Elephant Bibliographic Database

References updated Mar 2003

  1. Soltysiak,Z., Barcikowska,M., and Nieman,S. 2002. Specification patterns of amyloid-beta deposits in old fish, reptile, bird and several old mammal brains. Proba wykazania amyloidowego-beta depozytu w mozgach starych ryb, gadow, ptakow i niektorych ssakow. Medycyna \Weterynaryjna 58:(1):74-76
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2239 Language: Polish with English summary
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system/other animal
    Abstract: The study was conducted to demonstrate whether there are amyloid-beta deposits in old fish, reptiles, birds and some mammals. The thick brain sections were stained with cresyl violet, Congo red, tioflavin S and by immunocytochemistry using mAb 4G8. Amyloid-beta deposits were not found in old fish, reptile and bird brains. Amyloid-beta was found in old mammal brains in three forms: parenchymal amyloidosis, congophilic angiopathy and diffuse amyloid deposits. Three types of plaque were found in old mammal brain cortexes: diffuse, primitive, and classic (neuritic). The neuritic plaque alveas consisted of three components: degenerating neurites, amyloid, and reactive cells. Parenchymal amyloidosis and congophilic angiopathy were found only in five mammal brains, two from wolf, two from fox and one from elephant brain. Congophilic angiopathy was discovered in all investigated mammals.


  2. Cozzi,B., Spagnoli,S., and Bruno,L. 2001. An overview of the central nervous system of the elephant through a critical appraisal of the literature published in the XIX and XX centuries. Brain Res Bull 54:(2):219-227
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1927 Language: English
    Keywords: African/anatomy and physiology/nervous system/evolution
    Abstract: The two species of elephants (Indian: Elephas maximus and African: Loxodonta africana) possess the largest brain among land mammals. Due to its size, the elephant brain is discussed in virtually every paper dealing with the evolution of the central nervous system of mammals and comparative brain size. Studies on the social habits of elephants also deal with the skills and the "intelligence" and brain size of these species. Yet most of the descriptions and conclusions reported in comparative studies rely on second-hand data derived from investigations performed several decades before, often dating as far back as the XIX century. Furthermore, many of the original papers actually describing gross and detailed features of the brain of elephants are either no longer available, are written in languages other than English, or are difficult to trace. The present study gives a short description of the anatomy of the central nervous system of elephants, with special attention to its distinctive features, reports
    all available literature on the subject, and briefly discusses its origins and rationale.


  3. Crossley,D.A. 2000. Elephant tusks: where are the nerves? J.Vet.Dent. 17:(1):37
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1899 Language: English
    Keywords: nervous system/tusk


  4. Malik,M.R., Shrivastava,A.B., Jain,N.K., and Rakhi,V. 2000. A note on encephalometry of Asian elephant. Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy 12:(1):103-104
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1662 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/Asian/nervous system


  5. Subhachalat,P., Panichkriangkrai,W., Mahasawangkul,S., Angkawanich,T., Yibchok-A-Nun,S., Piyarat,S., Wara-Panichkriangkrai, Sittidet-Mahasawangkul, Taweepok-Angkawanich, and Sirintorn-Yibchok-A-Nun 2000. Serum cholinesterase levels in elephants. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 30:(3):63-68
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1650 Language: Thai; English summary
    Keywords: Asian/nervous system/serum chemistry/male/female
    Abstract: Serum cholinesterase (ChE) levels were determined in adult elephants in the summer, rainy and winter seasons by a colorimetric method using acetylthiocholine as the substrate. ChE levels were found to be lower in adult males than in adult females at all 3 seasons (P < 0.05). ChE level was highest in the rainy season. It became lower in the summer and winter seasons. The difference was found in both sexes. This study is the first report on the measurement of ChE levels in elephants.


  6. Fagan,D.A., Benirschke,K., Simon,J.H., and Roocroft,A. 1999. Elephant dental pulp tissue: where are the nerves? J Vet Dent 16:(4):169-172
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1944 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/dental/nervous system
    Abstract: Dental pulp tissue from three elephants was examined histologically with hematoxylin and eosin and s-100 protein stains. In all specimens, normal pulp was found with the exception that no nerve fibers (myelinated or non-myelinated) were demonstrable in any of the numerous sections prepared.


  7. Pribe,C., Grossberg,S., and Cohen,M.A. 1997. Neural control of interlimb oscillations. II. Biped and quadruped gaits and
    . Biol Cybern 77:(2):141-152
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1984 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/human/musculoskeletal/nervous system/other animal
    Abstract: Behavioral data concerning animal and human gaits and gait transitions are simulated as emergent properties of a central pattern generator (CPG) model. The CPG model is a version of the Ellias-Grossberg oscillator. Its neurons obey Hodgkin-Huxley type equations whose excitatory signals operate on a faster time scale than their inhibitory signals in a recurrent on-center off-surround anatomy. A descending command or GO signal activates the gaits and triggers gait transitions as its amplitude increases. A single model CPG can generate both in-phase and anti-phase oscillations at different GO amplitudes. Phase transitions from either in-phase to anti-phase oscillations or from anti-phase to in-phase oscillations can occur in different parameter ranges, as the GO signal increases. Quadruped vertebrate gaits, including the amble, the walk, all three pairwise gaits (trot, pace, and gallop), and the pronk are simulated using this property. Rapid gait transitions are simulated in the order--walk, trot, pace, and gallop--that occurs in the cat, along with the observed increase in oscillation frequency. Precise control of quadruped gait switching uses GO-dependent modulation of inhibitory interactions, which generates a different functional anatomy at different arousal levels. The primary human gaits (the walk and the run) and elephant gaits (the amble and the walk) are simulated, without modulation, by oscillations with the same phase relationships but different waveform shapes at different GO signal levels, much as the duty cycles of the feet are longer in the walk than in the run. Relevant neural data from spinal cord, globus pallidus, and motor cortex, among other structures, are discussed.


  8. Rasmussen,L.E.L. and Munger,B.L. 1996. The Sensorineural Specializations of the Trunk Tip (Finger) of the Asian Elephant, Elephas maximus. The Anatomical Record 246:127-134
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2567 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/Asian/behavior/male/nervous system/special senses
    Abstract: Background: The dorsal extension of the tip of the trunk of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), often referred to as "the finger," possesses remarkable mechanical dexterity and is used for a variety of special behaviors including grasping food and tactile and ultimately chemosensory recognition via the vomeronasal organ. The present study describes a unique sensory innervation of this specialized region of the trunk. Methods: The tip of the dorsal aspect of the trunk is referred to as the trunk tip finger and has been studied grossly in 13 living elephants. One tip from a male Asian elephant was obtained for histologic study when it was accidentally severed. The tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and portions were either sectioned frozen or embedded in paraffin and serial sectioned. Sections were stained with silver in both cases. Results: The skin of the trunk tip finger differs from that of the surrounding areas; it contains a high density of free nerve endings, numerous convoluted branched small corpuscles, and vellus vibrissae that resemble vellus hairs, which do not protrude beyond the skin surface. The finger is thus densely innervated with three distinctive types of sensory terminals. Corpuscular receptors consist of small Pacinian corpuscles and convoluted branched simple corpuscles. Both are present in the superficial dermis. Abundant regular vibrissae are present in the skin surrounding the trunk tip finger. Short vibrissae that do not protrude from the skin surface, referred to as vellus vibrissae, are abundant in the finger tip. Both types of vibrissae are innervated by hundreds of axons resembling the mystacial vibrissae of rodents. Free nerve endings are numerous in the superficial dermis, often making intimate contact with the basal cells of rete pegs. Conclusions: The dorsal finger of the trunk tip of Asian elephants has a unique sensory innervation that resembles aspects of sensory innervation of mystacial skin of rodents or lip tissue of monkeys. This dense sensory innervation can be correlated with the tactile ability of these animals to use the trunk finger to grasp small objects for feeding and to insert chemically active samples into the ductal orifices of the vomeronasal organ for subsequent chemosensory processing.


  9. Soltysiak,Z. 1996. Age-related changes in the brain of an Indian elephant. Zmiany starcze w mozgowiu slonia indyjskiego. Zycie-Weterynaryjne 71:(9):309-311
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1778 Language: Polish
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/Asian/geriatrics/nervous system


  10. Van Aswegen,G., Van Noorden,S., Kotze,S.H., de Vos,V., and Schoeman,J.H. 1996. The intestine and endocrine pancreas of the African elephant: a histological, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence study. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 63:335-340
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2627 Language: English
    Keywords: African/anatomy and physiology/gastrointestinal/nervous system
    Abstract: Histological, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence methods were employed to study the intestine and endocrine pancreas of the elephant. The histological findings were in line with those in monogastric animals. In the mucosa of intestine, endocrine cells were immunoreactive to somatostatin, gastrin, CCK, GIP, secretin, motilin, glucagon and NPY. Nerve cells immunoreactive to somatostatin, substance P, VIP, PHI, NPY, bombesin and CGRP were detected. No immunoreactivity to neurotensin was observed. Islets of the pancreas had insulin cells in their cores and glucagon and somatostatin cells in their mantles. The antisera employed failed to demonstrate PP cells in the pancreas, but NPY-immunoreactive cells were present.


  11. Kramer,B. and Hattingh,J. 1995. The neuromuscular junction in the African elephant Loxodonta africana and African buffalo Syncerus caffer. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 25:(1):p14, 3p, 2bw
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2509 Language: English
    Keywords: African/anatomy and physiology/anesthesia/drugs/nervous system/other animal/respiratory
    Abstract: Differences in the physiological response to the drug succinyldicholine occur between the African elephant Loxodonta africana and African buffalo Syncerus caffer, irrespective of the route of administration of the drug. The response in elephants has suggested the presence of unique acetylcholine receptors in their respiratory muscles. In this paper the first observations of the neuromuscular junction in the African elephant and African buffalo are reported. While the basic structure of the junction was found to be typically mammalian in both species, differences were found in the morphology of the postjunctional area where these receptors reside. Elucidation of the structure and function of this junction in these animals is important in the selection of drugs that act as neuromuscular blockers.


  12. Ringo,J.L., Doty,R.W., Demeter,S., and Simard,P.Y. 1994. Time is of the essence: a conjecture that hemispheric specialization arises from interhemispheric conduction delay. Cereb Cortex 4:(4):331-343
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2025 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/human/nervous system/other animal
    Abstract: Tomasch (1954) and Aboitiz et al. (1992) found the majority of the fibers of the human corpus callosum are under 1 micron in diameter. Electron microscopic studies of Swadlow et al. (1980) and the detailed study of LaMantia and Rakic (1990a) on macaques show the average size of the myelinated callosal axons also to be less than 1 micron. In man, the average-sized myelinated fiber interconnecting the temporal lobes would have a one-way, interhemispheric delay of over 25 msec. Thus, finely detailed, time-critical neuronal computations (i.e., tasks that strain the capacity of the callosum and hence could not be handled by just the larger fibers) would be performed more quickly via shorter and faster intrahemispheric circuits. While one transit across the commissural system might yield tolerable delays, multiple passes as in a system involving "setting" would seem prohibitively slow. We suggest that these temporal limits will be avoided if the neural apparatus necessary to perform each high-resolution, time-critical task is gathered in one hemisphere. If the, presumably overlapping, neural assemblies needed to handle overlapping tasks are clustered together, this would lead to hemispheric specialization. The prediction follows that the large brains of mammals such as elephants and cetaceans will also manifest a high degree of hemispheric specialization.


  13. Anderson,W.I., Cummings,J.F., Steinberg,H., De-Lahunta,A., and King,J.M. 1993. Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians. Journal of Comparative Pathology 109:(1):89-91
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1843 Language: English
    Keywords: Asian/geriatrics/nervous system/other animal/pathology/free-ranging
    Abstract: Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, Arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, Persian onager, Przewalski's wild horse, Malayan sun bear, Asian elephant, East African river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. It was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin sheaths. Occasionally, ballooned myelin sheaths contained thin strands of myelin and macrophages surrounding distorted axons. Additionally, a mild incidental lymphocytic polyneuritis was present in intradural nerve rootlets of the Malayan sun bear, and moderate lymphocytic spinal ganglionitis in the East African river hippopotamus.


  14. Hattingh,J. and Petty,D. 1992. Comparative physiological responses to stressors in animals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology [A] 101:(1):113-116
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1070 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/nervous system/endocrinology/stress


  15. Tobler,I. 1992. Behavioral sleep in the Asian elephant in captivity. Sleep 15:1-12
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 782 Language: English
    Keywords: Asian/behavior/captive/female/nervous system
    Abstract: Sleeping behavior was investigated during 294 nights for female Asian elephants (circus: n = 7; zoo: n = 5; including an infant). The animals were recorded continuously on time-lapse video tapes for 7-16 days consecutively. Seasonal changes in sleep behavior were studied by comparing summer (16-day) and winter (13-15-day) recordings; and sleep development was assessed by recording a mother and her infant for three consecutive nights per month for 15 months (age 5-19 months). Sleep occurred in a recumbent (RS) and in a standing position (standing sleep: SS). Although signs of paradoxical sleep (PS) were often evident, the exact onset and end of a PS episode could not be determined. Sleep onset occurred after 2100 hours, and sleep increased progressively reaching a maximum between 0100 and 0400 hours. Total sleep time (TST) in the adults comprised 4.0-6.5 hours per night (including 13.8- 130.9 minutes of SS) and did not differ between the two groups. Seasonal differences were present in TST and in the distribution of sleep within the night; more sleep occurred in the winter. The duration of RS episodes in the adults was 72.0 minutes, a value far below the sleep-cycle length of 124 minutes that others have reported for elephants. TST in the infant decreased during the course of the 15-month recording period from 8.1 hours to 5.1 hours. SS occurred for the first time at the age of 9 months


  16. Cheng,H.-C. and Yamashiro,D. 1991. Synthesis and receptor binding activity of elephant beta- endorphin, a beta-endorphin homolog with highly potent analgesic activity. International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research 38:66-69
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 786 Language: English
    Keywords: nervous system/endocrinology/anatomy and physiology
    Abstract: Elephant beta-endorphin and its analog, elephant beta- endorphin(6-31) were synthesized by standard solid phase method. Receptor binding activity showed that elephant beta-endorphin was five to six times more potent than human beta-endorphin in its ability to bind to opiate receptors on rat brain membrane. In a previous study (Wong, C.-L., Wai, M.-K., Cheng, H.-C., Chung, D. & Yamashiro, D (1990) Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 16, 33-37), tail flick test for intracerebroventricularly administered beta-endorphin showed that the antinociceptive potency of elephant beta-endorphin was seven to eight times higher than that of human beta-endorphin in mice. Results from both studies suggest that elephant beta-endorphin was a much more potent antinociceptive agent than human beta- endorphin in tail flick test and its higher analgesic activity might be due to its higher affinity for opiate receptors in the brain.


  17. Cole,G. and Neal,J.W. 1990. The brain in aged elephants. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 49:(2):190-192
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 804 Language: English
    Keywords: nervous system/geriatrics


  18. Wong,C.-L., Wai,M.-K., Cheng,H.-C., Chung,D., and Yamashiro,D. 1990. Preliminary study on the antinociceptive effect of elephant beta- endorphin. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 17:33-37
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 796 Language: English
    Keywords: nervous system/anatomy and physiology/endocrinology
    Abstract: 1. Intraventricular administration of human beta-endorphin and elephant beta-endorphin significantly prolonged the tail flick response tested 30 min later. However, elephant beta-endorphin was about 7-8 times more potent than human beta-endorphin in the tail flick test. 2. beta-Endorphin antagonized the antinociceptive effect of both human beta-endorphin and elephant beta-endorphin by the same extent. Naloxone also antagonized the antinociceptive effects of the beta-endorphins but it was less effective than beta-endorphin. 3. Human beta-endorphin and elephant beta-endorphin were of equal potency in inhibiting the abdominal constriction response induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) acetic acid. Both beta-endorphin and naloxone antagonized these effects of the beta-endorphins with naloxone being more effective. 4. The present study showed that different opioid receptor subtypes may be involved in the tail flick test and the abdominal constriction test. Furthermore, elephant beta-endorphin was a better antinociceptive agent than human beta-endorphin in the tail flick test


  19. Haug,H. 1987. Brain sizes, surfaces, and neuronal sizes of the cortex cerebri: a stereological investigation of man and his variability and a comparison with some mammals (primates, whales, marsupials, insectivores, and one elephant). American Journal of Anatomy 180:126-142
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 834 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/human/nervous system/other animal
    Abstract: This study deals with the stereological estimation of macroscopic sizes of brain and cortex, i.e., volume, surface, and folding, and of microscopic neuronal sizes, i.e., density, mean size, size distribution, and number of neurons. The results show that the degree of variability in man amounts to about 15%. A decrease in volume of the different gray structures can be observed in man after the age of 65 years. The surface, folding index, and length of convolution do not alter with aging. The comparison with mammals of various sizes allows the conclusion that there is a high correlation to brain size for nearly all macroscopic values. Man and elephant, however, have a cortical surface which is, in comparison with whales, relatively small. In contrast, whales have very small cortices compared with man. At the cytoarchitectonic level, the neuronal density has a correlation to brain size. Contrary to other mammals, the primates and man have a high fraction of small granular neurons, especially in layer 4. The assumption that the number of cortical neurons beneath a given surface area of cortex is the same in all mammals cannot be verified, especially in those with large brains. The allometric connection between brain size and parameters is not valid for all measurements (e.g., thickness of cortex, mean size of neurons, perikaryal size distribution, and glial density). Yet some other measurements are well correlated.


  20. Wright,P.G. and Luck,C.P. 1984. Do elephants need to sweat? South African Journal of Zoology 19:270-274
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 525 Language: English
    Keywords: African/anatomy and physiology/integument/nervous system


  21. Wright,P.G. 1984. Why do elephants flap their ears? South African Journal of Zoology 19:266-269
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 563 Language: English
    Keywords: African/anatomy and physiology/behavior/nervous system


  22. Markowitz,H., 1982. On elephants forgetting and bathing. In: Behavioral Enrichment in the Zoo. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York pp. 86-93
    Ref Type: Book Chapter Ref ID: 1118 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/captive/Asian/nervous system


  23. Markowitz,H., 1982. Reaffirming that animals are smarter than investigators. In: Behavioral Enrichment in the Zoo. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York pp. 132
    Ref Type: Book Chapter Ref ID: 1119 Language: English
    Keywords: captive/behavior/nervous system


  24. Paynter,D. 1982. Death of Shingwidzi. African Wild Life 36:70
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 552 Language: English
    Keywords: African/free-ranging/mortality/cardiovascular/nervous system


  25. Kreps,E.M., Chirkovskaia,E.V., Pomazanskaia,L.F., Avrova,N.F., and Levitina,M.V. 1979. Brain lipids of a mammoth, Elephas primigenius, which died more than 40,000 years ago. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 15:(3):227-238
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2081 Language: Russian
    Keywords: mammoth/nervous system
    Abstract: Studies have been made on the brain lipids of the 6--7-month mammoth which remained in the eternal ice for more than 40.000 years. Thin layer chromatography of chloroformmethanol extract of the brain lipids shows that all glycerophospholipids in the brain were destroyed. On the contrary, sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin yielded the evident spot which was identified by specific reactions and by comparison with sphingomyelin from the brain of rat. Sphingomyelin content was evaluated. Using gas-liquid chromatography, fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin was investigated. It was found to be close to that in contemporary mammals. Other shingolipids -- cerebrosides, sulfatides, gangliosides -- persisted (probably, only partially) and were studied quantitatively. Relative content of cerebrosides with normal fatty acids and hydrooxyacids was determined. Studies were also made on fatty acid composition of cerebrosides, sulfatides and gangliosides, as well as on the composition of spingosine bases of gangliosides. Free cholesterol was found in the brain of the mammoth. Other sterols were not detected. With respect to quantitative evaluation of the preserved lipids, it should be mentioned that on the one hand, the brain underwent dehydration which increased lipid content per a unit of "wet" weight, whereas on the other one lipids were partially degraded, this process decreasing their content.


  26. Verdan,C. 1979. The trunk, the elephant's hand. Study of its prehensile and tactile nerve
    . Ann Chir Plast 24:(4):392-396
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2084 Language: French
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  27. Hass,G. 1978. Behavioural disorders in a female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus bengalensis) with bony structures on the intermediofacial and statoacoustic nerves. Zoologische Garten 48(4,S.):297-298
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 650
    Keywords: female/behavior/musculoskeletal/special senses/anomaly/nervous system


  28. Dropp,J.J. 1976. Mast cells in mammalian brain. Acta Anat (Basel) 94:(1):1-21
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2092 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system/other animal
    Abstract: Mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. Although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephant) and in many nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (most rodents, tiger, lion, and fox). In some mammals, mast cells were also numerous in the stroma of the telencephalic choroid plexuses (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the putamen and the claustrum (chimpanzee), the subfornical organ (pack rat, tiger, chimpanzee), the olfactory peduncles (hooded rat, albino rat), the stroma of the diencephalic choroid plexus (lion, chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the pineal organ (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), some nuclei of the hypothalamus (tiger), the infundibulum (hooded rat, tiger, fox) the area postrema (pack rat, chinchilla, lion, spider monkey, chimpanzee, fox) and some nuclei and tracts of the metencephalon and the myelencephalon (tiger). Neither the sex of the animal nor electrolytic lesions made in the brains of some of the animals at various times prior to sacrifice appeared to effect the number and the distribution of mast cells. Age-related changes in mast cell number and distribution were detected in the albino rat.


  29. Burke,T.J. 1975. Probable tetanus in an Asian elephant. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 6:22-24
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 103 Language: English
    Keywords: Asian/bacteria,bacterial disease/captive/mortality/musculoskeletal/nervous system/tetanus


  30. Markowitz,H., Schmidt,M., Nadal,L., and Squier,L. 1975. Do elephants ever forget? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 8:(3):333-335
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 453 Language: English
    Keywords: Asian/captive/eye/female/nervous system/special senses/anomaly
    Abstract: The adult female elephants (Elephas maximus) were tested on a light-dark discrimination problem with an eight year intertrial interval. The first subject took only six minutes to reach criterion and made only 2 errors, suggesting remarkable retention. The other 2 subjects were identified to have visual anomalies which would have gone undetected without this research.


  31. Haug,H. 1972. The epiphysis and the circumventricular structures of the epithalamus in the
    brain of the elephant (Loxodonta africana)
    . Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 129:(4):533-547
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2102 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  32. Lange,W. 1971. Comparative studies on the cerebellum of man, the elephant and certain toothed whales. Vergleichende Untersuchungen am Kleinhirn des Menschen, des Elefanten und einiger Zahwale. Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft 65:137-138
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 495 Language: German
    Keywords: nervous system/anatomy and physiology


  33. Pavelka,R. 1971. The peripheral conduction systems in the hindlimb of Elephas maximus. Anat Anz 128:(2):150-169
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2104 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  34. Haug,H. 1970. Comparative studies of the brains of men, elephants and toothed whales. Vergleichende Untersuchungen an den Gehirnen des Menschen, des Elefanten und der Zahwale. Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft 64:191-195
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 491 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system/other animal


  35. Haug,H. 1970. The macroscopic structure of the cerebrum. Qualitative and quantitative studies on the brain of humans, dolphins, and the elephant. Ergebnisse der Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 43:(4):3-70
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 490 Language: German; English summary
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system/other animal


  36. Elias,H., Haug,H., Lange,W., Schlenska,G., and Schwartz,D. 1969. Surface area determination of the cerebral cortex of mammals with special
    reference to humans, Cetacea, elephants and Marsupialia]
    . Verh Anat Ges 63:461-462
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2110 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/human/nervous system/other animal


  37. Friant,M. 1969. Brain development and morphology in a proboscidian, the African elephant
    (Loxodonta africana Blum.)
    . Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg 69:(1):20-32
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2111 Language: French
    Keywords: African/anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  38. Haug,H. 1969. Comparative quantitative studies on brains of man, elephants and some tooth
    whales. I. Size of the brain cortex
    . Med Monatsschr 23:(5):201-205
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2109 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system/other animal


  39. Haug,H. 1969. On myelinated nerve fibers and myelinated Herring bodies in the neurohypophysis
    of the elephant
    . Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 96:(1):134-141
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2112 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  40. Hartmann,E., Bernstein,J., and Wilson,C. 1968. Sleep and dreaming in the elephant. Psychophysiology 4:389
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1112 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/nervous system


  41. Koikegami,H. and Ozaki,N. 1967. Studies on the paralimbic brain structures. 3. On the nucleus accumbens and on
    the olfacto-tegmental tract in the Indian elephant
    . Acta Med Biol (Niigata) 15:(2):131-140
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2114 Language: English
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  42. Gordon,J.A. 1966. Elephants do think. African Wild Life 20:75-79
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 965 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/African/nervous system


  43. Haug,H. 1966. Cyto-architectural studies on the cerebral cortex of the elephant. Verh Anat Ges 61:331-337
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 2118 Language: German
    Keywords: anatomy and physiology/nervous system


  44. Cave,A.J.E. 1963. Vocal communication in an elephant. Wildlife and Sport 3:(3):14-19
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 672 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/special senses/nervous system/free-ranging


  45. Kurt,F. 1960. The sleep of elephants. Le sommeil des elephants. Mammalia 24:259-272
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1111 Language: French
    Keywords: behavior/nervous system


  46. Rensch,B. 1957. The intelligence of elephants. Scientific American 196:44-49
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 1106 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/nervous system


  47. Hediger,H., 1955. Animals asleep. J.R. Geigy, Basle,
    Ref Type: Book, Whole Ref ID: 970 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/nervous system


  48. Gee,E.P. 1950. How clever is an elephant? Loris 5:150-154
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 960 Language: English
    Keywords: behavior/nervous system


  49. Beckett,J. 1932. Death of an elephant from rabies. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36:242-243
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 100 Language: English
    Keywords: diseases/mortality/nervous system/rabies/virus,viral disease


  50. Beddard,F.E. 1893. On the brain of the African elephant. Procedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893:311-315
    Ref Type: Journal Ref ID: 927 Language: English
    Keywords: African/nervous system/anatomy and physiology




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