Elephant Controversies - Position Statement

Who We Are       
What We Do   What You Can Do
What We Do
Background    Mission/Goals/Strategies    Projects
What You Can Do


Elephant Tuberculosis Initiative - surveillance and follow-up care for elephants and mahouts in Asia; research to improve diagnostics and treatment
India: TB and Healthcare Evaluations - Supporting/advising on comprehensive medical evaluation and disease survey of 800 captive elephants in India by Indian partners
Africa: Alternative to Culling - Testing a new long-acting contraceptive
Nepal: TB Project - Field-tested new diagnostic techniques in the first  comprehensive TB testing of an elephant population in Asia
Sri Lanka: Saving Elephants by Helping People -
Establishing alternative crops to provide sustainable livelihoods for villagers in areas of high human-elephant conflict

Elephant Publications -

  • Elephant Biology, Medicine, and Surgery,
    the first modern elephant care text book

  • Sumatran Elephants in Crisis―Time for Change,
    S. Mikota, H. Hammatt, and Y. Fahrimal, a book chapter in
     Elephants and Ethics (in press)

Resources for Elephant Professionals - This website with:

Sumatran Elephant Healthcare and Conservation - After 3 years of fieldwork, we are still fighting for change to save elephants in peril in Indonesia.
Additional projects -
necropsy teams, small grants program, online elephant medical image library, PowerPoint collections on elephant healthcare, etc.

Elephant Project - Sumatra
The "Pocket Elephants" of Sumatra

History of Elephant Centers on Sumatra 
Husbandry and Healthcare Issues
Riau Elephant Center
Sumatran Elephant Project Goals and Objectives

WWF Asian Elephant Conservation Strategy in Indonesia
Image Gallery

Project Newsletters from Sumatra
Note: Images included - pages may load slowly
April 2001
June 2001
December 2001
November 2002
March 2003

Latest News


Elephant Database

click here to learn how to search within a category using edit-find
How to Download

Comprehensive Keyword List and Cross-reference Index

Anatomy & Physiology
Anesthesia & Restraint

Behavior, Training & Enrichment
Captive Management
Conservation & Ecology
Culture, History, & Evolution
Dental & Tusk
Diagnostic Techniques
Diseases, Bacterial
Diseases, Viral
Diseases, other infectious
Diseases, non-infectious & unknown

Hematology, Serum Chemistry
     and Normal Values
Immune System
Laws, Regulations,and Guidelines
Medicine, General
Neonatal & Hand-rearing
Nervous System
Renal & Urinary
Special Senses & Chemical

Treatment Techniques
Zoonoses & Human Injury
Diseases of Elephants Fact Sheets
Elephant Protocols, Manuals, Standards, etc.
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Scientific Topics

Elephas Maximus - Asiatic Elephant - Weights & Physiological Reference Ranges (International Species Information System - ISIS)
Loxodonta africana - African Elephant
Weights & Physiological Reference Ranges  
(International Species Information System - ISIS)
Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants 2003 (National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species)
Instructions for Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) Sample Submission (AZA - U.S.)
Recommendations for EEHV (Herpes Virus) Testing and Transport of Elephants 2002  (AZA - U.S.)
West Nile Virus Update in Elephants (USA)
Elephant Vital Signs and Physiological Parameters (compiled by Susan Mikota DVM 2006)
Elephant Necropsy Protocol 2005 (AZA - U.S.)
Elephant Serum Bank Submission Form (AZA - U.S.)
Post-mortem Procedures for Wildlife Veterinarians and Field Biologists  (African Elephants)
 (Published jointly by the Office International des Epizooties, Care for the Wild and the Veterinary Specialist Group/Species Survival Commission
Elephant Research And Tissue Request Protocol 2005 (AZA and Elephant Research Foundation)


Management Topics

Guidelines For Comprehensive Elephant Health Monitoring Program (SSP - AZA - USA)
May 2005
AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care (AZA)
Management Guidelines for Elephants, (BIAZA - British & Irish Association of Zoos & Aquariums)
Recommended Elephant Preshipment Guidelines 2003  (AZA - USA)
Captive Elephant Management Rules (DRAFT) (Kerala, India) 
Handbook Elephants: Nutrition and Dietary Husbandry Nutrition Advisory Group of the  AZA
Practical Elephant Management A Handbook for Mahouts  (India)
Elephant Birth Protocol (Riddle's Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary ( U.S.)
Standard Guidelines for Elephant Management 2005 (EMA- U.S.)
Transport Guidelines For Elephants 2002  (AZA - U.S.)
Quarantine Guidelines For Elephants 2003 (AZA - U.S.)
Draft Statement of Principles Elephant Acquisition and Management (Australian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA)

Vet Formulary for Elephants

   Drug Monographs Index

   Ophthalmic Products

   Medication Techniques

   Vital Signs and Physiological Values for




   Tables of Parenteral Fluids
   Abbreviations Used In Prescription Writing
   Solubility Definitions
   Conversion Tables
   Millequivalents & Molecular Weights
   Conversion of Conventional Chemistry Units to
       SI Units
   Simple Formula for Diluting Solutions
   Monographs sorted by therapeutic class /
   Bibliography for original Plumb work
   References for original Plumb work
References for Mikota Work


Elephant Bulletin Board

Risk & Ethics in Int'l Conservation

Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of Elephants


Elephant Conservation

To Learn More:    
Chadwick letter            
Human-Elephant Conflict     
Ivory and Elephants
Elephant Demographics                           Statistics
Plus, see the African Elephant Specialist Group Information at  AfESG Conservation Priorities

Image Galleries

Sumatra Project Conservation African Elephants Asian Elephants
Our Project
Habitat Loss & Conversion
Human-Elephant Conflict



Habitat Loss & Conversion
Human - Elephant Conflict
Sanctuaries Ex Situ

Art & History
History of Elephants in Art
Ele in Contemporary Sculpture
Pit System of Elephant Capture
(formerly used in southern India

Anatomy of Foot
Anatomical Cross-sections
of Foot
Vascular Anatomy Lwr Leg & Ft


Additional Resources

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Latest Updates

Elephant Controversies - Position Statement