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The Elephant Formulary

Determining appropriate drug doses for elephants is challenging. Relatively few pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted to provide elephant-specific information. Veterinarians therefore typically determine elephant drug doses using information available from other species. The horse is the most commonly used model. 

The purpose of this Formulary is to compile drug information pertinent to elephants in one place that is readily accessible globally and in a format that can be easily updated. Drug monographs are added as information becomes available in the literature with a current emphasis on pK studies vs anecdotal information.

The Elephant Formulary was created in conjunction with Donald C. Plumb, Pharm D., author of the Veterinary Drug Handbook (Iowa State University Press). Donald’s extensive work provides the basis for The Elephant Formulary. The original work has been edited to include only those drugs with known or potential application to elephants.  For most drugs only equine doses have been retained; elephant specific information, derived primarily from published literature, has been added to existing drug monographs. Drugs used in elephants but that did not appear in the original work have been added but may not have complete monographs. Anecdotal information has been included as this remains a valuable source of information. 

The elephant doses are reported in the format in which they appear in the original source. If information is missing, e.g. route of administration, it is likely absent from the original publication.

Disclaimer: The information on these pages is used entirely at the reader’s discretion, and is made available on the express condition that no liability, expressed or implied, is accepted by the authors or publisher for the accuracy, content, or use thereof.

Elephant Formulary

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The Elephant Formulary

The pdf document is 561 pages so please do not print!

The information in the monographs is from an earlier version of Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. Please consult the most current version of the Handbook for additional drugs or updated information.

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