Determining appropriate drug doses for
elephants is challenging. Relatively few pharmacokinetic studies have
been conducted to provide elephant-specific information. Veterinarians
therefore typically determine elephant drug doses using information
available from other species. The horse is the most commonly used model.
Some veterinarians use metabolic scaling formulas.
The purpose of this Formulary is to
compile drug information pertinent to elephants in one place that is
readily accessible globally and in a format that can be easily updated.
The Elephant Formulary was created in
conjunction with Donald C. Plumb, Pharm D., author of the Veterinary Drug
Handbook (Iowa State University Press). Donald’s extensive work provides
the basis for The Elephant Formulary. The original work has been edited
to include only those drugs with known or potential application to
elephants. For most drugs only the equine doses have been retained.
Ruminant and selected monogastric doses have been retained in a few cases
where a drug offers a potential application to elephants but lacks an
equine reference. The original text has been retained as effects observed
in other species may be pertinent to elephants.
Elephant specific information, derived
primarily from published literature, has been added to existing drug
monographs. Drugs used in elephants that did not appear in the original
work have been added. Anecdotal information has been included as this
remains a valuable source of information. In both cases, information
sources are cited.
Many abstracts have been included to
provide additional information.
The elephant doses are reported in the
format in which they appear in the original source. If information is
missing, e.g. route of administration, it is likely absent from the
While a sincere effort has been expounded to assure that the dosages and
information included in this book are correct, errors may occur and it is
suggested that the reader refer to the original reference or the approved
labeling information of the product for additional information. The
Federal Drug Agency (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine has an excellent
web site. It is located at: http://www.fda.gov/cvm
The authors/publisher assume no
responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to results that may
be obtained from the uses, procedures, or dosages listed and do not
necessarily endorse such uses, procedures, or dosages. The
authors/publisher shall not be liable to any person whatsoever for any
damages, or equivalencies, or by reason of any misstatement or error,
negligent or otherwise obtained in this work.
ABBREVIATIONS: OTC & RX
In addition to the abbreviations used in writing prescriptions (e.g., tid,
q8h, etc.—see the abbreviation list in the appendix), the terms OTC or Rx
are found in parentheses after a listed dosage form. “Rx” indicates that
the drug is considered to be a prescription or legend product, and
requires a prescription. “OTC” denotes that the item is available
“over-the-counter” and does not require a prescription for purchase (in
the United States).
YOUR PARTICIPATION IS
The Elephant Formulary is a living document that will expand our knowledge
of elephant pharmacology and will enable us to better care for this
remarkable species. We welcome comments, suggestions, and contributions.
We particularly invite our international
colleagues to contribute information regarding drugs available in their
respective countries. When contributing to the Formulary please follow
the format used for the Drug Monographs. Contributions must include
published references or names and contact information for anecdotal
information and be as complete as possible. Information about natural
remedies is welcome as are reports of adverse drug reactions. Questions
of immediate concern can be posted on our
Questions, contributions, contact:
Susan K. Mikota DVM
COPYRIGHT © 2003 by Donald C. Plumb and Susan K. Mikota
Hank Hammatt (photos, web design)
Elephant Care International
Joel Maslow MD PhD
Chief, Infectious Diseases
VA Medical Center
University and Woodland Aves
Phila PA 19104