare, Breeding and Management of Asian Elephants pp. 108-118. Project Elephant. Govt. of India, New Delhi.

   98.    Ratanakorn P. 2001. Elephant Health Problems and Management in Cambodia, Lao and Thailand.  A Research Update on Elephants and Rhinos; Proceedings of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna, June 7-11, 2001, 2001, pp. 111-114. Schuling Verlag, Vienna, Austria.

   99.    Riley L.W. 2006. Of mice, men, and elephants: Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope lipids and pathogenesis.J Clin Invest 116: 1475-1478.

100.    Rothschild B.M. and Martin L.D. 2006. Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?Naturwissenschaften 93: 565-569.

101.    Rothschild B.M. and Laub R. 2006. Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene:validation of an early 20th century hypothesis.Naturwissenschaften 93: 557-564.

102.    Ryan C.P. 1997. Tuberculosis in circus elephants.Pulse Southern California Veterinary Medical Assoc.: 8.

103.    Sabin J.E. 1990. Joseph Hersey Pratt's cost-effective class method and its contemporary application.Psychiatry 53: 169-184.

104.    Sandin R.L. 1996. Polymerase chain reaction and other amplification techniques in mycobacteriology.Clinical Mycobacteriology 16: 617-639.

105.    Saunders G. 1983. Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a circus elephant.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 183: 1311-1312.

106.    Selye H. 1956. Recent progress in stress research, with reference to tuberculosis. In: Sparer PJ (ed), Personality, stress, and tuberculosis pp. 45-64. Int. Univ. Press, New York.

107.    Seneviratna P., Wettimuny S.G. and Seneviratna D. 1966. Fatal tuberculosis pneumonia in an elephant.Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Clinician 60: 129-132.

108.    Shojaei H., Magee J.G., Freeman R. et al. 2000. Mycobacterium elephantis sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-chromogenic Mycobacterium isolated from an elephant.International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50: 1817-1820.

109.    Snider D.E., Jr., Jones W.D. and Good R.C. 1984. The usefulness of phage typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis  isolates.Am.Rev.Respir.Dis. 130: 1095-1099.

110.    Sreekumar E., Janki M.B.V., Arathy D.S.  et al. 2007. Molecular characterization and expression of Interferon-gamma of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).Vet Immunol Immunopathol 118: 75-83.

111.    Stringfield C.E., Oh P., Granich R. et al. 2004. Epidemiologic investigation of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of multiple animal species in a metropolitan zoo.  2004 PROCEEDINGS AAZV, AAWV, WDA JOINT CONFERENCE, pp. 46-48.

112.    Thieringer H. 1911. About tuberculosis in an elephant.Berl.Tierarztl.Wschr. 27: 234-235.

113.    Thoen C.O., Mills K. and Hopkins M.P. 1980. Enzyme linked protein A: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagent for detecting antibodies in tuberculous exotic animals.American Journal of Veterinary Research 41: 833-835.

114.    Thoen C.O., Richards W.D. and Jarnagin J.L. 1977. Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 170: 987-990.

115.    Thoen C.O. and Himes E.M. 1980. Mycobacterial infections in exotic animals. In: Montali RJ and Migaki G (eds), The comparative pathology of zoo animals pp. 241-245. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,D.C.

116.    Thoen C.O. and Himes E.M. 1981. Tuberculosis. In: Davis JW, Karstad LH and Trainer DO (eds), Infectious diseases of wild mammals The University of Iowa Press, Ames, Iowa.

117.    Thoen C.O. 1988. Tuberculosis.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 193: 1045-1048.

118.    Turenne C., Chedore P., Wolfe J. et al. 2002. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium elephantis from human specimens.J Clin Microbiol 40: 1230-1236.

119.    Une Y. and Mori T. 2007. Tuberculosis as a zoonosis from a veterinary perspective.Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Aug 13; [Epub ahead of print].

120.    Urbain A. 1938. Tuberculosis in wild animals in captivity.Annales de L'Institute Pasteur 61: 705-730.

121.    von Benten K., Fiedler H.H., Schmidt U.  et al. 1975. Occurrence of tuberculosis in zoo mammals; a critical evaluation of autopsy material from 1970 to the beginning of 1974.Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 82: 316-318.

122.    Wallach J.D. and Boever W.J. 1983. Tuberculosis.  Diseases of Exotic Animals. pp. 791-792.

123.    Waters W.R., Palmer M.V., Bannantine J.P. et al. 2005. Antibody responses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis.Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 12: 727-735.

124.    Whipple D.L., Meyer R.M., Berry D.F., Jarnagin J.L. and Payeur J.B. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer in michigan and elephants.  Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997, pp. 543-546. United States Animal Health Association, Richmond, VA,USA.

125.    Wiegeshaus E., Balasubramanian V. and Smith D.W. 1989. Immunity to tuberculosis from the perspective of pathogenesis.Infect Immun 57: 3671-3676.

126.    Winogradradsky S. 1938. La microbiologie ecologique ses principes - son procede.Annales de L'Institute Pasteur 64: 715-730.

127.    Woodford M.H. 1982. Tuberculosis in wildlife in the Ruwenzori National Park, Uganda (Part II).Trop.Anim.Hlth.Prod. 14: 155-160.

128.    Zhu M., Maslow J.N., Mikota S.K. et al. 2005. Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28: 403-409.

129.    Ziccardi M., Wong H.N., Tell L.A. et al. 2003. Further optimization and validation of the antigen 85 immunoassay for diagnosing mycobacteriosis in wildlife.  Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet, pp. 219-220.

130.    Ziccardi M., Mikota S.K., Barbiers R.B. and Norton T.M. 2000. Tuberculosis in zoo ungulates:Survey results and surveillance plan.  Proc. AAZV and IAAAM Joint Conf., pp. 438-441.


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