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Elephant Formulary

2003-06 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D.
Published by Elephant Care International - www.elephantcare.org

Drugs Sorted by Therapeutic Class / Indication

 

Note these abbreviations used in parentheses after the drug name:

 

H after the drug name indicates that the horse dose is listed for this drug. 

O indicates that doses for other species are listed (horse dose unavailable but drug potentially useful for elephants) 

E indicates that information specific to elephants is listed.

 

 

 

Central Nervous System Drugs

(including anti-inflammatories, analgesics, muscle relaxants)

 

            CNS/Respiratory Stimulants

                        Doxapram  (H) (E)

 

 

            Analgesics

                        Narcotic Agonists

                                    Meperidine (H) (E)

                                    Morphine  (H) (E)

                                    Oxymorphone (H)

                        Narcotic agonist/antagonists

                                    Buprenorphine  (H)

                                    Butorphanol  (H) (E)

                                    Pentazocine (H)

 

 

                       

                        Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory/

                                    Analgesic Agents

                                    Aspirin (H) 

                                    Carprofen (O)

                                    DMSO (H)

                                    Flunixin  (H) (E)

                                    Ibuprofen (E)

                                    Ketoprofen  (H) (E)

                                    Meclofenamic Acid (H)

                                    Naproxen (H)                          

Phenylbutazone (H) (E)

                                   

 

 

                        Gold Compounds

                                    Aurothioglucose (H)

                                   

 

            Behavior-Modifying Agents Used for Elephants

                                   

                                    Acepromazine (H) (E)

                                    Diazepem (H) (E)

Haloperidol  (E)

                                    Perphenazine  (E)

                                    Xylazine  (H) (E)

                                    Zuclopenthixol (E)                              

            Tranquilizers/Sedatives

                                    Acepromazine (H) (E)

                                    Azaperone (O) (E)

                                    Detomidine (H)

                                    Diazepam (H) (E)

                                    Haloperidol (E)

                                    Medetomidine (O) (E)

                                    Midazolam  (H)

                                    Perphenazine (E) 

                                    Promazine (H) (E)

                                    Tiletamine/Zolazepam  (H) (E)

                                    Xylazine (H) (E)

 

           

Anesthetic Agents

                        Barbiturates

                                    Pentobarbital (H)

                                    Thiamylal (H)

                                    Thiopental (H) (E)

                        Inhalants

                                    Isoflurane (O) (E)

                                    Halothane (H) (E)

                        Miscellaneous

                                    Ketamine (H) (E)

                                    Propofol  (O)

                                    Xylazine  (H) (E)

                                    Tiletamine/Zolazepam (H) (E)

                       

                        Narcotics

                                    Carfentanil (E)

                                    Etorphine (E)

 

Reversal Agents

                                    Atipamezole (O) (E)

                                    Diprenorphine (E)

                                    Nalmefene (E)

Naloxone  (H) (E)

                                    Naltrexone (O) (E)

                                    Neostigmine (H)

                                    Tolazoline (H) (E)

                                    Yohimbine (H) (E)

 

            Anticonvulsants

                                    Diazepam (H) (E)

                                    Phenobarbital (H) (E)

                                    Phenytoin (H)

                                   

            Muscle Relaxants, Skeletal

                                    Atracurium (H)

                                    Dantrolene  (H)

                                    Guaifenesin/GG (H)

                                    Methocarbamol (H)

                                    Succinylcholine (H) (E)

                                   

            Muscle Relaxants, Smooth

                                    Aminopropazine (H)

 

            Euthanasia Agent

                                    Pentobarbital/Phenytoin (H)

 

Cardiovascular Agents

           

Inotropic Agents

                                    Digoxin (H)

                                    Digitoxin (H)

                                    Dobutamine (H) (E)

 

            Antiarrhythmic Drugs

                                    Lidocaine (H) (E)

                                    Procainamide (H)

                                    Quinidine (H)

                                                                       

            Anticholinergics

                                    Atropine (H( (E)

                                    Glycopyrrolate (H)

 

                                               

            Vasodilating Agents

                                    Isoxsuprine (H)

                                                                       

            Agents Used in Treatment of  Shock

                                    Dobutamine (H) (E)

                                    Epinephrine (H) (E)

                                    Isoproterenol (H)

                                    Phenylephrine (H)

 

            Alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

                                    Phenoxybenzamine (H)

                                   

            Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

                                    Propranolol (H)

 

 

Respiratory Drugs

            Bronchodilators

                        Sympathomimetics

                                    Albuterol (H)

                                    Clenbuterol (H)

                                    Epinephrine (H)

                                    Isoproterenol (H)

                                    Terbutaline (H)

 

                        Xanthines

                                    Aminophylline/Theophyll. (H)

 

            Antihistamines

                                    Chlorpheniramine (O) (E)

                                    Diphenhydramine (H)

                                    Doxylamine (H)

                                    Hydroxyzine (H)

                                    Pyrilamine (H)

                                    Tripelennamine (H)

 

            Antitussives

                                    Butorphanol (H) (E)

                                   

           

Renal and Urinary Tract

            Diuretics

                        Loop Diuretics

                                    Furosemide (H) (E)

                        Osmotic Diuretics

                                    Mannitol (H)

 

            Agents for Urinary Incontinence/Retention

                                    Phenoxybenzamine (H)                                 

            Urinary Alkalinizers

                                    Sodium Bicarbonate (H)

 

            Urinary Acidifiers

                                    Methionine (H)

                                    Ammonium Chloride (H)

 

            Cholinergic Stimulants

                                    Bethanechol (H)

 

            Agents for Urolithiasis

                                    Ammonium Chloride (H)

                                    Methionine (H)

                                   

Gastrointestinal Agents

            Antiemetic Agents

                                    Chlorpromazine (H) (E)

                                    Diphenhydramine (H)

                                    Metoclopramide (H) (E)

                                   

                        Antacids

                                    Calcium Salts, Oral (H) (E)

                                    Na Bicarbonate (H)

                        H2 Antagonists

                                    Cimetidine (H)

                                    Famotidine (D)

                                    Ranitidine (H)

                        Gastromucosal Protectants

                                    Sucralfate (H)

                        Proton Pump Inhibitors

                                    Omeprazole (H)

 

            Appetite Stimulants

                                    Diazepam (H)

                                    Oxazepam (H)

 

            GI Antispasmodics-Anticholinergics

                                    Propantheline (H)

 

            GI Stimulants

                                    Cisapride (H)

                                    Dexpanthenol (H)

                                    Metoclopramide (H) (E)

                                    Neostigmine (H) (E)

            Laxatives

                        Saline

                                    Saline Hyperosmotics: Magnesium Salts /
                                          Sodium Salts (H)

                        Bulk producing

                                    Psyllium (H)

                        Lubricant

                                    Mineral Oil (H)

                        Surfactant

                                    Docusate (H)

                       

            Antidiarrheals

                                    Kaolin/Pectin (H)

                                    Bismuth Subsalicylate (H

                                    Clioquinol (H)

 

            Misc. GI Drugs

                                    Bismuth Subsalicylate  (H)

                                   

Hormones/Endocrine/Reproductive Agents

            Sex Hormones

                        Estrogens

                                    Estradiol (H) (E)

                                   

                        Progestins    

                                    Altrenogest (H)

                       

                        Anabolic steroids

                                    Boldenone (H)

                                    Stanozolol (H)

                                   

            Posterior Pituitary Hormones

                        Oxytocics

                                    Oxytocin (H) (E)

 

            Adrenal Cortical Steroids

                                    Corticotropin-ACTH (H)

                        Glucocorticoids

                                    Dexamethasone (H) (E)

                                    Flumethasone (H)

                                    Hydrocortisone  (H)

                                    Methylprednisolone (H)

                                    Prednisolone (H)

                                    Prednisone (H) (E)

                                    Triamcinolone (H)

                                                           

            Antidiabetic Agents

                                    Insulin (H)

           

            Thyroid Drugs

                        Thyroid Hormones

                                    Levothyroxine (H)

                                    Thyrotropin (TSH) (H)

            Misc. Endocrine/Reproductive Drugs

                                    Bromocriptine (H)

                                    Chorionic Gonadotropin-HCG (H)

                                    Follicle Stimulating Hormone (H)

                        Prostaglandins

                                    Cloprostenol (H)

                                    Dinoprost (H)

                                    Fluprostenol (H)

 

Antiinfective Drugs

            Antiparasitics

                                    Albendazole (O,E)

                                    Clorsulon (O,E)

                                    Dichlorvos (H)

                                    Doramectin (O)

                                    Eprinomectin (O)

                                    Febantel (H)

                                    Fenbendazole (H,E)

                                    Fenthion (O)

                                    Furazolidone (H)

                                    Ivermectin (H,E)

                                    Levamisole (O) (E)

                                    Metronidazole (H,E)

                                    Morantel (O) (E)

                                    Oxfendazole (H)

                                    Oxibendazole (H)

                                    Piperazine (H)

                                    Praziquantal (O) (E)

                                    Pyrantal (H)

                                    Pyrimethamine (H)

                                    Thiabendazole (H) (E)

            Anticoccidial Agents

                                    Amprolium  (O)

                                    Decoquinate (O)

 

            Antibiotics

                        Anti-tuberculosis

            Amikacin (E)

Ethambutol (E)

            Isoniazid (E)

            Pyrazinamide (E)

            Rifampin (E)

Aminocyclitols

                                    Amikacin (H) (E)

                                    Gentamicin (H) (E)

                                    Neomycin (H)

                                    Spectinomycin (H)

                                    Tobramycin (H)

                        Cephalosporins

                                    Cefadroxil (O)

                                    Cefazolin (H)

                                    Cefoperazone (H)

                                    Cefotaxime (H)

                                    Cefoxitin (H)

                                    Ceftiofur (H) (E)

                                    Ceftriaxone (H)

                                    Cephalexin (H)

                                    Cephalothin (H)

                                    Cephapirin (H)

                        Macrolides

                                    Erythromycins (H) (E)

                                    Tylosin (O) (E)

                        Penicillins

                                    Amoxicillin (H) (E)

                                    Ampicillin (H) (E)

                                    Cloxacillin (O)

                                    Oxacillin (H)

                                    Penicillin G (H) (E)

                                    Penicillin V (H)

                                    Ticarcillin (H)

Tetracyclines

                                    Doxycycline (H)

                                    Oxytetracycline (H) (E)

                                    Tetracycline (H)

                        Lincosamides

                                    Tilmicosin (O)

                        Quinolones

                                    Enrofloxacin (H) (E)

                                    Ciprofloxacin (O)

                        Sulfonamides

                                    Sulfadiazine/Trimethoprim(H)
                                   
Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (H) (E)

                                    Sulfadimethoxine (H)

                                    Sulfadimrthoxine/Ormetoprim (O) (E)

                        Miscellaneous Antibacterials

                                    Chloramphenicol (H)

                                    Clioquinol  (H)

                                    Florfenicol (O)

                                    Imipenem-Cilastatin (O)

                                    Metronidazole (H) (E)

                                    Nitrofurantoin (H)

                                    Novobiocin (O)

                                    Rifampin (H) (E)

                                    Sodium Iodide (H)

                                   

            Antifungal Agents

                                    Amphotericin B (H)

                                    Griseofulvin (H)

                                    Itraconazole  (H)

                                    Ketoconazole (H)

                                   

            Antiviral Agents

                                    Famciclovir  (E)

                                   

Blood Modifying Agents

 

            Clotting Agents

                        Vitamin K

                                    Phytonadione (H)

            Anticoagulants

                                    Heparin (H)

                                    Warfarin (H)

 

            Erythropoietic Agents

                                    Ferrous Sulfate (H)

            Misc. Blood Modifying Agents

                                    Pentoxifylline (H) 579

 

            Fluid & Electrolyte Modifiers

                        Electrolyte Modifiers

                                    Calcium Salts             (H)

                                    Dextran 70 (O)

                                    Magnesium Sulfate Inj. (O)

                                    Mannitol (H)

                                    Potassium  (O)

 

Antineoplastics/Immunosuppresives

 

            Alkylating Agents

                                    Chlorambucil (H)

                       

                        Miscellaneous Agents

            Antidotes

                                    Antivenin Polyvalent/Coral Snake (H)

                                    Atipamezole (O) (E)

                                    Dimercaprol (H)

                                    Edetate Calcium Disodium (H)

                                    Naloxone  (H) (E)

                                    Penicillamine (O)

                                    Phytonadione (H)

                                    Pralidoxime (H)

                                    Sodium Sulfate (O)

                                    Sodium Thiosulfate (H)

                                    Thiamine (H)

                                    Zinc Acetate/Sulfate (O) (E)

                                    Charcoal, activated (H)

 

            Bone/Joint Agents

                                    Hyaluronate (O)

                                    Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (H)

 

            Dermatologic Agents (Systemic)

                                    Pentoxifylline (H)

 

           

Vitamins and Minerals/Nutrients

                                    Ascorbic Acid/Vit. C (H)

                                    Thiamine (H)

                                    Vitamin E/Selenium (H) (E)

                                    Vitamin B Complex

                                    Zinc Acetate/Sulfate (O)

 

            Systemic Acidifiers

                                    Acetazolamide (O)

                                    Acetic Acid (H)

 

            Systemic Alkalinizers

                                    Sodium Bicarbonate (H)

            Unclassified

                                    Hyaluronidase (E)

 

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